PHTX 400. Drugs and Their Actions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. This course is a general survey of pharmacology and related disciplines. The history and basic principles are presented followed by discussions of neuropharmacology, psychoactive drugs, drugs of abuse, immunopharmacology, basic toxicology, drug design, drug development, autonomic pharmacology, cardiovascular pharmacology and endocrine pharmacology, as well as selected topics including scientific ethics, molecular pharmacology and behavioral pharmacology.

PHTX 441. Pharmacology (Dental Hygiene). 5 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture hours. 5 credits. A didactic course designed to emphasize the principles of pharmacology and pain control, drug actions and uses, and adverse effects to provide the rationale for the effective and safe use of drugs in dental hygiene.

PHTX 515. Pharmacology for Nurse Anesthetists I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The basic principles of pharmacology including mechanisms of absorption, distribution, biotransformation, elimination, dose-response relationships, drug and receptor interactions are presented followed by a detailed discussion of autonomic, cardiovascular, and renal pharmacology as it relates to nurse anesthesia. Detailed presentation of the pharmacology of classes of drugs used by nurse anesthetists will be made, with emphasis on general anesthetics.

PHTX 516. Pharmacology for Nurse Anesthetists II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHTX 515. Detailed presentation of the pharmacology of classes of drugs used or encountered by nurse anesthetists will be made with emphasis upon local anesthetics, cardiovascular, chemotherapeutic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Continuation of PHTX 515.

PHTX 535. Introduction to Toxicology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture hours. 4 credits. The basic principles of toxicology and toxicological evaluations; correlations of toxicological responses with biochemical, functional and morphological changes; environmental (including occupational and public health), forensic and regulatory concerns; and risk assessment and management are presented for graduate students in the biomedical sciences.

PHTX 536. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. A comprehensive course in pharmacology for graduate students. The mechanisms of action of major classes of pharmacologically active agents and basic principles of pharmacology are discussed. Topics include drug absorption, distribution, and metabolism; chemotherapy; endocrine pharmacology and principles of toxicology/immunotoxicology.

PHTX 537. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: PHTX 536 or with permission of instructor. Topics include receptor theory, autonomic, cardiovascular, and central nervous system pharmacology and toxicology. Continuation of PHTX 536.

PHTX 548. Drug Dependence. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: graduate or post-baccalaureate standing. A broad survey course in problems of drug and alcohol use and abuse. It will focus on the pharmacology of abused drugs as well as a study of the psychological and sociological factors in drug-taking behavior, rehabilitation methods, and prevention. This course may not be taken in lieu of any pharmacology offerings in the professional schools on the MCV Campus.

PHTX 597. Introduction to Pharmacological Research. 1-12 Hours.

Semester course; 1-12 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Rotation research in pharmacology and toxicology laboratories for beginning graduate students.

PHTX 606. Introduction to Pharmacology of Therapeutic Agents. 1 Hour.

Module course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. The basic principles of pharmacology and an in-depth consideration of the biodisposition and mechanisms of action of these agents. Drugs acting on the autonomic system are covered.

PHTX 609. General Pharmacology and Pain Control. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours per week for 2 semesters. One grade for 4 credits at end of second semester. A two-semester course that covers the study of the effects of chemical agents on the structure and function of living tissues, which may be normal or pathological. Provides a basic understanding of pharmacological principles and the basic concepts of currently accepted theories of pain mechanisms and provides a scientific basis for the use of therapeutic agents in order that the future dentist will be able to safely administer drugs to control pain by parenteral, oral or inhalation routes.

PHTX 611. Dental Pharmacology and Pain Control. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours per week. 2 credits. Offered for the D-3 students who have successfully completed PHTX 609. A continuation of PHTX 609. The study of the effects of chemical agents on the structure and/or function of living tissues, which may be normal or pathological. Provides a basic understanding of pharmacological principles and the basic concepts of currently accepted theories of pain mechanisms and provides a scientific basis for the use of therapeutic agents in order that the future dentist will be able to safely administer drugs to control pain by parenteral, oral or inhalation routes. PHTX 611 differs from PHTX 609 in that the material presented is more clinical in content and more classes involve clinical correlates of the didactic material presented.

