The four-year curriculum in biology prepares students for graduate study in biology, for employment in laboratory or field programs in private industry or government agencies and for teaching in secondary schools. This curriculum also prepares students for admission into schools of medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine, and into allied health programs.

Learning outcomes

Upon completing this program, students will know and know how to do the following:

Knowledge base
Students will demonstrate knowledge of evolutionary processes and the functions and interactions of cells, organisms and species.

Communication skills
Students will demonstrate oral and written communication skills needed for professional careers in the field of biology.

Critical-thinking skills
Students will demonstrate critical thinking, problem-solving and analytical skills.

Method and inquiry
Students will demonstrate knowledge in the methods of inquiry and research in biology.

Transfer students

Transfer students intending to major in biology must satisfy all biology major course requirements and complete a minimum of 15 credits of VCU biology courses at the 300-, 400- or 500-level.

Extended Teacher Preparation Program

Biology majors interested in teaching careers in secondary education can enroll in the Extended Teacher Preparation Program, which simultaneously awards a bachelor’s degree in biology and a master’s degree in teaching. For more information about this program, jointly administered by the College of Humanities and Sciences and the School of Education, contact the School of Educations Student Services Center.

Honors in biology

Biology majors may graduate with honors in biology. To qualify, students must have overall and biology GPAs of at least 3.5 and must complete the following courses in this sequence: BIOL 392, at least four credits of BIOL 495 and BIOL 490. Grades of A or B must be earned in each of the listed courses. Students who qualify will have the notation “Honors in Biology” placed on their transcript. Students must meet all Department of Biology requirements for graduation. Students should consult with their academic advisers to create a program suitable to their particular needs and interests.

Special requirements

The curriculum for a Bachelor of Science in Biology requires a minimum of 120 credits, with at least 40 of those credits in biology or other approved courses. A cumulative GPA of 2.0 for biology courses is required. At least five laboratory experiences must be taken from all biology courses; only one of these may be BIOZ 395BIOL 492 or BIOL 495. Registration in BIOZ 395BIOL 492 or BIOL 495 must be for a minimum of two credit hours to count as one of the six required laboratory experiences. A maximum total of six credits for all undergraduate research in biology (BIOZ 395, BIOL 395, BIOL 492 and BIOL 495) may be applied to the major. A maximum of four credits of BIOL 496 may be applied to the major if repeated with a different course. No more than eight credits of the 100-level (or introductory level) biology courses can be applied to the major.

A minimum grade of C in the following is required for enrollment in all courses for which they are prerequisites and to successfully complete the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 151Introduction to Biological Sciences I3
BIOZ 151Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I1
BIOL 152Introduction to Biological Sciences II3
BIOZ 152Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II1
BIOL 200Quantitative Biology3
BIOL 300Cellular and Molecular Biology3
BIOL 310Genetics3
BIOL 317Ecology3
BIOL 318Evolution3

Degree requirements for Biology, Bachelor of Science (B.S.)

General education requirements

University Core Education Curriculum (minimum 21 credits)
UNIV 111 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry IFocused Inquiry I3
UNIV 112 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry IIFocused Inquiry II3
UNIV 200Inquiry and the Craft of Argument3
Approved humanities/fine arts3
Approved natural/physical sciences3-4
Approved quantitative literacy3-4
Approved social/behavioral sciences3-4
Total Hours21-24
Additional College of Humanities and Sciences requirements (11-23 credits)
HUMS 202Choices in a Consumer Society1
Approved H&S diverse and global communities3
Approved H&S human, social and political behavior (fulfills University Core social/behavioral sciences)
Approved H&S literature and civilization (fulfills University Core humanities/fine arts)
Approved H&S science and technology (fulfills University Core natural/physical sciences)
Approved H&S general education electives6-8
Experiential fine arts 11-3
Foreign language through the 102 level (by course or placement)0-8
Total Hours11-23
1

