Donald R. Young, Ph.D.
Professor and chair

Jennifer K. Stewart
Associate professor and director of graduate studies

biology.vcu.edu

The Department of Biology offers programs leading to baccalaureate, master’s and doctoral degrees; the doctoral degree is offered through the Ph.D. in Integrative Life Sciences program. Students may specialize within many areas, such as molecular and cellular biology, genetics, aquatic and terrestrial ecology, systematics, physiology, neurobiology, and developmental biology. Students also may develop an interdisciplinary focus to their degree program, for example within areas such as bioinformatics, cancer biology, forensic science and environmental science.

In addition to the courses offered by the Department of Biology, graduate students may enroll in graduate courses offered through VCU Life Sciences and these departments in the VCU School of Medicine: Anatomy and Neurobiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biostatistics, Human and Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Immunology, Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, and Physiology and Biophysics. Visit the Department of Biology’s website at biology.vcu.edu.

 
 
 

The following courses do not apply toward the major in biology: 

BIOL   101Biological Concepts3
BIOZ   101Biological Concepts Laboratory1
BIOL/ENVS 103Environmental Science4
BIOL   201Human Biology3
BIOZ   201Human Biology Laboratory1
BIOL   205Basic Human Anatomy4
PHIS   206Human Physiology3
PHIZ   206Human Physiology Laboratory1
BIOL   209Medical Microbiology3
BIOZ   209Medical Microbiology Laboratory1
BIOL   217Principles of Nutrition3
BIOL   332Environmental Pollution3

A C grade or better in each prerequisite course is required for enrollment in all biology courses BIOL 205 or higher that have prerequisites listed in their course descriptions.

Biology

BIOL   101. Biological Concepts. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A topical approach to basic biological principles. Topics include molecular aspects of cells, bioenergetics, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cellular and organismal reproduction, genetics and evolution, and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the major in biology.

BIOL   103. Environmental Science. 4 Hours.

Hybrid semester course taught mostly online; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Online presentations, assignments, debates and exams require students to understand situations and ideas that involve scientific, social and economic concepts associated with Earth’s environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce major course concepts. Integrates aspects of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and sociology. Topics include ecology, evolution, natural resources, air and water resources, energy and recycling, population biology, and sustainable global societies. Not applicable as a prerequisite for any biology course at the 200 level or above, nor for credit toward the B.S. in Biology. Crosslisted as: ENVS   103.

BIOL   151. Introduction to Biological Sciences I. 3 Hours.

Semester course: 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Pre- or corequisites: MATH   151 and CHEM   101. Introduction to core biological concepts including cell structure, cellular metabolism, cell division, DNA replication, gene expression and genetics. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL   152. Introduction to Biological Sciences II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and CHEM   101, both with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on evolutionary principles, the role of natural selection in the evolution of life forms, taxonomy and phylogenies, biological diversity in the context of form and function of organisms, and and basic principles of ecology. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL   200. Quantitative Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151 with minimum grades of C; and MATH   151, MATH   200, MATH   201 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within a one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Enrollment restricted to biology majors and biology minors. An introduction to the application of the scientific method, experimental design and quantitative aspects of biology.

BIOL   201. Human Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   101, 151, or 152, or BIOL/ENVS   103. Fundamentals of human biology, including the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, human evolution, and the interaction of humans with the environment. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   205. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours, plus online component. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   101 and BIOZ   101, BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151, or BIOL   152 and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. Restricted to communication arts majors; health, physical education and exercise science majors; pre-health majors in clinical laboratory sciences, clinical radiation sciences, dental hygiene and nursing; students enrolled in the health sciences certificate program; and students in the advising tracks for pre-nursing, pre-occupational therapy, pre-pharmacy and pre-physical therapy and pre-nursing acclerated. Human specimens, models and interactive software are used to study human body structures; emphasis is on the skeleto-muscular aspects. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   209. Medical Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   101 and BIOZ   101, BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151, or BIOL   152 and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. General principles of microbiology and immunology to provide a thorough understanding of the host-microbe relationship in disease. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   217. Principles of Nutrition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   101, 151 or 152 with a minimum grade of C, or BIOL/ENVS   103 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic principles of nutrition and their application in promoting growth and maintaining health throughout the life cycle. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   291. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   300. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and 152; BIOZ   151 or LFSC/BNFO   251; BIOZ   152 or LFSC/BNFO   252; CHEM   101 and CHEZ   101, all with a minimum grade of C; BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102. A study of the molecular biology of the cell as it relates to gene expression, cell signaling, and cell growth and differentiation.

