The department offers second modality B.S. degree concentrations for American Registry of Radiologic Technologists-certified radiographers who desire to continue their professional education and concentrate in radiation therapy, nuclear medicine technology or radiologist assistant. Upon meeting admission prerequisites, students complete a five-semester, full-time course of study including didactic, laboratory and clinical education. Graduates are eligible for additional national professional certification examinations.

Learning outcomes

Upon completing this program, students will know and know how to do the following:

  • Attain clinical competence in entry level radiation therapy procedures
  • Communicate effectively with patients, staff and physicians in the radiation therapy department
  • Demonstrate effective written communication
  • Demonstrate critical thinking skills during their radiation therapy clinical experience
  • Demonstrate critical thinking skills in developing a research project
  • Demonstrate professionalism during their radiation therapy clinical experience

Special requirements

Prerequisites

ARRT certification (or eligibility) in radiography 1
Humanities course3
English composition course3
Social science course3
Natural/physical science course3
1

Must be ARRT certified in radiography within two semesters of enrollment.

English proficiency

All non-native applicants must meet VCU's minimum TOEFL score requirements prior to admission.

Enrolled students must earn a minimum grade of C in the following CLRS courses:

Orientation to Radiation Therapy
Oncologic Patient Care
Pathology and Treatment Principles I
Radiation Therapy, Techniques and Applications
Physics for Radiation Therapy
Clinical Education I
Clinical Education II
Clinical Education III
Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning
Pathology and Treatment Principles II
Radiobiology
Quality Management in Radiation Therapy
Clinical Education IV
Clinical Education V

Must complete statistics or meet requirements for STAT   210 prior to enrollment.

Degree requirements for Clinical Radiation Sciences, Bachelor of Science (B.S.) with a concentration in radiation therapy (second modality)

Admission requirements

ARRT Radiation Therapy certification50
General Education courses:
English composition course3
Humanities course3
Natural/physical science course3
Social/behavioral science course3
Total Hours62

Major requirements

CLRS   206Cross-sectional Anatomy2
CLRS   305Orientation to Radiation Therapy2
CLRS   309Oncologic Patient Care2
CLRS   314Pathology and Treatment Principles I4
CLRS   323Radiation Therapy, Techniques and Applications4
CLRS   342Physics for Radiation Therapy3
CLRS   390Research Methods in the Radiation Sciences (writing and academic research)2
CLRS   393Clinical Education I 22
CLRS   394Clinical Education II 22
CLRS   395Clinical Education III 23
CLRS   398Introduction to Research (writing and academic research)1
CLRS   408Introduction to Computed Tomography (CT)2
CLRS   412Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning3
CLRS   415Pathology and Treatment Principles II4
CLRS   430Radiobiology2
CLRS   455Quality Management in Radiation Therapy2
CLRS   488Senior Seminar3
CLRS   493Clinical Education IV 23
CLRS   494Clinical Education V 23
CLRS   498Senior Project2
STAT   210Basic Practice of Statistics3
Total Hours54
2

 These courses have variable credits. THe credits indicated are the most commonly used in the entry-level curriculum.

Restricted electives

Select four restricted elective credits4

Total minimum requirement 120 credits

What follows is a sample plan that meets the prescribed requirements within a four-year course of study at VCU. Please contact your adviser before beginning course work toward a degree.

