BIOL   101. Biological Concepts. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A topical approach to basic biological principles. Topics include molecular aspects of cells, bioenergetics, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cellular and organismal reproduction, genetics and evolution, and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the major in biology.

BIOL   103. Environmental Science. 4 Hours.

Hybrid semester course taught mostly online; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Online presentations, assignments, debates and exams require students to understand situations and ideas that involve scientific, social and economic concepts associated with Earth’s environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce major course concepts. Integrates aspects of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and sociology. Topics include ecology, evolution, natural resources, air and water resources, energy and recycling, population biology, and sustainable global societies. Not applicable as a prerequisite for any biology course at the 200 level or above, nor for credit toward the B.S. in Biology. Crosslisted as: ENVS   103.

BIOL   151. Introduction to Biological Sciences I. 3 Hours.

Semester course: 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Pre- or corequisites: MATH   151 and CHEM   101. Introduction to core biological concepts including cell structure, cellular metabolism, cell division, DNA replication, gene expression and genetics. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL   152. Introduction to Biological Sciences II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and CHEM   101, both with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on evolutionary principles, the role of natural selection in the evolution of life forms, taxonomy and phylogenies, biological diversity in the context of form and function of organisms, and and basic principles of ecology. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL   200. Quantitative Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151 with minimum grades of C; and MATH   151, MATH   200, MATH   201 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within a one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Enrollment restricted to biology majors and biology minors. An introduction to the application of the scientific method, experimental design and quantitative aspects of biology.

BIOL   201. Human Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   101, 151, or 152, or BIOL/ENVS   103. Fundamentals of human biology, including the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, human evolution, and the interaction of humans with the environment. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   205. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours, plus online component. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   101 and BIOZ   101, BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151, or BIOL   152 and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. Restricted to communication arts majors; health, physical education and exercise science majors; pre-health majors in clinical laboratory sciences, clinical radiation sciences, dental hygiene and nursing; students enrolled in the health sciences certificate program; and students in the advising tracks for pre-nursing, pre-occupational therapy, pre-pharmacy and pre-physical therapy and pre-nursing acclerated. Human specimens, models and interactive software are used to study human body structures; emphasis is on the skeleto-muscular aspects. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   209. Medical Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   101 and BIOZ   101, BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151, or BIOL   152 and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. General principles of microbiology and immunology to provide a thorough understanding of the host-microbe relationship in disease. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   217. Principles of Nutrition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   101, 151 or 152 with a minimum grade of C, or BIOL/ENVS   103 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic principles of nutrition and their application in promoting growth and maintaining health throughout the life cycle. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   291. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   300. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and 152; BIOZ   151 or LFSC/BNFO   251; BIOZ   152 or LFSC/BNFO   252; CHEM   101 and CHEZ   101, all with a minimum grade of C; BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102. A study of the molecular biology of the cell as it relates to gene expression, cell signaling, and cell growth and differentiation.

BIOL   303. Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The morphological, biochemical, taxonomic, genetic and evolutionary characteristics of microorganisms with a primary focus on bacteria. Focuses on the structural, mechanical and biochemical adaptations employed by microorganisms in their interactions with host cells and substrates.

BIOL   307. Aquatic Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317, CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102, with minimum grades of C. The physical, chemical and especially the biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems.

BIOL   308. Vertebrate Histology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Microanatomy of vertebrate cells, tissues and organs and the relationship of structure to function. Laboratory work involves an in-depth study of vertebrate microanatomy at the light microscope level as well as an introduction to techniques used for the preparation of materials for histological study.

BIOL   309. Entomology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A field-based course that focuses on insect diversification, identification, natural history and basic biology.

BIOL   310. Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. The basic principles of molecular and applied genetics of plants, animals and microorganisms.

BIOL   312. Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on environmental interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOL   313. Vertebrate Natural History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. The natural history of vertebrates with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOL   314. Animal Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151, BIOL and BIOZ   152, and BIOL   300, each with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to basic reproductive anatomy and physiology. Examination of the basic factors that affect reproductive performance and how these factors are used to regulate the reproductive processes of domestic animals and humans.

BIOL   317. Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. An introduction to the basic principles of ecology, including interactions among organisms and influences of the physical environment.

BIOL   318. Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. An exploration of the theoretical and empirical foundations of evolutionary biology with a focus on the processes driving evolutionary change across all of life.