BIOL   303. Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The morphological, biochemical, taxonomic, genetic and evolutionary characteristics of microorganisms with a primary focus on bacteria. Focuses on the structural, mechanical and biochemical adaptations employed by microorganisms in their interactions with host cells and substrates.

BIOL   307. Aquatic Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317, CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102, with minimum grades of C. The physical, chemical and especially the biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems.

BIOL   308. Vertebrate Histology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Microanatomy of vertebrate cells, tissues and organs and the relationship of structure to function. Laboratory work involves an in-depth study of vertebrate microanatomy at the light microscope level as well as an introduction to techniques used for the preparation of materials for histological study.

BIOL   309. Entomology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A field-based course that focuses on insect diversification, identification, natural history and basic biology.

BIOL   310. Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. The basic principles of molecular and applied genetics of plants, animals and microorganisms.

BIOL   312. Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on environmental interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOL   313. Vertebrate Natural History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. The natural history of vertebrates with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOL   314. Animal Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151, BIOL and BIOZ   152, and BIOL   300, each with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to basic reproductive anatomy and physiology. Examination of the basic factors that affect reproductive performance and how these factors are used to regulate the reproductive processes of domestic animals and humans.

BIOL   317. Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. An introduction to the basic principles of ecology, including interactions among organisms and influences of the physical environment.

BIOL   318. Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. An exploration of the theoretical and empirical foundations of evolutionary biology with a focus on the processes driving evolutionary change across all of life.

BIOL   320. Biology of the Seed Plant. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. The physiology, structure and adaptation of seed plants.

BIOL   321. Plant Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the developmental changes that take place during the life cycle of lower and higher plants. Emphasis is placed on the control factors that are involved in regulating the ordered changes which take place during development.

BIOL   322. Economic Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and 152 and BIOZ   151 and 152, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. This class focuses on plant morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, growth and reproduction through an examination of the biology of economically and culturally important plants, including crops used for foods and beverages, medicines and drugs, fibers, and timber.

BIOL   323. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151, BIOL and BIOZ   152, and BIOL   300, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to basic plant physiology, including transport processes, energy production and secondary metabolism with emphasis on adaptations to stress.

BIOL   325. Fungal Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The basic biology of fungi, including growth, structure, genetics, diversity, the commercial uses of fungi and their importance as model organisms. Also discusses the interactions between fungi and plants and fungi and humans.

BIOL   332. Environmental Pollution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: eight credits in biology. The study of pollution in the environment with emphasis on the procedures for detection and abatement. Crosslisted as: ENVS   330.

BIOL   333. Evolution of the Angiosperms. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151,152 and BIOZ   151, 152, all with minimum grade of C. Application of evolutionary concepts to flowering plants. Topics include speciation concepts, evolution of vegetative and sexual characteristics and an overview of angiosperm diversity to the level of family.

BIOL   335. Global Change Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151 and BIOZ   152, all with minimum grade of C. Examines how humans influence biological systems and explores what can be done to adapt to or to mitigate future global change, emphasizing anthropogenic climate change.

BIOL   341. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: ANTH   301.

BIOL   351. Introduction to Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduction to the basic concepts, tools and possibilities of bioinformatics, the analysis of large bodies of biological information. The course stresses problem-solving and integrative projects, making extensive use of exercises in class that draw on bioinformatics resources on the Web and on local servers. Graded as pass/fail. Crosslisted as: BNFO   301.

