ANTH 103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 103.

ANTH 105. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: INTL 104.

ANTH 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM 200/INTL 200.

ANTH 210. Biological Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of biological anthropology. Emphasis on the history and study of humans as biological organisms. Topics include genetic, social and ecological determinants of variation in human growth and biological diversity, as well as human adaptation and adaptability, disease, diet, and nutrition.

ANTH 220. Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of social and cultural anthropology. Provides an overview of key themes and theories in the subject, as well as the analytical and methodological tools to critically consider cultural difference, social organization and social change, with reference to a representative range of culture areas and the empirical fields studied by cultural anthropologists.

ANTH 230. Anthropological Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of anthropological linguistics. Emphasis is on the interactions between language and culture from a comparative perspective, as well as the relationship between language and social identities and relationships. Also an introduction to the field's methodology, research techniques, analytical tools and their applications.

ANTH 301. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: BIOL 341.

ANTH 302. Archaeological Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the basic theoretical perspectives and tools of archaeology, including analysis and interpretation of archaeological materials. Students will review the intellectual history of archaeology, applying a variety of theoretical approaches to archaeological data sets and sites.

ANTH 303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the basic practices of archaeology, including planning, excavation, artifact analysis, documentary research, mapping, dating sites and artifacts, and interpretation and presentation of findings. Students will participate in an active field research program and will apply methods at an active site and lab.

ANTH 304. Sociology of Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or ANTH 103/INTL 103. The family in its social and cultural context. Analysis of child rearing, marriage, kinship, family crises and family change in various societies around the world. Crosslisted as: SOCY 304/GSWS 304.

ANTH 307. Human Osteology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210. Corequisite: ANTZ 307. Emphasizes human skeletal development and the identification of specific bones and their anatomical landmarks, including the determination of side for paired bones. Also discussed are methods of estimating age, sex and stature from human skeletal remains and application of human skeletal data to broader anthropological questions.

ANTH 309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM 309/INTL 309/GSWS 309.

ANTH 310. Forensic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive overview of forensic anthropology including its development and the theory and methodology on which it is based. Crosslisted as: FRSC 310.

ANTH 312. History of Human Settlement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A cultural and historical geography of human migration and settlement over the earth. Topics may include agricultural and urban systems, exploration, colonization and imperialism, and changing relationships with the environment, during and since the Middle Ages. Crosslisted as: URSP 312.

ANTH 315. Field Methods and Research Design in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103, and ANTH 220 or ANTH 230. Overview of quantitative and qualitative anthropological field techniques as well as the ethical dimension of anthropological fieldwork. Basics of research design, effective methodology and writing grant proposals.

ANTH 328. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: FRLG 328/ENGL 392/LING 392.

ANTH 330. Language and Prehistory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 230, ANTH/ENGL/LING 390 or ANTH/ENGL 392. Considers the basic principles of diachronic linguistics in terms of the questions that historical linguists ask and the kinds of data they have at their disposal to answer them. Discusses uses of linguistic data in the reconstruction of prehistory in different parts of the world, analyzing strengths and weaknesses of such data and suggesting ways in which it can be usefully combined with data from other disciplines.

ANTH 331. Public Culture: Anthropology Through Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; WRLD 230. Explores how anthropology can contribute to a critical analysis of films as cultural representations. Class discussion will relate particular films both to the cultural context they depict and to the cultural context in which they were produced. Will also examine films as images that produce cultural meanings with the potential to affect the viewer's understanding of the world and comprehension of self.

ANTH 348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: INTL 348.

ANTH 349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 349.

ANTH 350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 350.

ANTH 355. Death and Burial. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Explores beliefs about the dead across time and space, the transformations physical bodies undergo after death and how archaeologists investigate human remains to interpret the beliefs and social practices of past cultures.

ANTH 364. Mythology and Folklore. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of one or more forms of folklore, such as folktales, fairy tales, legends, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads and/or games, with some attention to literary, social or historical significance and contexts. This course may also include approaches to collecting material or to examining later literary forms and texts inspired by folklore. Crosslisted as: ENGL 364.

ANTH 375. Field Archaeology. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 8 field and laboratory hours. 6 credits. Introduction to archaeological field and basic laboratory techniques. Archaeological data collection (excavation or survey) forms the core of the course.

ANTH 380. Medical Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or 220. An introduction to the biological and cultural anthropological study of global health and well-being, including healing processes, the biosocial relations of healing management and relationships between biomedicine and pluralistic medical systems.

ANTH 381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: INTL 381.

ANTH 383. Evolutionary Medicine and Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210, BIOL 101 or BIOL 151. Explores how modern human health and disease have been shaped by evolutionary processes. Particular emphasis is placed on examining health-related traits that are adaptive in one context but maladaptive in others, and why attempts to eliminate some of these traits can have deleterious effects on other aspects of our health. Specific diseases to be addressed include hypertension, diabetes, clinical depression, reproductive disorders, gastrointestinal disorders and drug addiction, among many others.

ANTH 387. Environmental Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Provides an introduction to the kinds of environmental evidence archaeologists access and the kinds of questions they investigate using that evidence. Explores a variety of ways in which archaeologists examine the relationship between humans and the environment and the sorts of effects that different environmental conditions and changes have had on ancient societies.