BIOL   320. Biology of the Seed Plant. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. The physiology, structure and adaptation of seed plants.

BIOL   321. Plant Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the developmental changes that take place during the life cycle of lower and higher plants. Emphasis is placed on the control factors that are involved in regulating the ordered changes which take place during development.

BIOL   322. Economic Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and 152 and BIOZ   151 and 152, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. This class focuses on plant morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, growth and reproduction through an examination of the biology of economically and culturally important plants, including crops used for foods and beverages, medicines and drugs, fibers, and timber.

BIOL   323. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151, BIOL and BIOZ   152, and BIOL   300, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to basic plant physiology, including transport processes, energy production and secondary metabolism with emphasis on adaptations to stress.

BIOL   325. Fungal Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The basic biology of fungi, including growth, structure, genetics, diversity, the commercial uses of fungi and their importance as model organisms. Also discusses the interactions between fungi and plants and fungi and humans.

BIOL   332. Environmental Pollution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: eight credits in biology. The study of pollution in the environment with emphasis on the procedures for detection and abatement. Crosslisted as: ENVS   330.

BIOL   333. Evolution of the Angiosperms. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151,152 and BIOZ   151, 152, all with minimum grade of C. Application of evolutionary concepts to flowering plants. Topics include speciation concepts, evolution of vegetative and sexual characteristics and an overview of angiosperm diversity to the level of family.

BIOL   335. Global Change Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151 and BIOZ   152, all with minimum grade of C. Examines how humans influence biological systems and explores what can be done to adapt to or to mitigate future global change, emphasizing anthropogenic climate change.

BIOL   341. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: ANTH   301.

BIOL   351. Introduction to Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduction to the basic concepts, tools and possibilities of bioinformatics, the analysis of large bodies of biological information. The course stresses problem-solving and integrative projects, making extensive use of exercises in class that draw on bioinformatics resources on the Web and on local servers. Graded as pass/fail. Crosslisted as: BNFO   301.

BIOL   380. Introduction to Mathematical Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH   200 and BIOL   151, or permission of instructor. An introduction to mathematical biology. Various mathematical modeling tools will be covered and implemented in a range of biological areas. Additionally, the collaborative research process will be presented and discussed. Crosslisted as: BNFO   380/MATH   380.

BIOL   391. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   392. Introduction to Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 lecture/demonstration hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: UNIV   200 or HONR   200; STAT   210; BIOL   310; BIOL   317; one of the following laboratory experiences: BIOZ   310, BIOZ   317 or BIOZ   476; all with minimum grades of C. An introduction to the scientific process, including the mechanics of problem definition, information gathering and experimental design. Experimentation is discussed in context with methods of data collection and analysis; some basic research techniques are demonstrated. Aims are to prepare the student for future research experiences, and to have the student write detailed research proposals.

BIOL   395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-2 credits. Maximum of 2 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL   395, BIOL   492, BIOL   495 and/or BIOZ   395). Prerequisites: BIOZ   151 and BIOZ   152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   401. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 300 and 317, each with a minimum grade of C. The biology and chemical activities of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, virus and fungi) of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural importance.

BIOL   402. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution of vertebrate forms as demonstrated by anatomical studies of selected vertebrate types.

BIOL   403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   210 or ANTH   301/BIOL   341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: ANTH   403.

BIOL   411. Animal Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and CHEM   301, each with a minimum grade of C. Physiological principles of animal cells, tissues and organs from the viewpoint of chemical and physical phenomena.

BIOL   413. Parasitology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The epidemiology and pathological effects of eukaryotic parasites, including parasite life cycles and host-parasite relationships.

BIOL   415. Mangrove Avian Field Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; two weeks abroad in Panama (or other tropical location with mangrove forests) followed by class meetings two days per week throughout most of spring semester. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317. An immersive study of tropical ecology with a focus on bird ecology and conservation of mangrove ecosystems through a unique blend of rigorous science and community engagement. Two weeks of study abroad, including engagement with local conservation organizations and participation in education outreach with local schools, followed by discussion, data analysis and presentation of progress and research in a public symposium on campus.

BIOL   416. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an integrative study of birds, including avian evolution and diversity, general anatomy and physiology, behavior, and ecology.

BIOL   417. Mammalogy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 218 and 317 with minimum grades of C. Study of the characteristics, adaptive radiation and distribution of mammals, with emphasis on North American forms.