BIOL   380. Introduction to Mathematical Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH   200 and BIOL   151, or permission of instructor. An introduction to mathematical biology. Various mathematical modeling tools will be covered and implemented in a range of biological areas. Additionally, the collaborative research process will be presented and discussed. Crosslisted as: BNFO   380/MATH   380.

BIOL   391. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   392. Introduction to Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 lecture/demonstration hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: UNIV   200 or HONR   200; STAT   210; BIOL   310; BIOL   317; one of the following laboratory experiences: BIOZ   310, BIOZ   317 or BIOZ   476; all with minimum grades of C. An introduction to the scientific process, including the mechanics of problem definition, information gathering and experimental design. Experimentation is discussed in context with methods of data collection and analysis; some basic research techniques are demonstrated. Aims are to prepare the student for future research experiences, and to have the student write detailed research proposals.

BIOL   395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-2 credits. Maximum of 2 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL   395, BIOL   492, BIOL   495 and/or BIOZ   395). Prerequisites: BIOZ   151 and BIOZ   152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   401. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 300 and 317, each with a minimum grade of C. The biology and chemical activities of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, virus and fungi) of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural importance.

BIOL   402. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution of vertebrate forms as demonstrated by anatomical studies of selected vertebrate types.

BIOL   403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   210 or ANTH   301/BIOL   341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: ANTH   403.

BIOL   411. Animal Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and CHEM   301, each with a minimum grade of C. Physiological principles of animal cells, tissues and organs from the viewpoint of chemical and physical phenomena.

BIOL   413. Parasitology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The epidemiology and pathological effects of eukaryotic parasites, including parasite life cycles and host-parasite relationships.

BIOL   415. Mangrove Avian Field Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; two weeks abroad in Panama (or other tropical location with mangrove forests) followed by class meetings two days per week throughout most of spring semester. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317. An immersive study of tropical ecology with a focus on bird ecology and conservation of mangrove ecosystems through a unique blend of rigorous science and community engagement. Two weeks of study abroad, including engagement with local conservation organizations and participation in education outreach with local schools, followed by discussion, data analysis and presentation of progress and research in a public symposium on campus.

BIOL   416. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an integrative study of birds, including avian evolution and diversity, general anatomy and physiology, behavior, and ecology.

BIOL   417. Mammalogy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 218 and 317 with minimum grades of C. Study of the characteristics, adaptive radiation and distribution of mammals, with emphasis on North American forms.

BIOL   422. Forest Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the fundamentals of forest ecology, with a particular emphasis on Virginia’s diverse forest ecosystems. Students gain an understanding of the principal controls on forest structure, growth and distribution and relate these principles to sustainable forest management.

BIOL   425. Field Botany. 3 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Field Botany

Semester course; 2 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours.(60 percent online, 40 percent field/laboratory) 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 and BIOL   317, both with minimum grades of C. Online lectures, discussions, reflections and assessments in conjunction with field experience. Explores the effects of environmental conditions on plant morphology and adaptations, with emphasis on plant anatomy, plant physiology and ecology.

BIOL   430. Invasion Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151, BIOZ   152 and BIOL   317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive view of the ecology and impacts of invasive species. Integrates the effects of historical human demography, ecological disturbance, natural history, species interactions, barriers to invasion, invasive species management and impacts on natural communities and ecosystems.

BIOL   431. Introduction to Marine Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317, CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to physical, chemical and geological oceanography and a more detailed treatment of the organisms and ecological processes involved in the pelagic and benthic environments of the world's oceans and estuaries.

BIOL   435. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution, ecology, structure, taxonomy and behavior of reptiles and amphibians.

BIOL   438. Forensic Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 or equivalent; CHEM   302 and CHEZ   302. Provides an understanding of molecular biology testing methodologies as applied to analysis of forensic samples. Current topics in forensic DNA analysis will include quality assurance, DNA databanking, contemporary research and population genetics. Crosslisted as: FRSC   438.

