ENVS   103. Environmental Science. 4 Hours.

Hybrid semester course taught mostly online; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Online presentations, assignments, debates and exams require students to understand situations and ideas that involve scientific, social and economic concepts associated with Earth’s environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce major course concepts. Integrates aspects of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and sociology. Topics include ecology, evolution, natural resources, air and water resources, energy and recycling, population biology, and sustainable global societies. Not applicable as a prerequisite for any biology course at the 200 level or above, nor for credit toward the B.S. in Biology. Crosslisted as: BIOL   103.

ENVS   105. Physical Geology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A descriptive approach to physical geology dealing with the history and structure of the earth, catastrophic events and geology as it relates to the contemporary environment. An optional laboratory, ENVZ   105, may be taken with this course.

ENVS   201. Earth System Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the processes of and linkages among the major systems that drive planet Earth. The biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and sociosphere are presented as dynamic and interdependent systems. Labs/discussion sections will include both computer modeling of integrated systems and lab activities/field trip(s) at the Rice Center for Environmental Life Sciences.

ENVS   300. Sustainable Societies: James River Basin. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course explores the 25 most critical social, economic and environmental issues in the region in a global context. It examines how people are tackling the issues of sustainably and turning them into opportunities.

ENVS   301. Introduction to Meteorology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introductory course designed to provide the student with an overview of the structures and processes that cause weather. These include atmospheric circulations and the weather patterns that we observe. Emphasis will be placed upon the tracking and display of weather phenomena, as well as their forecast movement and impact.

ENVS   310. Introduction to Oceanography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introductory course designed to provide the student with an overview of the structures and processes of the world's oceans. These include the systems that impact the oceans: the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the geosphere, the biosphere and the sociosphere. Emphasis will be placed upon hands-on techniques for understanding these systems, including online simulations and in-class activities.

ENVS   311. Politics of the Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of the current controversy about environmental politics and the issues and crises it centers on. Special attention will be given to the constitutional, political and geographical factors in the development of environmental policy and the organized effort to deal with governmental actions and inaction and its impact on policy outcomes. Crosslisted as: POLI   311.

ENVS   314. Man and Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course. 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative study of the ecology and natural history of human populations, including the environments as determining factors in the evolution of human institutions and technology, resources management, and population crises; cultural traditions as mechanisms of population control; basic theory of population biology. Crosslisted as: INTL   314.

ENVS   315. Energy and the Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. Open to non-physics majors; not applicable to the physics major. A study of society's demand for energy, how it is currently being met, the environmental consequences thereof and some discussion of alternatives. Crosslisted as: PHYS   315.

ENVS   330. Environmental Pollution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: eight credits in biology. The study of pollution in the environment with emphasis on the procedures for detection and abatement. Crosslisted as: BIOL   332.

ENVS   332. Environmental Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GEOG 204 or URSP   204. An interdisciplinary review of domestic and international environmental problems and their underlying causes, current management frameworks, alternative management approaches and strategies, and barriers to their implementation. Other topics include: environmental history and economics, population growth, natural resources use, biodiversity, pollution. Crosslisted as: URSP   332.

ENVS   335. Environmental Geology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENVS   105 or URSP   204. The relationship between humankind and the physical environment, Earth materials and processes, geological hazards, water, mineral and energy resources, land use and environmental health and law.

ENVS   368. Nature Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL   201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of the literary genre of nature writing in English. Crosslisted as: ENGL   368.

ENVS   401. Meteorology and Climatology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. Prerequisite: PHYS   201 or PHYS   207. A basic, semiquantitative course in the elements of weather and climate, their driving forces and their spatial and temporal distribution and variability. Atmospheric motions and circulation, weather forecasting, human impact on weather and climate.

ENVS   411. Oceanography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152 and CHEM   102. A basic course in the physical, chemical and geological properties of oceans and ocean basins. Origin and character of ocean basins, properties of oceanic waters, oceanic circulation, land-sea interactions, marine environments and ecology.

ENVS   490. Research Seminar in Environmental Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: senior standing and at least 12 hours of approved environmental studies course work. An interdisciplinary examination of problems and issues central to environmental studies. Environmental research of VCU faculty will be reviewed, and selected local environmental problems will be studied. Each student will complete a research project focusing on a specific environmental question.

ENVS   491. Topics in Environmental Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites vary by topic. An in-depth study of a selected environmental topic. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

ENVS   492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all topics courses. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor.

ENVS   493. Environmental Studies Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. Graded as pass/fail.

ENVS   515. Mangrove Avian Field Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 2 weeks study abroad in Panama (or other tropical location with mangrove forests); 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317. This course provides students with an immersive study of tropical ecology with a focus on bird ecology and conservation of mangrove ecosystems through a unique blend of rigorous science and community engagement. While studying abroad during the winter intersession, students learn about mangrove ecosystems by collecting data on birds and habitat and by reading and discussing scientific papers. Students also engage with local conservation organizations leading efforts to protect wetland habitats. Throughout the spring semester, students read and discuss related research and conduct data analysis. Students also participate in education outreach with local schools. Progress and research findings are presented in a symposium open to the public. Students are challenged by this course as they are asked to collect, analyze, interpret and make sense of the data in light of what others have found.