Course offered by the School of the Arts

Collateral requirements

CHEM 101
CHEZ 101
General Chemistry
and General Chemistry Laboratory I
4
CHEM 102
CHEZ 102
General Chemistry
and General Chemistry Laboratory II
4
CHEM 301
CHEZ 301
Organic Chemistry
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory I
5
CHEM 302
CHEZ 302
Organic Chemistry
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory II
5
MATH 151Precalculus Mathematics (by course or placement) (fulfills quantitative literacy) 1
PHYS 201General Physics4-5
or PHYS 207 University Physics I
PHYS 202General Physics4-5
or PHYS 208 University Physics II
STAT 210Basic Practice of Statistics3
Select one of the following:3-4
Any STAT course (numbered 314 or above)
Calculus with Analytic Geometry
Total Hours32-35
1

This requirement can also satisfied by any higher-level MATH course.

Major requirements (minimum 40 credits)

Biocore
BIOL 151
BIOZ 151
Introduction to Biological Sciences I
and Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I 1
4
BIOL 152
BIOZ 152
Introduction to Biological Sciences II
and Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II 2
4
BIOL 200Quantitative Biology3
BIOL 300Cellular and Molecular Biology3
BIOL 310Genetics3
BIOL 317Ecology3
BIOL 318Evolution3
Select 1-4 credits from the following:1-4
Biology Capstone Seminar: ____ (capstone)
Biology Capstone Laboratory
Biology Capstone Experience (Capstone)
Biology electives13 - 16
Select from all biology (BIOL and BIOZ) courses applicable to the biology major and biochemistry (CHEM 403). All majors must complete at minimum three additional upper-level biology lab courses. The laboratory experiences may be fulfilled by a separate laboratory section (BIOZ) or by laboratory hours included in a lecture-based (BIOL) course. Not all courses are offered each semester. BIOL courses at the 500 level are available to seniors and graduate students only.
Other biology electives (to satisfy the 40 biology credits required for the major)
Total Hours37-43
1