BIOL   440. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology focused on vertebrate model organisms with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development.

BIOL   445. Neurobiology and Behavior. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. The study of animal behavior stressing ecological, evolutionary and neurobiological approaches.

BIOL   448. Neuroscience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   310. An examination of the basic structure of the nervous system, nervous system operation on a cellular and molecular level and the formation of the nervous system during development.

BIOL   450. Biology of Cancer I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS   309. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL   451. Biology of Cancer II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   450 and instructor's permission. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL   452. Biology of Drugs. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Explores how drugs modulate biological signaling pathways to study, cure, enhance and intoxicate organisms. An introduction to basic pharmacology that largely focuses on human pathways and diseases. Topics include major drug classes (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, etc.) and drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, etc.).

BIOL   455. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS   309. A comprehensive introduction to the immune system of higher animals, emphasizing the molecular and cellular basis for antibody-medicated immunity.

BIOL   459. Infectious Disease Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151, BIOZ   152 and BIOL   317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the causes and consequences of infectious disease at levels from individual organisms to global scale. Examines the history of infectious disease ecology in human and nonhuman populations. Students learn about the roles of transmission and coevolution in infectious disease ecology and how population models are used to inform management of epidemics and emerging infectious diseases.

BIOL   460. Human Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   318 or BIOL   341 with a minimum grade of C. The origin and genetic history of modern humans, our historic colonization and migration, the utility of the Human Genome Project, our differences from other primates, adaptation to our environment and disease, and the ethical implications of genetic research in our society.

BIOL   475. Biology Capstone Seminar: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300, BIOL   310 and BIOL   317 with minimum grades of C; and senior standing. Enrollment restricted to biology majors. Students read assigned topical papers before class, prepare critical analyses, discuss and debate selected positions. See Schedule of Classes for specific topics.

BIOL   477. Biology Capstone Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C and 90 hours of undergraduate course work. The following courses qualify as a capstone experience if taken as a co-requisite with this course: BIOL   492 Independent Study, BIOL   493 Biology Internship, BIOL   495 Research and Thesis, BIOL   497 Ecological Service Learning or other courses, including topics courses, that include the core competencies required for a capstone experience and are approved by the chair of the Department of Biology. Graded as Pass/Fail.

BIOL   480. Animal-Plant Interactions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or BIOL   318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of interactions among animals and plants.

BIOL   489. Communicating Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL   495, senior standing. An opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective communication of their research in writing. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities including preparation of figures for publication and the crafting of a research paper with correct usage of the primary literature. Students will use this as an opportunity to aid the writing of their thesis for BIOL   495.

BIOL   490. Presenting Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL   492 or 495, and senior standing. Opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective oral presentation of their research work. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities such as preparation of visual materials and statistical analysis of data. Students will make several oral presentations directly related to their specific BIOL   492 or 495 projects.

BIOL   491. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisite: BIOL   300. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL   395, BIOL   492, BIOL   495 and/or BIOZ   395). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Prerequisite: minimum grade of C in one of the following courses: BIOZ   310, BIOZ   317 or BIOZ   476; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology. Projects should include data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. A final report must be submitted at the completion of the project.

BIOL   493. Biology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study and internship courses. 1 credit awarded for each 100 hours of work experience in professional biology setting. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 or 317 with minimum grades of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology and of the agency, company or organization in which internship will be held. Internship designed to provide laboratory or field experience in an off-campus professional biology setting. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   495. Research and Thesis. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all undergraduate research in biology (BIOL 292, 492, 495). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. A minimum of 4 credits is required for honors in biology. Prerequisites: LFSC   301, permission of the supervising faculty member and a research proposal acceptable to the departmental chair. Activities include field and/or laboratory research under the direct supervision of a faculty mentor. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Research projects must include experimental design and analysis of data. A written thesis of substantial quality is required upon completion of the research.

