Biomedical engineering applies engineering expertise to analyze and solve problems in biology and medicine in order to enhance health care. Students involved in biomedical engineering learn to work with living systems and to apply advanced technology to the complex problems of medical care. Biomedical engineers work with other health care professionals including physicians, nurses, therapists and technicians toward improvements in diagnostic, therapeutic and health delivery systems. Biomedical engineers may be involved with designing medical instruments and devices, developing medical software, tissue and cellular engineering, developing new procedures or conducting state-of-the-art research needed to solve clinical problems.

There are numerous areas of specialization and course work within biomedical engineering. These include:

  1. Bioinstrumentation: the application of electronics and measurement techniques to develop devices used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, including heart monitors, intensive care equipment, cardiac pacemakers and many other electronic devices.
  2. Biomaterials: the development of artificial and living materials used for implantation in the human body, including those used for artificial heart valves, kidney dialysis cartridges, and artificial arteries, hips and knees.
  3. Biomechanics: the study of motion, forces and deformations in the human body, including the study of blood flow and arterial disease, forces associated with broken bones and their associated repair mechanisms, mechanisms of blunt trauma including head injuries, orthopedic systems, and the forces and movement associated with human joints such as the knee and hip.
  4. Tissue and cellular engineering: the application of biochemistry, biophysics and biotechnology toward the development of new cellular and tissue systems and an understanding of disease processes, including development of artificial skin and organs, cell adherence to artificial materials to prevent rejection by the body, and the development of new genetic cellular systems to treat diseases.
  5. Medical imaging: the development of devices and systems to image the human body to diagnose diseases, including the development and data processing of the CAT scan, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), medical ultrasound, X-ray and PET (positron emission tomography).
  6. Rehabilitation and human factors engineering: the development of devices and prosthetics to enhance the capabilities of disabled individuals, including design of wheelchairs, walkers, artificial legs and arms, enhanced communication aids, and educational tools for the handicapped.

A unique aspect to the undergraduate biomedical engineering is the practicum series, EGRB   101 and EGRB   301, which involves biomedical engineering students participating in medical rounds at the VCU Medical Center’s MCV Hospitals, in medical research laboratories throughout the medical center and the Virginia BioTechnology Research Park, and in medical seminars, case studies and medical laboratories. This unique opportunity is the only one of its kind in the nation and involves the cooperation of the VCU Medical Center, one of the nation’s largest and most prestigious medical centers.

Learning outcomes

Upon completing this program, students will know and know how to do the following:

  • Identify and apply recent knowledge, and analyze and solve problems in the foundation areas of mathematics, the sciences and statistics.
  • Identify and apply recent knowledge, and analyze and solve problems in the foundation engineering areas of electrical circuits, mechanics, biomedical engineering, and engineering systems and design.
  • Identify and apply recent knowledge, and analyze and solve problems in the life sciences, including biology, physiology and anatomy, and understand the relationship between the life sciences, mathematics and engineering.
  • Design and conduct lab experiments, collect, analyze and interpret data from physical and simulated systems to solve technical problems, and analyze physiology and life science laboratory experiments to integrate engineering and physiology/biology.
  • Design and implement a system, component or process to meet the desired needs within a set of realistic specifications and constraints; design systems used in biomedical applications that involve the interconnection between engineering and the life sciences, including issues of health, safety and medical ethics.
  • Organize ideas and write well-organized and accurate reports, including appropriate citations; deliver oral presentations to peers and supervisors using the latest presentation technologies.
  • Understand the need for the various elements and facets of a career in biomedical engineering and related fields; have a recent understanding of the knowledge tools necessary to achieve lifelong learning and career development.
  • Understand the nature of, and have the ability to, function on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams, and understand the role that each team member brings to the overall goal.
  • Attain and further master the ability to formulate, analyze and solve problems, analytically and/or experimentally, in biomedical engineering industry, in the clinical setting or in biomedical research within a few years of graduation. The career paths of BME graduates in these arenas would be enhanced as a result of these skills.
  • Attain and further master the ability to understand the life and health sciences and the interconnection between engineering and the life/health sciences including biology, anatomy, physiology and biomedical engineering, with particular reference to biomedical engineering industry, in the clinical setting or in biomedical research within a few years of graduation. The career paths of BME graduates in these arenas would be enhanced as a result of these skills.
  • Attain and further master the ability to articulate ideas and communicate in a clear and effective manner appropriate to their audience, in both written and and/or oral forms, with particular reference to biomedical engineering industry, in the clinical setting or in biomedical research within a few years of graduation. The career paths of BME graduates in these arenas would be enhanced as a result of these skills.
  • Attain and further master the ability to work effectively in teams to solve biomedical and/or clinical problems, including the interconnection of engineering and clinical personnel toward the solution of problems of compelling clinical and biomedical interest and need, with particular reference to biomedical engineering industry, in the clinical setting or in biomedical research within a few years of graduation. The career paths of BME graduates in these arenas would be enhanced as a result of these skills.