BNFO/LFSC 251 approved course substitute

2

BNFO/LFSC 252 approved course substitute

Open electives

Select 0-16 open elective credits0-16

Total minimum requirement 120 credits

Biology electives

BIOL 291Topics in Biology1-4
BIOL 303Microbiology3
BIOZ 303Microbiology Laboratory2
BIOL 307Aquatic Ecology3
BIOZ 307Aquatic Ecology Laboratory1
BIOL 308Vertebrate Histology4
BIOL 309Entomology 14
BIOZ 310Laboratory in Genetics2
BIOL 312Invertebrate Zoology3
BIOZ 312Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory1
BIOL 313Vertebrate Natural History3
BIOZ 313Vertebrate Natural History Laboratory1
BIOL 314Animal Reproduction3
BIOZ 317Ecology Laboratory2
BIOL 320Biology of the Seed Plant 14
BIOL 321Plant Development3
BIOZ 321Plant Development Laboratory2
BIOL 322Economic Botany3
BIOL 323Plant Physiology3
BIOL 325Fungal Biology 13
BIOL 332/ENVS 330Environmental Pollution3
BIOL 333Evolution of the Angiosperms3
BIOL 335Global Change Biology3
BIOL 341/ANTH 301Human Evolution3
BIOZ 341/ANTZ 301Human Evolution Lab1
BIOL 391Topics in Biology (as approved)1-4
BIOZ 391Topics in Biology Laboratory (as approved)1-4
BIOL 395Directed Study1-2
BIOZ 395Directed Study1-2
BIOL 401Applied and Environmental Microbiology3
BIOL 402Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy 15
BIOL/ANTH 403Primatology4
BIOL 411Animal Physiology3
BIOL 413Parasitology3
BIOL 415Mangrove Avian Field Ecology4
BIOL 416Ornithology3
BIOZ 416Ornithology Laboratory2
BIOL 417Mammalogy 14
BIOL 422Forest Ecology 14
BIOL 425 Play VideoPlay course video for Field BotanyField Botany 13
BIOL 430Invasion Biology3
BIOL 431Introduction to Marine Biology3
BIOL 435Herpetology3
BIOL/FRSC 438Forensic Molecular Biology3
BIOZ/FRSZ 438Forensic Molecular Biology Laboratory2
BIOL 440Developmental Biology3
BIOL 445Neurobiology and Behavior 14
BIOL 448Neuroscience3
BIOL 450Biology of Cancer I3
BIOL 451Biology of Cancer II 14
BIOL 452Biology of Drugs3
BIOL 455Immunology3
BIOL 459Infectious Disease Ecology3
BIOL 460Human Evolutionary Genetics3
BIOL 480Animal-Plant Interactions3
BIOL 489Communicating Research1
BIOL 490Presenting Research1
BIOL 491Topics in Biology1-4
BIOZ 491Topics in Biology Laboratory1-4
BIOL 492Independent Study1-4
BIOL 493Biology Internship1-3
BIOL 495Research and Thesis1-4
BIOL 496Biology Preceptorship2
BIOL 497Ecological Service Learning1
BIOL 502Microbial Biotechnology3
BIOL 503Fish Biology 14
BIOL 507Aquatic Microbiology4
BIOL 508Barrier Island Ecology3
BIOL 509Microbial Ecology3
BIOL 510Conservation Biology3
BIOL 514Stream Ecology4
BIOL/HGEN 516Population Genetics3
BIOL 518Plant Ecology4
BIOL 520Population Ecology3
BIOL 521Community Ecology3
BIOL 522Evolution and Speciation3
BIOL 524Endocrinology3
BIOL 530/HGEN 501Introduction to Human Genetics3
BIOL 532Water Pollution Biology3
BIOL 535Wetlands Ecology 14
BIOL/BNFO 540Fundamentals of Molecular Genetics3
BIOL 545/LFSC 510Biological Complexity3
BIOL 548/LFSC 520Bioinformatic Technologies2
BIOL 550Ecological Genetics3
BIOL 560Conservation Medicine3
BIOL 565Advances in Cell Signaling3
BIOL 591Special Topics in Biology1-4
BNFO 301/BIOL 351Introduction to Bioinformatics3
CHEM 403Biochemistry I3
LFSC 301Integrative Life Sciences Research3
MATH/BIOL/BNFO 380Introduction to Mathematical Biology4
1

This course includes laboratory hours and may be used to satisfy laboratory requirements.

What follows is a sample plan that meets the prescribed requirements within a four-year course of study at VCU. Please contact your adviser before beginning course work toward a degree.

Freshman year
Fall semesterHours
BIOL 151 Introduction to Biological Sciences I 3
BIOZ 151 Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I 1
CHEM 101 General Chemistry 3
CHEZ 101 General Chemistry Laboratory I 1
MATH 151 Precalculus Mathematics 4
UNIV 101 Introduction to the University 1
UNIV 111 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry I Focused Inquiry I 3
 Term Hours: 16
Spring semester
BIOL 152 Introduction to Biological Sciences II 3
BIOZ 152 Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II 1
BIOL 200 Quantitative Biology 3
CHEM 102 General Chemistry 3
CHEZ 102 General Chemistry Laboratory II 1
HUMS 202 Choices in a Consumer Society 1
UNIV 112 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry II Focused Inquiry II 3
 Term Hours: 15
Sophomore year
Fall semester
BIOL 300 Cellular and Molecular Biology 3
CHEM 301 Organic Chemistry 3
CHEZ 301 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I 2
STAT 210 Basic Practice of Statistics 3
UNIV 200 Inquiry and the Craft of Argument 3
Experiential fine arts 1-3
 Term Hours: 15-17
Spring semester
CHEM 302 Organic Chemistry 3
CHEZ 302 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II 2
MATH 200
Calculus with Analytic Geometry
or Applications of Statistics
4
Approved literature and civilization 3-4
Select one of the following: 3
BIOL 310 Genetics 3
BIOL 317 Ecology 3
BIOL 318 Evolution 3
 Term Hours: 15-16
Junior year
Fall semester
PHYS 201
General Physics
or University Physics I
4-5
Approved human, social and political behavior 3
Foreign language (101-level) 4
Select the two courses not previously taken: 6
BIOL 310 Genetics 3
BIOL 317 Ecology 3
BIOL 318 Evolution 3
 Term Hours: 17-18
Spring semester
PHYS 202
General Physics
or University Physics II
4-5
Approved science and technology (other than BIOL 101) 3-4
Biology elective 3
Biology laboratory elective 1-2
Foreign language (102 - level) 4
 Term Hours: 15-18
Senior year
Fall semester
Approved diverse and global communities 3
Approved General Education elective 3-4
Biology elective(s) 3-6
Biology laboratory elective 1-2
General upper-level 3
 Term Hours: 13-18
Spring semester
Approved General Education elective 3-4
Biology elective(s) 3-6
Biology laboratory elective 1-2
General upper-level electives 3
Select one of the following: 1-4
BIOL 477 Biology Capstone Experience 0
BIOL 475 Biology Capstone Seminar: ____ 1-3
BIOZ 476 Biology Capstone Laboratory 2
 Term Hours: 11-19
 Total Hours: 117-137

