PHIS   206. Human Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   101 and BIOZ   101, BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151, or BIOL   152 and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. Functioning of the human body with emphasis on experimental procedures.

PHIS   301. Engaging in Undergraduate Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 seminar hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: PHIS   206 or PHIS   309. This course will address the nature of research in the fields of physiology and biophysics and at the same time explore areas and laboratories at VCU that would offer undergraduate research opportunities.

PHIS   309. Introductory Quantitative Physiology I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: calculus at the level of MATH   200 and MATH   201. The course is intended for majors in Biomedical Engineering. Other students may enroll with permission of the instructor. This course is a survey course in physiology with emphasis on physical principles. It is a systems analysis of cellular anatomy, physiology and biochemistry which leads into analysis of the nervous system, musculoskeletal system and the digestive system. It is meant to be taken as part of a two-semester series with PHIS   310.

PHIS   310. Introductory Quantitative Physiology II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: calculus at the level of MATH   200 and MATH   201 and PHIS   309. The course is intended for majors in biomedical engineering. Other students may enroll with permission of the instructor. This course is the second semester of a survey course in physiology with emphasis on physical principles. It includes a systems analysis of the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and endocrine systems. It is meant to be taken as part of a two-semester series with PHIS   309.

PHIS   461. Introduction to Human Physiology. 3 Hours.

3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: biology, general chemistry and human anatomy. An introductory course to human physiology based on an analysis of organ systems.

PHIS   501. Mammalian Physiology. 0.5-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0.5-5 credits. Prerequisites: biology, chemistry and physics. A comprehensive study of the function of mammalian organ systems, designed primarily for graduate students.

PHIS   502. Physiology and Pathophysiology (Dentistry). 5 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture hours. 5 credits. Prerequisites: biology, chemistry and physics. A comprehensive study of the function of mammalian organ systems, designed primarily for dental students.

PHIS   512. Cardiac Function in Health and Disease. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHIS   501 or permission of instructor. A comprehensive study of cell and system cardiovascular physiology with pathophysiological implications, primarily designed for professional students.

PHIS   514. Cardiovascular Hemodynamics. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 30 lecture/lab hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: PHIS   501. Emphasizes the pathophysiological implications of cardiovascular hemodynamics. The rationale and principles of a variety of clinical and paraclinical examination methods used in cardiology will be studied and demonstrated. The pathophysiology of some of the major cardiovascular diseases will be explained by specialists.

PHIS   604. Cell Physiology: From Molecules to Organisms. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHIS   501; restricted to research students. Topics covered include modern structural studies of DNA, RNA and proteins, including detailed analyses of the behavior and regulation of diverse types of transmembrane ion channels at the molecular and cellular level; detailed studies of oxygen delivery by the microcirculation; signaling systems involved in the regulation of smooth muscle function; sensory systems (taste and olfaction); neural signaling pathways involved in reflex control of the GI function; the role of neurotrophic factors in neural development and signaling; and drug development. This is a research-oriented course designed to introduce doctoral and master's students to the research opportunities available in the graduate program in physiology and biophysics. Certificate students may enroll in exceptional circumstances with permission of the graduate program director.

PHIS   606. Cell Physiology: From Molecules to Organism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Topics covered include an introduction to structure of macromolecules and biophysical methods of protein determination. The second part of the course includes research topics such as gene regulation, protein folding and ribosome biogenesis. The third section includes ion channel structure and function. Each section includes problem sets that students are required to complete, three exams and a written mini-grant chosen from the topics discussed in class.

PHIS   612. Cardiovascular Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHIS   501. An in-depth study of the original literature in selected areas of cardiovascular physiology.

PHIS   615. Signal Detection in Sensory Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHIS   501 or permission of instructor. An in-depth study of cells and cell systems that serve as either internal or external environmental sensors. Topics will emphasize the physiology, anatomy and the biochemistry of mature sensing systems, the systems in normal development and their plasticity toward stresses during development or in maturity.