Minimum credits from ARRT certification and courses from accredited college or university 62 credits

Junior year
Fall semesterHours
CLRS   305 Orientation to Radiation Therapy 2
CLRS   309 Oncologic Patient Care 2
CLRS   323 Radiation Therapy, Techniques and Applications 4
CLRS   390 Research Methods in the Radiation Sciences 2
CLRS   393 Clinical Education I 2
STAT   210 Basic Practice of Statistics 3
 Term Hours: 15
Spring semester
CLRS   206 Cross-sectional Anatomy 2
CLRS   314 Pathology and Treatment Principles I 4
CLRS   342 Physics for Radiation Therapy 3
CLRS   394 Clinical Education II 2
CLRS   398 Introduction to Research 1
 Term Hours: 12
Summer semester
CLRS   395 Clinical Education III 3
 Term Hours: 3
Senior year
Fall semester
CLRS   408 Introduction to Computed Tomography (CT) 2
CLRS   415 Pathology and Treatment Principles II 4
CLRS   455 Quality Management in Radiation Therapy 2
CLRS   493 Clinical Education IV 3
CLRS   498 Senior Project 2
 Term Hours: 13
Spring semester
CLRS   412 Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning 3
CLRS   430 Radiobiology 2
CLRS   488 Senior Seminar 3
CLRS   494 Clinical Education V 3
Electives 4
 Term Hours: 15
 Total Hours: 58
 

Clinical radiation sciences

CLRS   101. Introduction to Clinical Radiation Sciences. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Open to students on the Academic Campus who are interested in clinical radiation sciences as a career. Presentation and discussion of the art and science of medical imaging. The use of ionizing radiation will be explored from its discovery to its current application in therapy and medical diagnosis. Radiography, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy will be discussed in terms of career specialties within the profession.

CLRS   201. Radiographic Imaging and Exposure I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   205. Corequisite: CLRZ   201. Introduction to radiographic equipment and the imaging process. Covers topics including equipment operation and manipulating radiation exposure to produce quality radiographs. Presents information that prepares students for clinical practice. Emphasizes clinical problem-solving as it relates to patient variables, pathology and technical exposure factors.

CLRS   203. Pathophysiology I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Presentation of the principles of disease and an introduction to various conditions of illness involving body systems.

CLRS   204. Pathophysiology I and II. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3-3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   205, PHIS   206 and PHIZ   206. Completion of CLRS   203 to enroll in CLRS   204. Presentation of the principles of disease and an introduction to various conditions of illness involving body systems.

CLRS   205. Exploring Radiation Sciences. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. A general overview of the wide variety of imaging and treatment modalities in radiation sciences will be presented. Emphasis will be on understanding how these modalities are utilized in today's complex health care environment, as well as the role of the technologist/therapist.

CLRS   206. Cross-sectional Anatomy. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. A general overview of cross-sectional anatomy at representative levels will be presented. Emphasis will be on identifying major muscles, organs, bones and vessels on diagrams, photographs and images.

CLRS   208. Foundations of Patient Care. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Legal, ethical and technical foundations of patient care will be explored with emphasis on the application of these principles to common radiologic situations.

CLRS   211. Radiographic Procedures I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   208 with a minimum grade of C. Combines the study of anatomy and physiology and positioning for diagnostic radiographic examinations of the upper extremity, thorax, abdomen, lower extremity, spine and pelvis. Requires demonstration of competence in radiographic procedures, including positioning of simulated patients, manipulation of radiographic equipment and evaluation of radiographs.

CLRS   212. Radiographic Procedures II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   211 with a minimum grade of C. Continuation of CLRS   211 with emphasis on anatomy and physiology and positioning for diagnostic radiographic examinations of routine contrast studies and basic headwork. Requires students to demonstrate competence in radiographic procedures, including positioning of simulated patients, manipulation of radiographic equipment and evaluation of radiographs.

CLRS   232. Radiation Safety. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Provides an overview of radiation protection as it applies to the radiation sciences. Emphasizes radiation sources, detection and regulations. Discusses radiation protection responsibilities of the radiologic technologist for patients, personnel and the public.

CLRS   294. Introduction to Clinical Education I. 0.5 Hours.

Semester course; 60 clinical hours. 0.5 credit. Prerequisite: CLRS   208 with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Introduces students to the clinical process and equipment, and provides practical experience in routine, basic procedures.