Total minimum requirement 120 credits

Courses not applicable to the major

The following courses are not applicable toward the biology major requirements, but may be used as general electives toward the bachelor’s degree:

BIOL 101Biological Concepts3
BIOZ 101Biological Concepts Laboratory1
BIOL/ENVS 103Environmental Science4
BIOL 201Human Biology3
BIOZ 201Human Biology Laboratory1
BIOL 205Basic Human Anatomy4
BIOL 209Medical Microbiology3
BIOZ 209Medical Microbiology Laboratory1
BIOL 217Principles of Nutrition3
PHIS 206Human Physiology3
PHIZ 206Human Physiology Laboratory1

 Jump to biology lab courses.

BIOL 101. Biological Concepts. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A topical approach to basic biological principles. Topics include molecular aspects of cells, bioenergetics, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cellular and organismal reproduction, genetics and evolution, and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the major in biology.

BIOL 103. Environmental Science. 4 Hours.

Hybrid semester course taught mostly online; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Online presentations, assignments, debates and exams require students to understand situations and ideas that involve scientific, social and economic concepts associated with Earth’s environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce major course concepts. Integrates aspects of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and sociology. Topics include ecology, evolution, natural resources, air and water resources, energy and recycling, population biology, and sustainable global societies. Not applicable as a prerequisite for any biology course at the 200 level or above, nor for credit toward the B.S. in Biology. Crosslisted as: ENVS 103.

BIOL 151. Introduction to Biological Sciences I. 3 Hours.

Semester course: 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Pre- or corequisites: MATH 151 and CHEM 101. Introduction to core biological concepts including cell structure, cellular metabolism, cell division, DNA replication, gene expression and genetics. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL 152. Introduction to Biological Sciences II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and CHEM 101, both with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on evolutionary principles, the role of natural selection in the evolution of life forms, taxonomy and phylogenies, biological diversity in the context of form and function of organisms, and and basic principles of ecology. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL 200. Quantitative Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151 with minimum grades of C; and MATH 151, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within a one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Enrollment restricted to biology majors and biology minors. An introduction to the application of the scientific method, experimental design and quantitative aspects of biology.

BIOL 201. Human Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 101, 151, or 152, or BIOL/ENVS 103. Fundamentals of human biology, including the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, human evolution, and the interaction of humans with the environment. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 205. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours, plus online component. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOZ 101, BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, or BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. Restricted to communication arts majors; health, physical education and exercise science majors; pre-health majors in clinical laboratory sciences, clinical radiation sciences, dental hygiene and nursing; students enrolled in the health sciences certificate program; and students in the advising tracks for pre-nursing, pre-occupational therapy, pre-pharmacy and pre-physical therapy and pre-nursing acclerated. Human specimens, models and interactive software are used to study human body structures; emphasis is on the skeleto-muscular aspects. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 209. Medical Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOZ 101, BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, or BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. General principles of microbiology and immunology to provide a thorough understanding of the host-microbe relationship in disease. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 217. Principles of Nutrition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 101, 151 or 152 with a minimum grade of C, or BIOL/ENVS 103 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic principles of nutrition and their application in promoting growth and maintaining health throughout the life cycle. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 291. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 300. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152; BIOZ 151 or LFSC/BNFO 251; BIOZ 152 or LFSC/BNFO 252; CHEM 101 and CHEZ 101, all with a minimum grade of C; BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212, STAT 314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102. A study of the molecular biology of the cell as it relates to gene expression, cell signaling, and cell growth and differentiation.