ANTH 388. African Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Surveys the range of archaeological knowledge currently available about the African continent, highlighting the major interrelated social, economic/technological and cultural transformations in the African past and the most important archaeological sites and discoveries there. Addresses themes of Africa’s enduring connections with the rest of the world, unique patterns of social and cultural development found on the continent, relations between African societies and their environments, and the contemporary significance of the continent’s cultural heritage.

ANTH 389. World Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Examines the diversity and evolution of human cultures through archaeological practices and techniques.

ANTH 390. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An introduction to methods of language analysis, emphasizing the study of sounds and sound patterns, and units of meaning and their arrangements. Crosslisted as: ENGL 390/LING 390.

ANTH 391. Topics in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses that may be applied to the major. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

ANTH 394. Historical Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 or ANTH 105/INTL 104, and any history course. A review of historical archaeology, recognizing its contemporary emphasis on the spread of European cultures across the globe beginning in the 15th century. Methods and findings of archaeological research from the United States, Europe and Africa will be covered with special emphasis on the study of documents and artifacts related to the emergence and present state of the modern world. Students will participate in field research.

ANTH 398. Field Investigations in Anthropology. 1-8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-8 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. Permission of instructor required. A course involving travel and/or study in an off-campus context. Intended primarily for students participating in directed study abroad programs, the course meets the experiential learning requirement for the anthropology major.

ANTH 399. Junior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: ANTH 210, 220 or 230; and junior standing. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation, and lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the anthropology program.

ANTH 403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or ANTH 301/BIOL 341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: BIOL 403.

ANTH 415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: INTL 415.

ANTH 416. The Origin and Evolution of the Idea of Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103 or permission of instructor. This course is an exploration of the origins and social history of the "idea" of race from the Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. Using both historical and anthropological scholarship, the course presents an analytical framework for race as a sociocultural phenomenon. Crosslisted as: AFAM 416.

ANTH 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM 420/INTL 420.

ANTH 425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS 425/INTL 425.

ANTH 430. Visualizing and Exhibiting Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and 105; and ANTH 302, ANTH 303, ANTH 355 or ANTH 389. Addresses the ability to visualize the knowledge gathered by anthropologists through forms of technology such as three-dimensional artifact scanning and 3D printing. Students will use the hundreds of objects scanned by archaeologists and ethnographers across the globe, including in VCU’s Virtual Curation Laboratory, to design dynamic hands-on and virtual exhibits and activities that communicate multiple perspectives on the human condition and that are designed to stimulate and provoke multiple reactions and encourage discussion.

ANTH 450. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL 454/INTL 454.

ANTH 454. Theory in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 220 or ANTH 230, and at least one 3-credit 300-level ANTH course . A study of the connections between theoretical work that addresses understandings of culture and methodological practice centered on creating ethnography.

ANTH 455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL 101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: INTL 455.

ANTH 457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: INTL 457.

ANTH 469. Human Dentition: ID and Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and ANTH 210; or ANTH 301; or BIOL 318. Focuses on the evolutionary anthropology of human dentition. Topics include evolution, genetics and ontogeny of the dentition; functional aspects of tooth size and shape; dental asymmetry; dental morphology and population affinities; dental pathology and subsistence; and dental markers of physiological stress. Students will explore within- and between-group variation, as well as the relationship between dental size and shape and behavior, relatedness and nutrition.

ANTH 490. Anthropology Senior Capstone. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 15 credits in anthropology at the 300 and 400 level or the equivalent; senior standing. Open only to anthropology majors. Explores current research that transects more than one subfield of anthropology. Research foci will be at the discretion of the instructor, but students will explore how the anthropological subfields influence and speak to each other in new translational research, and will assess the emerging literature and scientific questions with a critical and scientific perspective.

ANTH 491. Advanced Topics in Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester with different topics.Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; ANTH 210, 220, or 230; and UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. A maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses (including ANTH 391 and 491) may be applied to the major.

ANTH 492. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 12 credits for all independent study and internship courses. Prerequisites: determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and the group coordinator must be procured prior to enrollment in the course; a minimum GPA of 3.0 in the major. Generally open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the anthropology program.

ANTH 493. Anthropology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits for majors and 3 credits for minors. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits in anthropology courses at the 300 level or above, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international business or agency offering opportunities in anthropological field methods or research.

ANTH 497. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

ANTH 498. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

ANTH 551. Anthropology for the Museologist. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A discussion and investigation of contemporary anthropological themes and questions and identification of how they can be depicted with museum materials. Students are expected to develop a research design for an exhibit.

ANTH 556. Historical and Cultural Landscapes. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open only to seniors who have completed ANTH 302 or 303 and graduate students with permission of instructor. Students will study historical and contemporary landscapes as the products of the producers of human culture, with particular attention to riverine landscapes. Focus will be on the ways in which humans shape and respond to their ecosystems. Students will participate in an active field research program, including the archaeological recovery and analysis of historical landscapes. Crosslisted as: ENVS 556.