CLRS   295. Introduction to Clinical Education II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 120 clinical hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS   201, 211, 232 and 294 with a minimum grade of C in all. Continued introduction to clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Provides additional practical experience in routine, basic procedures.

CLRS   303. Orientation to Nuclear Medicine. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 clinical hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   208 and CLRS   232 both with a minimum grade of C. Designed to acquaint the student with the field of nuclear medicine in general and the Program in Nuclear Medicine Technology in particular. It also provides an introduction to clinical practice.

CLRS   305. Orientation to Radiation Therapy. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   208 and CLRS   232, both with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to the clinical process, equipment and history of radiation therapy. Information will be presented that prepares the student to begin clinical practice. Clinical rotations and lab exercises are designed to expose the student to various aspects of radiation therapy.

CLRS   309. Oncologic Patient Care. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   208 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS   305. Covers the basic concepts of patient care specific to radiation therapy, including consideration of physical and psychological conditions. Patient interactions, patient examinations, asepsis, local and systemic reactions, nutrition and medications are discussed. Factors influencing patient health during and following a course of radiation will be identified.

CLRS   312. Radiographic Procedures III. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   212 with a minimum grade of C. Continuation of CLRS   211 and 212 to cover additional and alternative positions for routine radiographic examinations as well as special studies of circulatory, reproductive, urinary, skeletal and central nervous systems. Discusses equipment, procedures and strategies for performing pediatric, trauma, mobile and operating room radiographic exams. Includes small group simulation opportunities.

CLRS   314. Pathology and Treatment Principles I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   309 and CLRS   323 with a minimum grade of C in both. Presents the fundamentals of the disease processes for cancer of the following: skin, thorax, genitourinary, gynecological, head and neck, central nervous system, and breast. Discusses malignant condition, etiology and epidemiology, patient workup, and methods of treatment. Attention to patient prognosis, treatment results and the effects of combined therapies. Requires demonstration of competence in selected radiotherapeutic procedures, including positioning of simulated patients and the manipulation of equipment.

CLRS   317. Nuclear Medicine Procedures I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequistie: two semesters of general chemistry. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS   303. Presents the techniques employed in the performance of routine nuclear medicine procedures. Topics include anatomy and physiology, pathology, patient preparation, contraindications, radiopharmaceuticals, dose route of administration, biodistribution, imaging protocols, equipment setup, and common findings.

CLRS   318. Nuclear Medicine Procedures II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   317 with a minimum grade of C. Presents the techniques employed in the performance of routine nuclear medicine procedures. Topics include anatomy and physiology, pathology, patient preparation, contraindications, radiopharmaceuticals, dose route of administration, biodistribution, imaging protocols, equipment setup, and common findings.

CLRS   319. Nuclear Medicine Procedures III. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   318 with a minimum grade of C. Presents the techniques employed in the performance of routine nuclear medicine procedures. Topics include anatomy and physiology, pathology, patient preparation, contraindications, radiopharmaceuticals, dose route of administration, biodistribution, imaging protocols, equipment setup, and common findings.

CLRS   320. Radiographic Imaging and Exposure II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   201 and CLRZ   201 both with a minimum grade of C. Emphasizes federal regulations and monitoring of the imaging system components that may affect radiographic quality through improper functioning. Provides in-depth exploration of digital imaging.

CLRS   321. Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS   303. Corequisite: CLRZ   321. Presents the physical principles of atomic structure, electromagnetic spectrum, units of measurement, radioactive decay and attenuation in matter. Operation of radiation equipment will include statistical applications and quality control procedures.

CLRS   322. Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   317, CLRS   321 and CLRZ   321 with a minimum grade of C in all. Corequisite: CLRZ   322. Presents advanced applications in physics and the operating principles of nuclear medicine imaging devices and related quality control procedures.

CLRS   323. Radiation Therapy, Techniques and Applications. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture hours. 4 credits. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS   305. Presents the basic concepts of dosimetry and treatment planning. Various external beam techniques and applications, depth dose data and summation of isodose curves are discussed. Modalities of treatment, patient setup, dose measurement and verification also are included.