BIOL   422. Forest Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the fundamentals of forest ecology, with a particular emphasis on Virginia’s diverse forest ecosystems. Students gain an understanding of the principal controls on forest structure, growth and distribution and relate these principles to sustainable forest management.

BIOL   425. Field Botany. 3 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Field Botany

Semester course; 2 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours.(60 percent online, 40 percent field/laboratory) 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 and BIOL   317, both with minimum grades of C. Online lectures, discussions, reflections and assessments in conjunction with field experience. Explores the effects of environmental conditions on plant morphology and adaptations, with emphasis on plant anatomy, plant physiology and ecology.

BIOL   430. Invasion Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151, BIOZ   152 and BIOL   317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive view of the ecology and impacts of invasive species. Integrates the effects of historical human demography, ecological disturbance, natural history, species interactions, barriers to invasion, invasive species management and impacts on natural communities and ecosystems.

BIOL   431. Introduction to Marine Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317, CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to physical, chemical and geological oceanography and a more detailed treatment of the organisms and ecological processes involved in the pelagic and benthic environments of the world's oceans and estuaries.

BIOL   435. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution, ecology, structure, taxonomy and behavior of reptiles and amphibians.

BIOL   438. Forensic Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 or equivalent; CHEM   302 and CHEZ   302. Provides an understanding of molecular biology testing methodologies as applied to analysis of forensic samples. Current topics in forensic DNA analysis will include quality assurance, DNA databanking, contemporary research and population genetics. Crosslisted as: FRSC   438.

BIOL   440. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology focused on vertebrate model organisms with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development.

BIOL   445. Neurobiology and Behavior. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. The study of animal behavior stressing ecological, evolutionary and neurobiological approaches.

BIOL   448. Neuroscience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   310. An examination of the basic structure of the nervous system, nervous system operation on a cellular and molecular level and the formation of the nervous system during development.

BIOL   450. Biology of Cancer I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS   309. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL   451. Biology of Cancer II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   450 and instructor's permission. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL   452. Biology of Drugs. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Explores how drugs modulate biological signaling pathways to study, cure, enhance and intoxicate organisms. An introduction to basic pharmacology that largely focuses on human pathways and diseases. Topics include major drug classes (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, etc.) and drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, etc.).

BIOL   455. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS   309. A comprehensive introduction to the immune system of higher animals, emphasizing the molecular and cellular basis for antibody-medicated immunity.

BIOL   459. Infectious Disease Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151, BIOZ   152 and BIOL   317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the causes and consequences of infectious disease at levels from individual organisms to global scale. Examines the history of infectious disease ecology in human and nonhuman populations. Students learn about the roles of transmission and coevolution in infectious disease ecology and how population models are used to inform management of epidemics and emerging infectious diseases.

BIOL   460. Human Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   318 or BIOL   341 with a minimum grade of C. The origin and genetic history of modern humans, our historic colonization and migration, the utility of the Human Genome Project, our differences from other primates, adaptation to our environment and disease, and the ethical implications of genetic research in our society.

BIOL   475. Biology Capstone Seminar: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300, BIOL   310 and BIOL   317 with minimum grades of C; and senior standing. Enrollment restricted to biology majors. Students read assigned topical papers before class, prepare critical analyses, discuss and debate selected positions. See Schedule of Classes for specific topics.

BIOL   477. Biology Capstone Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C and 90 hours of undergraduate course work. The following courses qualify as a capstone experience if taken as a co-requisite with this course: BIOL   492 Independent Study, BIOL   493 Biology Internship, BIOL   495 Research and Thesis, BIOL   497 Ecological Service Learning or other courses, including topics courses, that include the core competencies required for a capstone experience and are approved by the chair of the Department of Biology. Graded as Pass/Fail.

BIOL   480. Animal-Plant Interactions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or BIOL   318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of interactions among animals and plants.

BIOL   489. Communicating Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL   495, senior standing. An opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective communication of their research in writing. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities including preparation of figures for publication and the crafting of a research paper with correct usage of the primary literature. Students will use this as an opportunity to aid the writing of their thesis for BIOL   495.

BIOL   490. Presenting Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL   492 or 495, and senior standing. Opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective oral presentation of their research work. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities such as preparation of visual materials and statistical analysis of data. Students will make several oral presentations directly related to their specific BIOL   492 or 495 projects.

