PHYS   101. Foundations of Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. For non-science majors. Introduction to the fundamental ideas of physics. The course covers selected topics in mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism and modern physics. Not applicable toward the physics major. An optional laboratory may be taken with this course. See PHYZ 101L.

PHYS   103. Elementary Astronomy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A descriptive approach to astronomy dealing with basic features of our solar system, our galaxy and the universe. Not applicable toward physics major. An optional laboratory may be taken with this course. See PHYZ 103L.

PHYS   107. Wonders of Technology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/laboratory/recitation hours. 4 credits. Introduction to physics concepts involved in everyday technological applications. The course covers selected topics in mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, and modern physics by depicting their role in common devices. The laboratory focuses on applications of physics principles to everyday real-life situations. Not applicable toward the physics major.

PHYS   201. General Physics. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH   151. Completion of PHYS   201 to enroll in PHYS   202. Designed primarily for life-science majors. First semester: basic concepts of motion, waves and heat. Second semester: basic concepts of electricity, magnetism, light and modern physics. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS   202. General Physics. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH   151. Completion of PHYS   201 to enroll in PHYS   202. Designed primarily for life-science majors. First semester: basic concepts of motion, waves and heat. Second semester: basic concepts of electricity, magnetism, light and modern physics. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS   207. University Physics I. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture, 1 recitation and 3 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: MATH   200 or permission of instructor. A vector- and calculus-based introduction to the fundamental concepts of mechanics, heat and wave motion.

PHYS   208. University Physics II. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture, 1 recitation and 3 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   207. Corequisite: MATH   201. A vector- and calculus-based introduction to the fundamentals of electricity, magnetism and optics.

PHYS   215. Science, Technology and Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examination of scientific breakthroughs that have led to transformational technologies that are continuing to impact society today. Topics include a historical perspective, an understanding of scientific principles and technologies and an examination of how such discoveries have changed society. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS   291. Topics in Physical Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture or laboratory hours. 1-3 credits per semester. A study of a selected topic in physics, astronomy, geology, meteorology or oceanography. Not applicable toward physics major. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS   301. Classical Mechanics I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   208 and MATH   307. Corequisite: MATH   301. Review of vector calculus. Newtonian mechanics: single particle, oscillations, motion under central forces and dynamics of a systems of particles.

PHYS   302. Classical Mechanics II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301 and MATH   301. Motion in noninertial frames, dynamics of rigid bodies, coupled oscillators, continuous systems and wave equations in one dimension.

PHYS   307. The Physics of Sound and Music. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: A 100- or 200-level physics course or equivalent and the ability to read music or sing or play a musical instrument, or permission of instructor. Basics of the physics of waves and sound. Fourier synthesis, tone quality, human ear and voice, musical temperament and pitch, physics of musical instruments, electronic synthesizers, sound recording and reproduction, room and auditorium acoustics. Not applicable toward the physics major. Crosslisted as: MHIS   307.

PHYS   315. Energy and the Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. A study of society's demands for energy, how it is currently being met, the environmental consequences thereof and some discussion of alternatives. Open to non-physics majors; not applicable to the physics major. Crosslisted as: ENVS   315.

PHYS   320. Modern Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   208 and MATH   307. Corequisite: MATH   301. Foundations of modern physics including special relativity, thermal radiation and quantization, wave-particle duality of radiation and matter, Schroedinger equation, atomic, nuclear and particle physics, and molecular structure and spectra. A continuation of PHYS   208.

PHYS   325. Visualization of Physics Using Mathematica. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   320 or permission of instructor. Visualization of various areas of physics using the Mathematica language for performing numerical calculations and producing graphics and animations. Examples will be taken from classical mechanics, classical electromagnetism, modern physics, statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

PHYS   340. Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301 and MATH   301. Microscopic theory of temperature, heat and entropy, kinetic theory, multicomponent systems, and quantum statistics. Mathematical relationships of thermodynamics.

PHYS   351. Guided Inquiry for University Physics I. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   207 and permission of instructor. Student learning assistants aid in recitation sections of PHYS   207 University Physics I using guided inquiry and group-based activities. Further develops the core skills of PHYS   207. Introduces students to the principles of active and collaborative learning in physics through practical, hands-on problem-solving, class discussions and demonstrations.