CLRS   331. Radiographic Imaging Equipment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   320 with a minimum grade of C. Presents the principles and operation of general and specialized X-ray equipment. Emphasizes the equipment necessary to perform radiographic, fluoroscopic and tomographic examinations.

CLRS   332. Radiographic Pathology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   204 and CLRS   393 with a minimum grade of C or permisison of instructor. Provides introduction to the study of radiographic pathology through reading and observation of film interpretation. Emphasizes recognition of common disease processes as demonstrated radiographically and, via advanced imaging modalities; where appropriate, understanding how to vary positioning and techniques to produce optimally diagnostic images; and the role of different imaging modalities in the evaluation of disease.

CLRS   341. Radiation Physics. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   101, PHYZ   101 or PHYS   201 and CLRS   232 with a minimum grade of C. Discusses fundamentals of the atom, electricity and magnetism. Emphasizes the production of X- and gamma rays, and the interaction of radiation with matter.

CLRS   342. Physics for Radiation Therapy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   323 and CLRS   341 with a minimum grade of C in both. Includes a discussion of the properties of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Details of production, interactions, treatment units, measurement of radiation, radioactivity and brachytherapy are presented.

CLRS   390. Research Methods in the Radiation Sciences. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisites: STAT   210 and junior standing or permission of instructor. The fundamentals of the research process will be presented for analysis and discussion. Elements of research appropriate to the radiation sciences will be reviewed. Emphasis will be on the ability to critically review research studies along with the selection and design of a research project.

CLRS   393. Clinical Education I. 2-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 2-5 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   208 and CLRS   232 with a minimum grade of C in both and CLRS   201 with a minimum grade of C or CLRS   303 or CLRS   305. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain practical experience in routine, basic procedures and observe more advanced procedures.

CLRS   394. Clinical Education II. 2-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 2-4 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   393 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain practical experience in routine, basic procedures and observe more advanced procedures.

CLRS   395. Clinical Education III. 2-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 2-6 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   394 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain additional practical experience in routine as well as advanced procedures.

CLRS   398. Introduction to Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: CLRS   390. Provides students the opportunity to explore and investigate a topic of special interest in their area of concentration under the supervision of a faculty adviser. Emphasizes the application of research concepts to writing a research project proposal.

CLRS   403. Advanced Patient Care for the Imaging Professional. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   208 with a minimum grade of C and junior standing or permission of instructor. Explores advanced patient care techniques and age-specific considerations in the radiation sciences. Emphasizes the application of advanced patient care principles.

CLRS   405. Principles of Mammography. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   201 and CLRS   320 with a minimum grade of C in both and senior standing or permission of instructor. Presentations and discussions designed to provide an overview of the principles of mammography. Topics include history, anatomy, physiology and pathology of the breast; exposure techniques; and quality control. Focuses on routine and specialized positioning of the breast and image evaluation to prepare students for practical experience in mammography.

CLRS   406. Introduction to MRI. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   341 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. An introduction to the elements of magnetic resonance imaging, including instrumentation, physical principles, image production and quality, MR safety, magnetic resonance angiography and imaging applications.

CLRS   407. Introduction to PET/CT. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   408. Overview of PET and PET/CT focusing on instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals and its diagnostic application in neurology, oncology and cardiology.

CLRS   408. Introduction to Computed Tomography (CT). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   341 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. Provides the student with an overview of computed tomography. Topics include computed tomography physical principles, data acquisition/image reconstruction, equipment and terminology. Patient care issues (i.e., preparation, monitoring) and basic quality control will be introduced.

CLRS   410. Routine Computed Tomography Procedures. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS   206 and 408, or permission of instructor. Presents routine procedures used in computed tomography imaging. Reviews examinations and protocols involving the head, chest, abdomen and extremities.