BIOL   491. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisite: BIOL   300. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL   395, BIOL   492, BIOL   495 and/or BIOZ   395). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Prerequisite: minimum grade of C in one of the following courses: BIOZ   310, BIOZ   317 or BIOZ   476; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology. Projects should include data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. A final report must be submitted at the completion of the project.

BIOL   493. Biology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study and internship courses. 1 credit awarded for each 100 hours of work experience in professional biology setting. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 or 317 with minimum grades of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology and of the agency, company or organization in which internship will be held. Internship designed to provide laboratory or field experience in an off-campus professional biology setting. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   495. Research and Thesis. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all undergraduate research in biology (BIOL 292, 492, 495). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. A minimum of 4 credits is required for honors in biology. Prerequisites: LFSC   301, permission of the supervising faculty member and a research proposal acceptable to the departmental chair. Activities include field and/or laboratory research under the direct supervision of a faculty mentor. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Research projects must include experimental design and analysis of data. A written thesis of substantial quality is required upon completion of the research.

BIOL   496. Biology Preceptorship. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 credits. May be repeated with a different course for a maximum of 4 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor and departmental chair required prior to registration. Preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not are limited to, attending class, conducting review sessions and preparing course study/review materials. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   497. Ecological Service Learning. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. A service-learning course coupled to course content and material taught in BIOL   317. Students will seek out ecologically relevant opportunities with local, state and federal community partners who will provide experiences to enhance academic enrichment and personal growth and will help foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 20 service-learning hours with community partner(s).

BIOL   498. Insects and Plants Service-learning. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or BIOL   318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. A service-learning course related to insect-plant interactions. Field experience with community partners, including public parks, botanical gardens and organic farms. Designed to expand academic instruction, enhance personal growth and foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 40 service-learning hours with a community partner.

BIOL   502. Microbial Biotechnology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MICR/BIOC   503 or BIOC   530, 531, 532 and 533 or equivalent, and MICR/BIOC   504 or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Discussion of the application of basic principles to the solution of commercial problems. The course will cover the historical principles in biotransformations as related to primary and secondary metabolism, as well as recombinant DNA technology and monoclonal antibodies and products resulting from the application of recombinant DNA technology.

BIOL   503. Fish Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Classification, behavior, physiology and ecology of fishes. Laboratories will emphasize field collection of fish and identification of specimens.

BIOL   507. Aquatic Microbiology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   303 and 307 or equivalents. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. This course will involve a practical approach to the methods used to culture, identify and enumerate specific microorganisms that affect the cycling of elements in aquatic systems and those that affect or indicate water quality.

BIOL   508. Barrier Island Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. A study of the physical factors affecting the formation of barrier islands, adaptations of plants and animals for colonization and persistence in these harsh environments, and how coastal ecological processes conform to general ecological theory. Examples and problems pertaining to Virginia and the southeastern United States are emphasized.

BIOL   509. Microbial Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or equivalent with a grade of C or better. Open only to qualified seniors and graduate students. Explores the interactions of microorganisms and their environment, including discussion of microbial diversity, nutrient cycling, symbiosis and selected aspects of applied microbiology.

BIOL   510. Conservation Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Explores the accelerated loss of species due to increasing human population pressure and the biological, social and legal processes involved in conserving biodiversity.

BIOL   512. Plant Diversity and Evolution. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and 310 or equivalents, or permission of instructor. Taxonomy, diversity and evolutionary history of vascular plants (including ferns, gymnosperms and flowering plants). Lecture emphasis on evolutionary relationships; laboratory emphasis on plant recognition and identification, especially of the Virginia flora, including some field trips to areas of local botanical interest.

BIOL   514. Stream Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. A study of the ecology of streams and rivers. Laboratory emphasis is on the structure and functioning of aquatic communities in mountain to coastal streams.

BIOL   516. Population Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: STAT/BIOS   543. Theoretical and empirical analyses of how demographic and evolutionary processes influence neutral and adaptive genetic variation within populations. Crosslisted as: HGEN   516.

BIOL   518. Plant Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. One three-day field trip is required. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. A lecture, field and laboratory course concerned with the development, succession and dynamics of plant communities and their interrelations with climate, soil, biotic and historic factors.

BIOL   520. Population Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 and BIOL   317 or permission of instructor. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Theoretical and empirical analysis of processes that occur within natural populations, including population genetics, population growth and fluctuation, demography, evolution of life history strategies and interspecific interactions. Quantitative models will be used extensively to explore ecological concepts.