BIOL 303. Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The morphological, biochemical, taxonomic, genetic and evolutionary characteristics of microorganisms with a primary focus on bacteria. Focuses on the structural, mechanical and biochemical adaptations employed by microorganisms in their interactions with host cells and substrates.

BIOL 307. Aquatic Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. The physical, chemical and especially the biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems.

BIOL 308. Vertebrate Histology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Microanatomy of vertebrate cells, tissues and organs and the relationship of structure to function. Laboratory work involves an in-depth study of vertebrate microanatomy at the light microscope level as well as an introduction to techniques used for the preparation of materials for histological study.

BIOL 309. Entomology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A field-based course that focuses on insect diversification, identification, natural history and basic biology.

BIOL 310. Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOL 152; BIOZ 151 or LFSC/BNFO 251; BIOZ 152 or LFSC/BNFO 252, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212, STAT 314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. The basic principles of molecular and applied genetics of plants, animals and microorganisms.

BIOL 312. Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on environmental interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOL 313. Vertebrate Natural History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. The natural history of vertebrates with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOL 314. Animal Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151, BIOL and BIOZ 152, and BIOL 300, each with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to basic reproductive anatomy and physiology. Examination of the basic factors that affect reproductive performance and how these factors are used to regulate the reproductive processes of domestic animals and humans.

BIOL 317. Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and BIOL and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212, STAT 314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. An introduction to the basic principles of ecology, including interactions among organisms and influences of the physical environment.

BIOL 318. Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and BIOL and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212, STAT 314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. An exploration of the theoretical and empirical foundations of evolutionary biology with a focus on the processes driving evolutionary change across all of life.

BIOL 320. Biology of the Seed Plant. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and BIOL and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. The physiology, structure and adaptation of seed plants.

BIOL 321. Plant Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the developmental changes that take place during the life cycle of lower and higher plants. Emphasis is placed on the control factors that are involved in regulating the ordered changes which take place during development.

BIOL 322. Economic Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152 and BIOZ 151 and 152, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. This class focuses on plant morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, growth and reproduction through an examination of the biology of economically and culturally important plants, including crops used for foods and beverages, medicines and drugs, fibers, and timber.

BIOL 323. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151, BIOL and BIOZ 152, and BIOL 300, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to basic plant physiology, including transport processes, energy production and secondary metabolism with emphasis on adaptations to stress.

BIOL 325. Fungal Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The basic biology of fungi, including growth, structure, genetics, diversity, the commercial uses of fungi and their importance as model organisms. Also discusses the interactions between fungi and plants and fungi and humans.

BIOL 332. Environmental Pollution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: eight credits in biology. The study of pollution in the environment with emphasis on the procedures for detection and abatement. Crosslisted as: ENVS 330.

BIOL 333. Evolution of the Angiosperms. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151,152 and BIOZ 151, 152, all with minimum grade of C. Application of evolutionary concepts to flowering plants. Topics include speciation concepts, evolution of vegetative and sexual characteristics and an overview of angiosperm diversity to the level of family.

BIOL 335. Global Change Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152, all with minimum grade of C. Examines how humans influence biological systems and explores what can be done to adapt to or to mitigate future global change, emphasizing anthropogenic climate change.

BIOL 341. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: ANTH 301.