PHYS   352. Guided Inquiry for University Physics II. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   208 and permission of instructor. Student learning assistants aid in recitation sections of PHYS   208 University Physics II using guided inquiry and group-based activities. Further develops the core skills of PHYS   208. Introduces students to the principles of active and collaborative learning in physics through practical, hands-on problem-solving, class discussions and demonstrations.

PHYS   376. Electromagnetism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301 and MATH   301. Electrostatics, magnetism and electromagnetic properties of matter, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic waves, boundary conditions, and polarization.

PHYS   380. Quantum Physics I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301, PHYS   320 and MATH   301, or permission of instructor. Brief introduction to the correspondence between classical and quantum mechanics, Schroedinger wave equation, operator methods in quantum mechanics, angular momentum and conservation laws, solution to harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, magnetic dipole momentum and spin.

PHYS   391. Topics in Physics. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum total of 6 credits. In-depth study of a selected topic in physics or physics-related technology, usually at a level requiring only elementary algebra. Not applicable toward physics major. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS   397. Directed Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 4 credits. Open to nonmajors. Determination of amount of credit and permission of instructor must be obtained before registration of course. Intended to allow nonmajors and majors to examine in detail an area of physics or physics-related technology not otherwise available in upper-level courses. May involve either directed readings or directed laboratory work.

PHYS   420. Quantum Physics II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   380 or permission of instructor. Transition rates, addition of angular momentum, multi-electron atoms-ground state, X-ray and optical excitations, time independent perturbation theory, relativistic hydrogen atom and the structure of atoms, collision theory, nuclear structure, elementary particles and their symmetries.

PHYS   422. Optics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   376 or permission of instructor. Comprehensive study of propagation of light, including geometrical optics, polarization, interference, diffraction, Fourier optics and quantum optics.

PHYS   440. Introduction to Condensed Matter Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   340 and 380. Corequisite: PHYS   376. Structure and bonding in solids, phonons, free electron Fermi gas, energy bands, semiconductors, Fermi surface, optical properties and magnetism.

PHYS   450. Senior Physics Laboratory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301 and 320, and PHYZ   320. Experiments in condensed matter physics with an introduction to the instrumentation and data analysis used in the research laboratory.

PHYS   483. Introduction to Astrophysics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   320 and PHYS   340. Pre- or corequisites: PHYS   376 and PHYS   380. Basic concepts of star formation and evolution, galactic structures, and cosmology. Includes stellar atmospheres and interiors, the sun, the Milky Way and other galaxies, and black holes.

PHYS   490. Seminar in Conceptual Physics. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: PHYS   340, PHYS   376, PHYS   380 and PHYZ   320. Restricted to seniors in physics with at least 85 credit hours taken toward the degree. A senior capstone course in physics designed to help students formulate physics-related questions in such a way that they can obtain quantitative answers. Students will describe their results in a senior paper and in an oral presentation.

PHYS   491. Topics in Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a selected topic in physics. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS   492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 8 credits. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course. Independent projects in experimental or theoretical physics.

PHYS   508. The Physical Science of Space for Teachers. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisites: B.S. or B.A. degree with at least two mathematics and two science courses or permission of instructor. The course is designed for the secondary physical science and physics teachers. The physical science phenomena of the solar system and the universe: mechanics, electromagnetism, optics and energy are presented for the teacher. The course curriculum closely follows the Virginia Science Standards of Learning for Physics and Physical Science. The course makes use of the Virginia Science Museum's interactive physical science exhibit galleries (aerospace, force and motion, waves and patterns, light and vision matter, crystals and electromagnetism as well as the Digistar planetarium and telescopes).

PHYS   509. Experiencing Science for Teachers. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: B.S. or B.A. degree with at least two mathematics and two science courses or permission of instructor. Designed to give physical science and physics teachers an understanding of the methods and processes actually used by scientists in different disciplines. Students repeat classic experiments, read from original works, keep detailed research journals, participate in laboratory experiments, engage in the peer review process and present results of projects in colloquium format. The course meets at the Science Museum of Virginia and uses the interactive science exhibits; visits to science sites in the area.

PHYS   510. Physical Science Demonstrations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   509 or permission of instructor. The course is designed to give the working secondary physical science and physics teacher a depth of experience in designing and effectively using experiments to interpret phenomena for students. Participants learn the essentials of developing effective apparatus for investigations, interactive exhibits and demonstrations in the physical sciences. Students will undertake and present a major project as part of the course.