BIOL   521. Community Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317 or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Theoretical and empirical analysis of the structure and function of natural communities, ecosystems and landscapes.

BIOL   522. Evolution and Speciation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   310 or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Evolutionary principles, with emphasis on genetic and environmental factors leading to changes in large and small populations of plants and animals, and the mechanisms responsible for speciation.

BIOL   524. Endocrinology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and CHEM   301-302 and CHEZ 301L, 302L or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Hormonal control systems at the organ, tissue and cellular level. Although the major emphasis will be on vertebrate endocrine systems, some discussion of invertebrate and plant control systems will be covered.

BIOL   530. Human Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Provides a comprehensive examination of the fundamentals of human genetics. Explores topics including Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance, pedigree analysis, cytogenetics, aneuploid syndromes, cancer, gene structure and function, epigenetics, gene expression, biochemical genetics and inborn errors of metabolism. Crosslisted as: HGEN   501.

BIOL   532. Water Pollution Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317 or equivalent and one year of general chemistry. A study of various forms of pollution in aquatic environments, including the basic principles and effects of water pollution on aquatic organisms and ecosystems, ecotoxicology, waterborne pathogens, invasive species, water pollution monitoring and environmental laws.

BIOL   535. Wetlands Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or equivalent or permission of instructor. A study of the ecology of freshwater and coastal wetlands, including the physical and biological aspects of these systems, wetland functions at local, landscape and global scales, and wetland regulations and restoration. Students will acquire skills with analytical techniques used in laboratory settings and in field-based applications for purposes of identifying and delineating wetland ecosystems.

BIOL   540. Fundamentals of Molecular Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   310 or consent of instructor. The basic principles and methodologies of molecular biology and genetics are applied to genome organization, replication, expression, regulation, mutation and reorganization. Emphasis will be placed on a broad introduction to and integration of important topics in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Crosslisted as: BNFO   540.

BIOL   541. Laboratory in Molecular Genetics. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   540 Fundamentals of Molecular Genetics or equivalent. Experiments are designed to apply advanced techniques and concepts of molecular biology and genetics using prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Emphasis will be placed on experimental design, integrating results throughout the semester, making use of relevant published literature, scientific writing and providing hands-on experience with advanced equipment and methodologies. Crosslisted as: BNFO   541.

BIOL   545. Biological Complexity. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: physics and calculus, or permission of instructor. Open only to graduate students and qualified seniors. An introduction to the basis of complexity theory and the principles of emergent properties within the context of integrative life sciences. The dynamic interactions among biological, physical and social components of systems are emphasized, ranging from the molecular to ecosystem level. Modeling and simulation methods for investigating biological complexity are illustrated. Crosslisted as: LFSC   510.

BIOL   548. Bioinformatic Technologies. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   545/LFSC   510 or permission of instructor. Introduction to the hardware and software used in computational biology, proteomics, genomics, ecoinformatics and other areas of data analysis in the life sciences. The course also will introduce students to data mining, the use of databases, meta-data analysis and techniques to access information. Crosslisted as: LFSC   520.

BIOL   550. Ecological Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Introduces the principles of ecological genetics, especially those with foundations in population and quantitative genetics, and illustrates conceptual difficulties encountered by resource stewards who wish to apply genetic principles. Explores various types of biological technologies employed by conservation geneticists and provides means for students to gain experience in analyzing and interpreting ecological genetic data.

BIOL   560. Conservation Medicine. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces students to key elements of wildlife diseases, zoonoses, emerging infectious diseases associated with wildlife and humans, and both the conservation and health impacts of these topics. Included are discussions of the interactions among environmental quality and wildlife and human diseases and health. Topics include diseases of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, the effects of environmental contaminants and climate on those diseases, and their interaction with human health.

BIOL   565. Advances in Cell Signaling. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 or equivalent. Topical course focusing on advances in cellular communication by cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters. Each semester, the course focuses on a different topic. Past topics have included cancer biology, allergy and asthma, and autoimmunity.

BIOL   580. Eukaryotic Biotechnology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 and BIOZ 310L, or graduate standing in biology or related fields. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Discussion of principles, concepts, techniques, applications and current advances in cellular and molecular biology aspects of biotechnology for animal and plant cells. The course will cover molecular construction of foreign genes; DNA cloning; technologies for DNA, RNA and protein analyses; nonvector and vector-mediated genetic transformation; gene regulation in transgenic cells; cell and tissue culture; cell fusion; and agricultural, medical and other industrial applications.