CLRS   412. Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   323 and CLRS   342 with a minimum grade of C in both or permission of instructor. An introduction to routine 2-D and 3-D treatment planning for the most common forms of cancer including prostate, rectum, lung, breast, and head and neck regions. Simulated lab training using a treatment planning system will be included. Emphasis will be on the rationale and process of treatment planning for patients undergoing radiation therapy.

CLRS   415. Pathology and Treatment Principles II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   314 with a minimum grade of C. A continuation of CLRS   314. Presents the fundamentals of the disease process for the following cancers: gastrointestinal, lymphomas and hematological malignancies, bone tumors, childhood tumors, and eye and orbital tumors. Discusses patient workup and prognosis, treatment results, and the effects of combined therapies. Radiotherapeutic emergencies, palliation and combined modality treatment also will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on traditional and advanced technology and its applications in treatment delivery in radiation oncology. Requires demonstration of competence in selected radiotherapeutic procedures, including positioning of simulated patients and the manipulation of equipment.

CLRS   417. Nuclear Medicine Procedures IV. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   319 with a minimum grade of C. Presents the techniques employed in the performance of advanced nuclear medicine procedures. Topics include anatomy and physiology, pathology, patient preparation, contraindications, radiopharmaceuticals, dose route of administration, biodistribution, imaging protocols, equipment setup, and common findings.

CLRS   420. Introduction to Vascular-Interventional Radiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: departmental approval. Introduction to the basic techniques of vascular and interventional radiologic procedures with emphasis on the anatomy demonstrated, equipment, contrast agents, and the role and responsibilities of the technologist.

CLRS   430. Radiobiology. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   232 with a minimum grade of C and senior standing or permission of instructor. Presents the principles of biologic responses to radiation, including factors influencing radiation effects, tissue sensitivity and tolerance. Clinical application in radiography, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy are reviewed.

CLRS   453. Quality Management in Nuclear Medicine. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   322 and CLRZ   322 with a minimum grade of C in both. Explores the quality assurance parameters in a nuclear medicine department. Emphasis is given to the performance of tests to assess survey meters, spectrometers, dose calibrators, gamma cameras and SPECT imaging systems. Additionally, quality assurance is discussed in terms of radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay laboratories and patient management.

CLRS   455. Quality Management in Radiation Therapy. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   323 and CLRS   342 booth with a minimum grade of C. Designed to provide the student with knowledge of the concepts and principles of quality assurance. The performance of various tests including purpose, sources of malfunction and action guidelines will be discussed.

CLRS   461. Radiopharmaceutical: Preparation and Quality Control. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   319, CLRS   322 and CLRZ   322, all with a minimum grade of C. Provides the technical knowledge necessary for the preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceutical agents for in-vivo and in-vitro nuclear medicine studies.

CLRS   471. Radiology Imaging Procedures for Radiologist Assistants I and II. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3-3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   332, CLRS   403, CLRZ   403 and permission of instructor. Completion of CLRS   471 to enroll in CLRS   472. Establishes a framework for radiologist assistants' participation in patient examinations for diagnostic inspection and/or therapeutic treatment. Emphasizes establishment of fundamental radiology procedures that follow American College of Radiology Standards for principles and practices producing high-quality radiographic care. Includes basic radiology procedures in genitourinary, gastrointestinal, pediatric, thoracic, musculoskeletal selections and vascular/interventional specialties. Addresses legal, ethical and professional issues concerning radiologist assistants.

CLRS   472. Radiology Imaging Procedures for Radiologist Assistants I and II. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3-3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   332, CLRS   403, CLRZ   403 and permission of instructor. Completion of CLRS   471 to enroll in CLRS   472. Establishes a framework for radiologist assistants' participation in patient examinations for diagnostic inspection and/or therapeutic treatment. Emphasizes establishment of fundamental radiology procedures that follow American College of Radiology Standards for principles and practices producing high-quality radiographic care. Includes basic radiology procedures in genitourinary, gastrointestinal, pediatric, thoracic, musculoskeletal selections and vascular/interventional specialties. Addresses legal, ethical and professional issues concerning radiologist assistants.