PHYS   522. Optics and Laser Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   376 or permission of instructor. The purpose of this course is to introduce a range of topics from optics and the principles of laser operation. Topics include waves, physical optics, geometric optics, superposition, interference, polarization, diffraction, Fourier optics, coherence, lasers, second quantization.

PHYS   550. Techniques in Material Research. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory and 2 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   450 or graduate standing. This course focuses on the application of modern characterization techniques in materials research. Techniques to be studied include high-resolution X-ray diffraction, low-energy electron diffraction, light-energy electron diffraction, scanning-tunneling microscopy, molecular beam epitaxy, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

PHYS   571. Theoretical Mechanics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   376 and PHYS   380, or graduate standing. An introduction to advanced dynamics involving the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms.

PHYS   573. Analytical Methods in Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   376 and PHYS   380, or graduate standing. Theoretical and numerical techniques in solving differential equations in condensed matter. Classification of electronic states in solids and clusters using groups, infinite series approximations, calculus of residues and causality.

PHYS   576. Electromagnetic Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   571. Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, vector and scalar potentials, electromagnetic waves and radiation theory.

PHYS   580. Quantum Mechanics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   571. Theoretical quantum descriptions with emphasis upon mathematical techniques. Schrodinger equation, hydrogen atom, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, angular momentum and spin and perturbation theory.

PHYS   591. Topics in Physics. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Open to graduate students and to undergraduate students with advanced standing. An in-depth study of a selected topic in advanced physics. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites. Applicable toward physics major requirements.

PHYS   641. Solid State Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   571 and PHYS   580. Study of structure and electronic properties of materials in the solid phase.

PHYS   650. Subatomic Physics I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   576, PHYS   580 and CHEM   510. Studies of nuclei and elementary particles, reaction dynamics, particle accelerators, detection devices, particle classification, symmetries and conservation laws, quantum electrodynamics, the weak interaction, quantum chromodynamics, unified theories, the nuclear shell model and collective model, and nuclear reactions. Offered in cooperation with Virginia State University.

PHYS   651. Subatomic Physics II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   650. A continuation of PHYS   650. Offered in cooperation with Virginia State University.

PHYS   661. Surface and Materials Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   641, CHEM   510 or permission of instructor. This course will focus on the physics of surface, interfacial and other nanostructured material systems, and the experimental techniques used to assay their geometric and electronic properties. Topics include ultra-high vacuum techniques and design, surface geometric and electronic structure, adsorbates on surfaces and interface formation, thin film growth, and layered systems. Characterization techniques to be discussed include geometric probes (STM, AFM, RHEED, LEED, AFM, XRD) and synchrotron radiation-based electronic structure probes (PES, SXF, NEXAFS).

PHYS   663. Studies in Nuclear Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Credits for only two televised courses will count toward degree requirements. Courses televised by the Virginia Cooperative Graduate Engineering Program. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS   670. Conceptual Physics for Teachers I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 4 studio hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   508, PHYS   509 and PHYS   510, or permission of instructor. First of the sequence 670-672. Development of the methodology for the experimental design at middle and high school level, concentrating on the science of measurement, materials structure and characterization, and light and optical properties of matter. The 670-672 sequence uses and develops computer-based experiments and interactive multimedia materials for use in the classroom. The course contains examples of vertical integration of technological applications of physical principles across disciplines.

PHYS   671. Conceptual Physics for Teachers II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 4 studio hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   670 or permission of instructor. Second of the sequence PHYS   670-672. Development of the methodology for experimental design at middle and high school level, concentrating on sound and acoustics, electromagnetism and classical mechanics.

PHYS   672. Conceptual Physics for Teachers III. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 4 studio hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   671 or permission of instructor. Third of the sequence PHYS   670-672. Development of the methodology for the experimental design at middle and high school level, concentrating on heat, thermodynamics and modern physics.

PHYS   690. Research Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. May be repeated for a maximum of 4 credits. Examines current problems and developments in physics.

PHYS   691. Special Topics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisites: at least one graduate-level physics course and permission of instructor. Selected topics in physics from such areas as statistical physics, quantum field theory, semi-conductor device physics, general relativity, electronic structure of solids, thin-film fabrication techniques, superconductivity, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, crystallography and nuclear physics.

PHYS   697. Directed Research. 1-15 Hours.

Semester course; 1-15 credits. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: at least one graduate-level physics course and permission of instructor. Research leading to the M.S. or Ph.D. degree.