PHTX 614. Foundation in Psychoneuroimmunology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: at least one graduate-level course in immunocompetence, pharmacology, physiology, immunology, biochemistry or psychology, or permission of instructor. This course will provide an in-depth overview of how brain and immune systems interact to maintain physiological and biochemical steady-states essential to wellness. Theory and research drawn from neuroscience, immunology and psychology will be examined as a foundation for understanding mind-body relationships. Beginning at the cellular level, fundamental information underlying mutually interact neuroendocrine-immune system functions will be synthesized to inform an understanding of wellness as well as a variety of pathophysiological states related to the stress process.

PHTX 620. Ion Channels in Membranes. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Previous course work including basic concepts in electrophysiology, such as those covered in PHIS 501 or PHTX/PHIS/ANAT 509, is highly recommended. Detailed presentation of the fundamental biophysical properties of ionic channels in membranes including the elementary properties of pores, molecular mechanisms of ionic selectivity, mechanisms of drug block, structure-function relationships, and basis for channel gating. Discussion will encompass modern techniques for studying ion channel function. Crosslisted as: PHIS 620.

PHTX 625. Cell Signaling and Growth Control. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHTX 536 or consent of instructor. Covers biochemical and molecular biology approaches to pharmacological problems. Emphasizes signal transduction, oncogenes, protein kinases, stress responses and the control of cellular proliferation.

PHTX 630. Basic Concepts in Pharmacology for Graduate Students. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOC 503 or permission of instructor. This course provides basis for drug-receptor theory, quantitative understanding of drug-receptor interaction, drug-receptor-based signaling, in-vivo application of drug-receptor theory, pharmacokinetics and statistical treatment of drug-receptor interaction in pharmacology and toxicology.

PHTX 632. Neurochemical Pharmacology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHTX 536 or permission of instructor. Investigates the mechanisms of drugs acting on the central nervous system in relation to their effects on endogenous neurochemical systems. Examines the milieu in which drugs act upon the central nervous system, experimental techniques frequently used in neuropharmacology, specific neurotransmitter systems, as well as the mechanisms of action of specific drugs.

PHTX 633. Behavioral Pharmacology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This is a survey course covering research on the effects of drugs on behavior. The major emphasis will be on schedule-controlled learned behavior. Additional topics will include drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and conditioned drug effects and behavioral toxicology. The course focuses primarily on laboratory research in animals although human research will also be covered. The relevance of this research literature to drug treatment of behavioral disorders and substance abuse will be discussed.

PHTX 636. Principles of Pharmacology. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: PHTX 630 or permission of instructor and graduate program director. Corequisite: PHTX 639. A comprehensive course in pharmacology for graduate students. The mechanisms of action of major classes of pharmacologically active agents and basic principles of pharmacology are discussed. Topics include autonomic and cardiovascular pharmacology; CNS pharmacology; pharmacology of antimicrobials and cancer; gastrointestinal and endocrine pharmacology.

PHTX 638. Cellular Mechanisms of Toxicology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHTX 536 or permission of instructor. A holistic approach is taken to describe and analyze toxicological information. Intact animal, organ, cellular, and biochemical responses to toxic agents are presented. Immunologic, genetic, endocrine, and central nervous system paradigms and their relationship to the mechanism of action of toxic agents as well as the predictive value of tests of these systems are presented. Kinetics and metabolism of toxic agents as well as statistical and analytical procedures are integrated into the discussions.

PHTX 639. Principles of Pharmacology Journal Club. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: PHTX 630 or permission of instructor. Corequisite: PHTX 636. This course will be in journal club format run in parallel with PHTX 636. Journal club articles pertaining to drug classes and their mechanism of action will be presented by students. Topics include autonomic, CNS, endocrine, cardiovascular and cancer pharmacology.

PHTX 644. Forensic Toxicology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Lecture and demonstrations in which common poisons and groups of poisons are discussed as to detection, diagnosis and treatment of poisoning. Demonstrations include basic principles of analytical toxicology, forensic science and courtroom testimony. Crosslisted as: FRSC 644.

PHTX 690. Pharmacology Research Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Members of the departmental staff, students, and visiting lecturers participate in discussions on topics of current and historical interest.

PHTX 691. Special Topics in Pharmacology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Special topics in pharmacology or toxicology covered in less detail in other courses will be studied in depth in this course.

PHTX 692. Special Topics. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 variable hours. 1-4 credits. Lectures, tutorial studies, library assignments in selected areas of advanced study or specialized laboratory procedures not available in other courses or as part of the research training. Graded as S/U/F.

PHTX 697. Directed Research in Pharmacology. 1-15 Hours.

Semester course; 1-15 credits. Research leading to the M.S. or Ph.D. degree and elective projects for other students.