CLRS   475. Medical Imaging Fundamentals for Radiologist Assistants. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   332, CLRS   403, CLRZ   403 and permission of instructor. Promotes an understanding of methods and techniques for the systematic observation of static and dynamic diagnostic images for the purpose of evaluating the presence of abnormalities, anomalies and pathological conditions. Includes protocols for drafting memoranda of initial observations based on image assessment.

CLRS   480. Applied Radiology Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: departmental approval. Relates basic concepts in management to the radiologic environment and explores the relationship between the radiologic facility and the health care system.

CLRS   481. Applied Pharmacology for Radiation Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: departmental approval. Covers general pharmacology including the study of drug groups, dosages, administrations and reactions of drugs common to patients. Special emphasis on contrast media and other agents commonly used in medical imaging and therapy.

CLRS   488. Senior Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in department. Designed to allow students to integrate the various individual courses into a single perspective as it relates to the radiation sciences. Addresses timely professional issues, including the need for lifelong learning and participation in professional organizations, as well as preparing for certification and future employment.

CLRS   492. Directed Study: Radiation Sciences. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 credits. Maximum of 6 credits can apply to graduation requirements. Prerequisite: permission of department chair. Provides the opportunity for individualized research projects, tutorial studies, special clinical work or other topics not available in formal course work.

CLRS   493. Clinical Education IV. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 1-5 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   395 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain additional practical experience in routine, basic and advanced procedures.

CLRS   494. Clinical Education V. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 1-5 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS   493 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain additional practical experience in routine, basic and advanced procedures.

CLRS   498. Senior Project. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS   390, 398 and senior standing in department. Provides students the opportunity to investigate a topic of special interest in their area of concentration. Emphasizes the application of research concepts in the design, implementation and presentation of a project under the supervision of a faculty adviser.

Clinical radiation laboratory

CLRZ   201. Radiographic Imaging and Exposure I Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: CLRS   205. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS   201. Designed to introduce students to the fundamentals of radiographic image production. Requires performance of laboratory exercises to become familiar with equipment operation and manipulate radiation exposure variables to produce quality images.

CLRZ   321. Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS   303. Corequisite: CLRS   321. Presentation of the applications and techniques employed in the operation of nuclear medicine non-imaging devices. Labs will emphasize the use of survey meters, dose calibrator and scintillation counting device.

CLRZ   322. Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS   321 and CLRZ   321 with a minimum grade of C in both. Corequisite: CLRS   322. Evaluation of applications of different imaging techniques and computer processing utilized in nuclear medicine. Emphasizes the use of single and multiple channel analyzers, planar and SPECT acquisition, and image processing.

CLRZ   403. Advanced Patient Care for the Imaging Professional. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: CLRS   208 or permission of instructor. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS   403. This course provides simulated experience in performing advanced patient care techniques related to the radiation sciences. Topics include cardiac rhythm interpretation, advanced cardiac life support, urinary catheterization, tracheostomy care, basic laboratory skills, basic respiratory therapy skills, pulse oximetry, IV therapy and pharmacology, and conscious sedation.

CLRZ   405. Principles of Mammography Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS   201 and CLRS   320, or permission of instructor. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS   405. Provides simulated experience in performing positioning of the breast. Students will be expected to demonstrate competence in positioning the breast phantom for a variety of routine and specialized projections. In addition, quality control procedures specific to mammography will be performed.

CLRZ   461. Radiopharmacy Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS   319, CLRS   322 and CLRZ   322, all with a minimum grade of C. A simulated radiopharmacy laboratory will focus on operation of laboratory equipment in the compounding of radiopharmaceuticals.