BIOL   496. Biology Preceptorship. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 credits. May be repeated with a different course for a maximum of 4 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor and departmental chair required prior to registration. Preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not are limited to, attending class, conducting review sessions and preparing course study/review materials. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   497. Ecological Service Learning. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. A service-learning course coupled to course content and material taught in BIOL   317. Students will seek out ecologically relevant opportunities with local, state and federal community partners who will provide experiences to enhance academic enrichment and personal growth and will help foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 20 service-learning hours with community partner(s).

BIOL   498. Insects and Plants Service-learning. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or BIOL   318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. A service-learning course related to insect-plant interactions. Field experience with community partners, including public parks, botanical gardens and organic farms. Designed to expand academic instruction, enhance personal growth and foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 40 service-learning hours with a community partner.

Biology Lab

BIOZ   101. Biological Concepts Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   101, 151 or 152. Laboratory exercise correlated with BIOL   101. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ   151. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL   151, MATH   151 and CHEM   101. Laboratory investigation of cellular metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL   151.

BIOZ   152. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151, both with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL   152, MATH   151 and CHEM   101. Laboratory investigation of evolutionary concepts, evolution of organisms, biological diversity and ecology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL   152.

BIOZ   201. Human Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   201. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL   201 Human Biology. Exercises emphasize the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, and human evolution and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ   209. Medical Microbiology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   209. Techniques to culture, isolate and identify microbes with related topics such as water coliform tests, and antibiotics and disinfectant sensitivity testing. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ   303. Microbiology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   303. Laboratory application of techniques and concepts in microbiology. Emphasis is placed on techniques to isolate, culture and identify bacteria; genetics and molecular biology of bacteria; safety and aseptic protocols; assays for antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility.

BIOZ   307. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   317, CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   307. Laboratory and field studies of the biota of aquatic habitats and their relationship with the environment.

BIOZ   310. Laboratory in Genetics. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with minimum grades of C. Prerequisite or corequisite: BIOL   310. Demonstrates the laws and molecular basis of heredity through exercises and experiments that use a variety of organisms.

BIOZ   312. Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   312. A laboratory survey of the invertebrate animals, with emphasis on environment interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOZ   313. Vertebrate Natural History Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   313. Laboratory exercises focusing on the natural history of vertebrates, with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOZ   317. Ecology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and 152, and UNIV   200 or HONR   200; all with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   317. A field-oriented course that provides experience in ecological research, including experimental design, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis.

BIOZ   321. Plant Development Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   321. An experimental approach applied to a phylogenetic survey of developmental model systems. Observational and experimental protocols will be used to collect data and gather information. Problem-solving skills will be utilized to analyze and present experimental results.

BIOZ   341. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: BIOL   341/ANTH   301. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL   341/ANTH   301. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: ANTZ   301.

BIOZ   391. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOZ   395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-2 credits. Maximum of 2 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL   395, BIOL   492, BIOL   495 and/or BIOZ   395). Prerequisites: BIOZ   151 and BIOZ   152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOZ   416. Ornithology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   416. A field-oriented course that develops basic skills in bird identification by sight and sound for a variety of regional taxa with emphasis on avian anatomy and adaptations for flight. Students conduct an independent or small-group research project on a question of their choice relating to avian ecology or behavior, including experimental design, data collection and analysis, and a final project presentation.

BIOZ   438. Forensic Molecular Biology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL/FRSC   438. Provides comprehensive coverage of the various types of DNA testing currently used in forensic science laboratories. Students will have hands-on experience with the analytical equipment employed in forensic science laboratories and the techniques for human identification in forensic casework. Students also will explore and practice both scientific writing and writing of DNA case reports. Crosslisted as: FRSZ   438.

BIOZ   476. Biology Capstone Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   310 with a minimum grade of C, and 90 credit hours of undergraduate course work. Application of basic methods used in cellular and molecular biology to the investigation of topics of current biological interest. Emphasis on experimental design, data collection and analysis, communication skills, critical thinking, and ethical and social responsibility.

BIOZ   491. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.