BIOL   591. Special Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 credits. An in-depth study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites. If several topics are offered, students may elect to take more than one.

BIOL   601. Integrated Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Presents major concepts in bioinformatics through a series of real-life problems to be solved by students. Problems addressed will include but not be limited to issues in genomic analysis, statistical analysis and modeling of complex biological phenomena. Emphasis will be placed on attaining a deep understanding of a few widely used tools of bioinformatics. Crosslisted as: BNFO   601.

BIOL   606. Quantitative Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Principles and applications of mathematical ecology at the community level, including experimental design; sampling techniques, assumptions and limitations; and the use of cluster analysis, gradient analysis and ordination to evaluate, summarize and compare large data sets.

BIOL   610. Conservation Applications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Covers the implementation of conservation techniques including monitoring, planning, education, habitat management and combining conservation with human development strategies. Focuses on how to make conservation work where biodiverstiy and human livelihoods must be reconciled. Students will utilize a number of computer programs to analyze and interpret management strategies.

BIOL   618. Ecosystems Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or equivalent or permission by instructor. Introduction to the structure and functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The course complements other offerings in the graduate program by considering ecological processes at higher orders of organization and in the context of abiotic factors. Students will gain discipline-specific knowledge through lectures and readings while building quantitative and critical thinking.

BIOL   626. Physiological Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or equivalent. This course examines the physiological adjustments and adaptations made by organisms in response to their environment.

BIOL   630. Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comprehensive ecological and evolutionary study of specializations and adaptive radiation in mammalian reproductive anatomy, the reproductive cycle, seasonality of reproduction and factors affecting litter size and developmental state of neonates. Human reproductive biology is included when pertinent.

BIOL   640. Evolution and Molecular Markers. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Methodologies and applications of molecular biology as they pertain to the study of evolution, with a focus on systematics, speciation and biogeography. The course provides proficiency in the understanding, interpretation and choice of appropriate molecular markers for evolutionary research, with particular attention to current methods and recent literature. Designed to benefit students of both natural history (ecologists, systematics, evolutionary biologists) and molecular biology.

BIOL   650. Conservation Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Covers the application of molecular genetics to biodiversity conservation. Essential topics include molecular measures of genetic diversity, estimating loss of genetic diversity in small populations, detecting inbreeding, resolution of taxonomic uncertainties, genetic management of T&E species, captive breeding and reintroduction. Students will utilize a number of computer programs to analyze and interpret molecular genetic data.

BIOL   654. Environmental Remote Sensing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENVS   602, or permission of the instructor. This course provides a basic and applied understanding on the use of digital remote sensor data to detect, identify and characterize earth resources. Students are required to demonstrate an understanding of the spectral attributes of soils, vegetation and water resources through various labs involving both image- and non-image-based optical spectral data. Crosslisted as: ENVS   654/URSP   654.

BIOL   660. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: biochemistry or cell biology or their equivalent. Molecular and cellular principles of developmental biology in model systems, including flies, worms, fish and mammals. Understanding of morphogen gradients, transcription, cell movements and signaling in development. Advanced methods are taught enabling students to interpret and present findings from the primary literature.

BIOL   676. Plant and Animal Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: biochemistry or cell biology or permission of instructor. Molecular and cellular principles of cell behavior and function in plant and animal cells. Topics include intracellular transport, cell cycle control, signaling and cell motility. Advanced methods are taught enabling students to interpret and present findings from the primary literature in this field.

BIOL   690. Biology Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. May be repeated for credit. Presentations by faculty and visiting lecturers, and discussions of research and developments in biology and related fields. Graded as S/U/F.

BIOL   691. Special Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. An advanced study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites. If several topics are offered, students may elect to take more than one.

BIOL   692. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; hours to be arranged. Credits to be arranged. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor, adviser and department chair must be obtained prior to registration for this course. A course designed to provide an opportunity for independent research in any area of biology outside the graduate student thesis area.

BIOL   693. Current Topics in Biology. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. May be repeated for credit. Designed to develop skills in preparing and delivering oral presentations in conjunction with an in-depth study of a current topic in biology. Students present talks and lead discussions on the selected topic.

BIOL   698. Thesis. 1-16 Hours.

Semester course; hours to be arranged. Credits to be arranged. Independent research by students in areas of systematics, environmental, developmental, behavioral, cellular and molecular biology, and comparative physiology.