BIOL 351. Introduction to Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduction to the basic concepts, tools and possibilities of bioinformatics, the analysis of large bodies of biological information. The course stresses problem-solving and integrative projects, making extensive use of exercises in class that draw on bioinformatics resources on the Web and on local servers. Graded as pass/fail. Crosslisted as: BNFO 301.

BIOL 380. Introduction to Mathematical Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 200 and BIOL 151, or permission of instructor. An introduction to mathematical biology. Various mathematical modeling tools will be covered and implemented in a range of biological areas. Additionally, the collaborative research process will be presented and discussed. Crosslisted as: BNFO 380/MATH 380.

BIOL 391. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 392. Introduction to Research. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 demonstration hour. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300, BIOL 310, BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to the scientific process, including the mechanics of problem definition, information gathering and experimental design. Experimentation is discussed in context with methods of data collection and analysis. Aims are to prepare the student for future research experiences and to have the student write detailed research proposals.

BIOL 395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-2 credits. Maximum of 2 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 492, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395). Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 401. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 300 and 317, each with a minimum grade of C. The biology and chemical activities of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, virus and fungi) of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural importance.

BIOL 402. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution of vertebrate forms as demonstrated by anatomical studies of selected vertebrate types.

BIOL 403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or ANTH 301/BIOL 341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 403.

BIOL 411. Animal Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and CHEM 301, each with a minimum grade of C. Physiological principles of animal cells, tissues and organs from the viewpoint of chemical and physical phenomena.

BIOL 413. Parasitology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The epidemiology and pathological effects of eukaryotic parasites, including parasite life cycles and host-parasite relationships.

BIOL 415. Mangrove Avian Field Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; two weeks abroad in Panama (or other tropical location with mangrove forests) followed by class meetings two days per week throughout most of spring semester. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317. An immersive study of tropical ecology with a focus on bird ecology and conservation of mangrove ecosystems through a unique blend of rigorous science and community engagement. Two weeks of study abroad, including engagement with local conservation organizations and participation in education outreach with local schools, followed by discussion, data analysis and presentation of progress and research in a public symposium on campus.

BIOL 416. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an integrative study of birds, including avian evolution and diversity, general anatomy and physiology, behavior, and ecology.

BIOL 417. Mammalogy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 218 and 317 with minimum grades of C. Study of the characteristics, adaptive radiation and distribution of mammals, with emphasis on North American forms.

BIOL 420. Yeast and Fermentation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisites: BIOL 303 and BIOL 310. Addresses the basic biology of yeast used in brewing beer and briefly in wine production. Topics will include yeast properties such as growth, structure, genetics, biodiversity and natural habitats. The process of wine and beer production will be discussed. Laboratory sessions include basic microbiology techniques, yeast isolations and characterization using DNA and biochemical methods, as well as the study of factors that affect fermentation. At the end of the course the students will give a presentation on other fermentation products of their interest such as vinegar, bread, etc., providing an expanded version of this important process.

BIOL 422. Forest Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the fundamentals of forest ecology, with a particular emphasis on Virginia’s diverse forest ecosystems. Students gain an understanding of the principal controls on forest structure, growth and distribution and relate these principles to sustainable forest management.

BIOL 425. Field Botany. 3 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Field Botany

Semester course; 2 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours.(60 percent online, 40 percent field/laboratory) 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 310 and BIOL 317, both with minimum grades of C. Online lectures, discussions, reflections and assessments in conjunction with field experience. Explores the effects of environmental conditions on plant morphology and adaptations, with emphasis on plant anatomy, plant physiology and ecology.

BIOL 430. Invasion Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151, BIOZ 152 and BIOL 317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive view of the ecology and impacts of invasive species. Integrates the effects of historical human demography, ecological disturbance, natural history, species interactions, barriers to invasion, invasive species management and impacts on natural communities and ecosystems.

BIOL 431. Introduction to Marine Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to physical, chemical and geological oceanography and a more detailed treatment of the organisms and ecological processes involved in the pelagic and benthic environments of the world's oceans and estuaries.

BIOL 435. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution, ecology, structure, taxonomy and behavior of reptiles and amphibians.