ENVS   521. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. An introduction to creating and using geographically referenced databases for urban and environmental analysis and planning. Includes geographic and remote sensing data structures, global positioning systems, spatial analysis, geographic data standards, public domain software and data resources, and principles of cartography design. Lab exercises in the use of geographic information systems software tools. Crosslisted as: URSP   521/GEOG 521.

ENVS   541. Principles of Waste Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Design and operation of waste treatment, storage, disposal and control processes will be covered. Design tanks, landfills and incinerators will be discussed in detail. Data acquisition and interpretation methods needed for process control and monitoring will be examined.

ENVS   550. Ecological Risk Assessment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: course work in ecology, or permission of instructor. Ecological risk assessment provides an introduction to the concepts and practice of risk assessment as applied to ecological applications, focusing on the United States. The course will examine the history of risk assessment in U.S. environmental regulation and policy, development and practice of ecological risk assessment and application to regional issues. All students will conduct a risk assessment for a regional case study.

ENVS   556. Historical and Cultural Landscapes. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open only to seniors who have completed ANTH   302 or 303 and graduate students with permission of instructor. Students will study historical and contemporary landscapes as the products of the producers of human culture, with particular attention to riverine landscapes. Focus will be on the ways in which humans shape and respond to their ecosystems. Students will participate in an active field research program, including the archaeological recovery and analysis of historical landscapes. Crosslisted as: ANTH   556.

ENVS   590. Research Seminar in Environmental Studies. 1 Hour.

An interdisciplinary examination of problems and issues related to environmental studies.

ENVS   591. Topics in Environmental Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a selected environmental topic. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

ENVS   601. Survey in Environmental Studies. 3 Hours.

Provides a foundational understanding of issues central to environmental studies. Lectures will address the theoretical and scientific basis for a variety of pertinent issues, including: and water quality and quantity, pollution prevention, environmental law and policy, population growth, global climate change, conservation, and human and ecological health.

ENVS   602. Environmental Technology. 1-3 Hours.

This course gives students the opportunity to develop skills not available in the traditional academic setting. Students take two to four workshops offered by the Center for Environmental Studies in its Environmental Technology Training Workshop series. Students will complete an additional project related to each workshop or series of workshops for evaluation purposes.

ENVS   603. Environmental Research Methods. 3 Hours.

Prerequisite: STAT   543 or permission of instructor. Provides students with an understanding of statistical and research methods as they apply to environmental research. Students will complete projects on available data sets. This course emphasizes the application of current data analysis methodologies, including the graphical display of summary data, statistical modeling and prediction, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

ENVS   628. Environmental Policy and Administration. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course explores the relationship between environmental policy and its implementation within a democratic political system. It includes an investigation of basic concepts that underlie environmental policy and the difficulties encountered when attempting to apply them in a real-world setting. It also surveys a variety of tools and methodologies that may be useful in attempting to develop and implement environmental policy. Crosslisted as: PADM   628.

ENVS   640. River Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines public policy related to rivers and watersheds. Uses the James River for exploring and illustrating generic river policy issues. Crosslisted as: GVPA   640.

ENVS   650. Pesticides, Health and the Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: Course work in toxicology, chemistry or permission of instructor. This course is a balanced overview of the benefits and adverse effects of pesticides in the environment and as related to human health. The class provides an interdisciplinary study of pesticide use, fate, exposure, transport and effects.

ENVS   654. Environmental Remote Sensing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENVS   602, or permission of the instructor. This course provides a basic and applied understanding on the use of digital remote sensor data to detect, identify and characterize earth resources. Students are required to demonstrate an understanding of the spectral attributes of soils, vegetation and water resources through various labs involving both image- and non-image-based optical spectral data. Crosslisted as: URSP   654/BIOL   654.

ENVS   655. Hydrogeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENVS 355 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Focuses on the fundamental concepts of groundwater flow and contaminant transport with an emphasis toward environmental issues such as waste disposal, surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology and wells, environmental impacts and hydrogeological systems. Allows students to understand and interpret the basic environmental hydrogeologic characteristics of a site and to use that knowledge to provide an informed opinion on protection and remediation.

ENVS   660. Virginia Environmental Law. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENVS/PADM   628 or permission on instructor. An overview of relevant Virginia environmental law and regulations in the fields of environmental planning, management and policy. Provides students with working knowledge of documentation necessary for compliance with state environmental programs.

ENVS   670. Pollution Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: Course work in: ecology, toxicology or animal physiology; or permission of instructor. Courses provides an in-depth presentation of the physiology of animals in polluted habitats and examines the responses of aquatic organisms exposed to pollutants and other environmental stressors, including: thermal and salinity changes, anoxia and hypoxia, hypercapnia, chemical contamination, sedimentation and microbial contamination. The course takes a comparative approach and focuses on non-human systems. Both laboratory and field experiences are provided.

ENVS   691. Topics in Environmental Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Provides an in-depth study of a selected environmental topic.

ENVS   692. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a selected environmental topic.

ENVS   693. Internship in Environmental Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Each credit hour represents 60 clock hours of work. Provides students with a workplace experience in a public or private agency related to Environmental Studies.

ENVS   697. Research. 1-3 Hours.

Planning, preparation, completion, and presentation of research in environmental studies.

ENVS   698. Thesis. 1-3 Hours.

Planning, preparation, completion, and presentation of research in environmental studies.