PHIS   619. Mitochondrial Pathophysiology and Human Diseases. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Mitochondria are essential for eukaryotic life energy production in an oxygen environment, extensively modulate intracellular calcium signaling, are the major source of damaging oxygen free radicals, control activation of cell death pathways and are now known to be impaired in many human diseases of aging. For all these reasons, understanding mitochondrial physiology is essential for graduates of biomedical research programs in medical schools.

PHIS   620. Ion Channels in Membranes. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Previous course work including basic concepts in electrophysiology, such as those covered in PHIS   501 or PHTX/PHIS/ANAT 509, is highly recommended. Detailed presentation of the fundamental biophysical properties of ionic channels in membranes including the elementary properties of pores, molecular mechanisms of ionic selectivity, mechanisms of drug block, structure-function relationships, and basis for channel gating. Discussion will encompass modern techniques for studying ion channel function. Crosslisted as: PHTX   620.

PHIS   630. Methods in Molecular Biophysics: A Practical Approach. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. The course will cover the theoretical and practical aspects of several techniques that are used to study the structure and function of biological macromolecules. In each section the theoretical background and practical application will be covered. The design of the course is to provide a basic familiarity of biophysical techniques used in structural biology and biochemistry laboratories to understand biological phenomena. Graded S/U/F.

PHIS   631. Electrophysiology and Photonic Methods. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. This course elaborates on the fundamentals of bioelectrical activity (resting and action potentials, electrical propagation and synaptic transmission) guiding the student to the use of equivalent circuits to model the electrical properties of cells design and the use of basic operational amplifiers for electrophysiological studies. The course develops a similar approach to understand the basis for fluorescence and phosphorescence techniques and how they can be applied to biophysical research.

PHIS   690. Physiology Research Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Presentation and discussion of research reports and topics of current interest to the departmental seminar or special group seminar.

PHIS   691. Special Topics in Physiology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 credits. Prerequisite: PHIS   501 (or taken concurrently). <br><br><b>Special Topics in Physiology (Section 1)</b><br> 1-4 credits. Lectures, tutorial studies and/or library assignments in selected areas of advanced study not available in other courses or as part of the research training.<br><br> <b>Special Topics: Student Seminar (Section 3)</b><br> Semester course; 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: PHIS   501. Designed to develop skills in preparing and delivering lectures and other oral presentations. Students present talks on topics in which they are particularly interested, and provide mutual constructive criticism.<br><br> <b>Special Topics: Nutrition Research (Section 5)</b><br> Semester course; 3 credits. Weekly discussion of selected topics in nutrition. Topics change yearly. Topics range from biochemical aspects of nutrition to International Nutrition, with selections from various levels of nutritional interest presented each year. Past topics have included nutrition and exercise, diet and cancer, total parenteral nutrition, alcohol nutrition, food safety, drug-nutrient interactions, nutrition and immunological response, cholesterol and nutrition, salty taste mechanisms, vitamin A, vitamin D, and intestinal calcium absorption.

PHIS   692. Special Topics. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 variable hours. 1-4 credits. Lectures, tutorial studies, library assignments in selected areas of advanced study or specialized laboratory procedures not available in other courses or as part of the research training. Graded S/U/F.

PHIS   693. Methods in Molecular Biophysics: A Practical Approach. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Covers the theoretical and practical aspects of several techniques that are used to study the structure and function of biological macromolecules. In each section, theoretical background and practical applications will be covered. The course will provide a basic familiarity of biophysical techniques used in structural biology and biochemistry laboratories to understand biological phenomena. Graded S/U/F.

PHIS   695. Research in Progress. 0.5 Hours.

Semester course; .5 lecture hour. .5 credit. Restricted to Ph.D. students or, with permission of instructor, master's students. Student presentations and discussion of research results and contemplated research projects base on research rotations, thesis proposals and ongoing thesis research. Graded S/U/F.

PHIS   697. Directed Research in Physiology. 1-15 Hours.

Semester course; 1-15 credits. Research Leading to the M.S. or Ph.D. degree and elective research projects for other students.