BIOL 438. Forensic Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302, CHEZ 302, and BIOL 310 or equivalent, each with a minimum grade of C. Provides an understanding of molecular biology testing methodologies as applied to analysis of forensic samples. Current topics in forensic DNA analysis will include quality assurance, DNA databanking, contemporary research and population genetics. Crosslisted as: FRSC 438.

BIOL 440. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology focused on vertebrate model organisms with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development.

BIOL 445. Neurobiology and Behavior. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. The study of animal behavior stressing ecological, evolutionary and neurobiological approaches.

BIOL 448. Neuroscience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 310. An examination of the basic structure of the nervous system, nervous system operation on a cellular and molecular level and the formation of the nervous system during development.

BIOL 450. Biology of Cancer I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS 309. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL 451. Biology of Cancer II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 450 and instructor's permission. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL 452. Biology of Drugs. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Explores how drugs modulate biological signaling pathways to study, cure, enhance and intoxicate organisms. An introduction to basic pharmacology that largely focuses on human pathways and diseases. Topics include major drug classes (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, etc.) and drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, etc.).

BIOL 455. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS 309. A comprehensive introduction to the immune system of higher animals, emphasizing the molecular and cellular basis for antibody-medicated immunity.

BIOL 459. Infectious Disease Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151, BIOZ 152 and BIOL 317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the causes and consequences of infectious disease at levels from individual organisms to global scale. Examines the history of infectious disease ecology in human and nonhuman populations. Students learn about the roles of transmission and coevolution in infectious disease ecology and how population models are used to inform management of epidemics and emerging infectious diseases.

BIOL 460. Human Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 318 or BIOL 341 with a minimum grade of C. The origin and genetic history of modern humans, our historic colonization and migration, the utility of the Human Genome Project, our differences from other primates, adaptation to our environment and disease, and the ethical implications of genetic research in our society.

BIOL 475. Biology Capstone Seminar: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300, BIOL 310 and BIOL 317 with minimum grades of C; and senior standing. Enrollment restricted to biology majors. Students read assigned topical papers before class, prepare critical analyses, discuss and debate selected positions. See Schedule of Classes for specific topics.

BIOL 477. Biology Capstone Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C and 90 hours of undergraduate course work. The following courses qualify as a capstone experience if taken as a co-requisite with this course: BIOL 492 Independent Study, BIOL 493 Biology Internship, BIOL 495 Research and Thesis, BIOL 497 Ecological Service Learning or other courses, including topics courses, that include the core competencies required for a capstone experience and are approved by the chair of the Department of Biology. Graded as Pass/Fail.

BIOL 480. Animal-Plant Interactions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of interactions among animals and plants.

BIOL 489. Communicating Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL 495, senior standing. An opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective communication of their research in writing. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities including preparation of figures for publication and the crafting of a research paper with correct usage of the primary literature. Students will use this as an opportunity to aid the writing of their thesis for BIOL 495.

BIOL 490. Presenting Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL 492 or 495, and senior standing. Opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective oral presentation of their research work. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities such as preparation of visual materials and statistical analysis of data. Students will make several oral presentations directly related to their specific BIOL 492 or 495 projects.

BIOL 491. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 300. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 variable hours. 1-4 credits. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 492, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology. Projects should include data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. A final report must be submitted at the completion of the project.

BIOL 493. Biology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study and internship courses. 1 credit awarded for each 100 hours of work experience in professional biology setting. Prerequisites: BIOL 310 or 317 with minimum grades of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology and of the agency, company or organization in which internship will be held. Internship designed to provide laboratory or field experience in an off-campus professional biology setting. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 495. Research and Thesis. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 variable hours. 1-4 credits. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all undergraduate research in biology (BIOL 395, BIOL 492, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. A minimum of 4 credits is required for honors in biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 392, permission of the supervising faculty member and a research proposal acceptable to the departmental chair. Corequisite: BIOL 489 or BIOL 490, depending on term offering. Activities include field and/or laboratory research under the direct supervision of a faculty mentor. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Research projects must include experimental design and analysis of data. This course must be taken for two consecutive semesters starting in the fall. A written thesis of substantial quality is required upon completion of the research.

BIOL 496. Biology Preceptorship. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 credits. May be repeated with a different course for a maximum of 4 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor and departmental chair required prior to registration. Preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not are limited to, attending class, conducting review sessions and preparing course study/review materials. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 497. Ecological Service Learning. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. A service-learning course coupled to course content and material taught in BIOL 317. Students will seek out ecologically relevant opportunities with local, state and federal community partners who will provide experiences to enhance academic enrichment and personal growth and will help foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 20 service-learning hours with community partner(s).

BIOL 498. Insects and Plants Service-learning. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. A service-learning course related to insect-plant interactions. Field experience with community partners, including public parks, botanical gardens and organic farms. Designed to expand academic instruction, enhance personal growth and foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 40 service-learning hours with a community partner.

Biology labs 

BIOZ 101. Biological Concepts Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 101, 151 or 152. Laboratory exercise correlated with BIOL 101. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 151. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL 151, MATH 151 and CHEM 101. Laboratory investigation of cellular metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL 151.

BIOZ 152. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, both with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL 152, MATH 151 and CHEM 101. Laboratory investigation of evolutionary concepts, evolution of organisms, biological diversity and ecology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL 152.

BIOZ 201. Human Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 201. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 201 Human Biology. Exercises emphasize the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, and human evolution and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 209. Medical Microbiology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 209. Techniques to culture, isolate and identify microbes with related topics such as water coliform tests, and antibiotics and disinfectant sensitivity testing. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 303. Microbiology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 303. Laboratory application of techniques and concepts in microbiology. Emphasis is placed on techniques to isolate, culture and identify bacteria; genetics and molecular biology of bacteria; safety and aseptic protocols; assays for antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility.

BIOZ 307. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 307. Laboratory and field studies of the biota of aquatic habitats and their relationship with the environment.

BIOZ 310. Laboratory in Genetics. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with minimum grades of C. Prerequisite or corequisite: BIOL 310. Demonstrates the laws and molecular basis of heredity through exercises and experiments that use a variety of organisms.

BIOZ 312. Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 312. A laboratory survey of the invertebrate animals, with emphasis on environment interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOZ 313. Vertebrate Natural History Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 313. Laboratory exercises focusing on the natural history of vertebrates, with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOZ 317. Ecology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, and UNIV 200 or HONR 200; all with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 317. A field-oriented course that provides experience in ecological research, including experimental design, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis.

BIOZ 321. Plant Development Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 321. An experimental approach applied to a phylogenetic survey of developmental model systems. Observational and experimental protocols will be used to collect data and gather information. Problem-solving skills will be utilized to analyze and present experimental results.

BIOZ 341. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: ANTZ 301.

BIOZ 391. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOZ 395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-2 credits. Maximum of 2 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 492, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395). Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOZ 416. Ornithology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 416. A field-oriented course that develops basic skills in bird identification by sight and sound for a variety of regional taxa with emphasis on avian anatomy and adaptations for flight. Students conduct an independent or small-group research project on a question of their choice relating to avian ecology or behavior, including experimental design, data collection and analysis, and a final project presentation.

BIOZ 438. Forensic Molecular Biology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL/FRSC 438. Provides comprehensive coverage of the various types of DNA testing currently used in forensic science laboratories. Students will have hands-on experience with the analytical equipment employed in forensic science laboratories and the techniques for human identification in forensic casework. Students also will explore and practice both scientific writing and writing of DNA case reports. Crosslisted as: FRSZ 438.

BIOZ 476. Biology Capstone Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 310 with a minimum grade of C, and 90 credit hours of undergraduate course work. Application of basic methods used in cellular and molecular biology to the investigation of topics of current biological interest. Emphasis on experimental design, data collection and analysis, communication skills, critical thinking, and ethical and social responsibility.

BIOZ 491. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.