Degree requirements for Biomedical Engineering, Bachelor of Science (B.S.)

General Education requirements

University Core Education Curriculum
UNIV   111 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry IFocused Inquiry I3
UNIV   112 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry IIFocused Inquiry II3
UNIV   200Inquiry and the Craft of Argument3
Approved humanities/fine arts3
Approved natural/physical sciences3-4
Approved quantitative literacy3-4
Approved social/behavioral sciences3-4
General Education requirements
PHYS   207University Physics I5
PHYS   208University Physics II5
Total Hours31-34

Collateral requirements

BIOL   152Introduction to Biological Sciences II3
CHEM   101
CHEZ   101
General Chemistry
and General Chemistry Laboratory I
4
CHEM   102
CHEZ   102
General Chemistry
and General Chemistry Laboratory II
4
MATH   200Calculus with Analytic Geometry (fulfills approved quantitative literacy)4
MATH   201Calculus with Analytic Geometry4
MATH   301Differential Equations3
MATH   310Linear Algebra3
PHIL   201Critical Thinking About Moral Problems (fulfills approved humanities/fine arts)3
PHYS   207University Physics I (fulfills General Education requirement)5
PHYS   208University Physics II (fulfills General Education requirement)5
STAT   441Applied Statistics for Engineers and Scientists3
Total Hours24

Major requirements

EGRB   101Biomedical Engineering Practicum I2
EGRB   102Introduction to Engineering4
EGRB   203Introduction to Biomechanics3
EGRB   215Computational Methods in Biomedical Engineering I3
EGRB   301Biomedical Engineering Design Practicum3
EGRB   303Biotransport Processes3
EGRB   307Biomedical Instrumentation4
EGRB   308Biomedical Signal Processing4
EGRB   310Biomechanics4
EGRB   315 Computational Methods in Biomedical Engineering II3
EGRB   401
EGRB   402
Biomedical Engineering Senior Design Studio
and Biomedical Engineering Senior Design Studio
6
EGRB   427Biomaterials3
EGRE   206Electric Circuits4
PHIS   309Introductory Quantitative Physiology I4
PHIS   310Introductory Quantitative Physiology II4
Total Hours54

Open electives

Select 21 open elective credits within declared track21

Total minimum requirement 131 credits

Electives

Biomedical engineering students must select all technical electives from one of the four technical elective tracks.

Pre-medical track

BIOL   151Introduction to Biological Sciences I3
BIOZ   151Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I1
BIOZ   152Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II1
CHEM   301Organic Chemistry3
CHEZ   301Organic Chemistry Laboratory I2
CHEM   302Organic Chemistry3
CHEZ   302Organic Chemistry Laboratory II2
EGRB   403Tissue Engineering3
Select one of the following electives:3
Cellular and Molecular Biology
Genetics
Biochemistry I

Biomechanics and biomaterials track

BIOL   300Cellular and Molecular Biology3
EGRB   403Tissue Engineering3
EGRB   405Finite Element Analysis in Solid Mechanics3
EGRB   406Artificial Organs3
EGMN   309Material Science for Engineers3
EGMN   420CAE Design3
EGMN   421CAE Analysis3
EGMN   427Robotics3
EGRE   454Automatic Controls4

Rehabilitation engineering track

EGRB   406Artificial Organs3
EGRB   420Rehabilitation Engineering3
EGRB   421Human Factors Engineering3
EGRB   405Finite Element Analysis in Solid Mechanics3
EGMN   420CAE Design3
EGMN   421CAE Analysis3
EGMN   427Robotics3
PSYC   406Perception3

Instrumentation and electronics track

EGMN   427Robotics3
EGRB   407Physical Principles of Medical Imaging3
EGRB   408Advanced Biomedical Signal Processing3
EGRB   409Microcomputer Applications in Biomedical Engineering3
EGRE   224Introduction to Microelectronics4
EGRE   254Digital Logic Design4
EGRE   303Electronic Devices3
EGRE   307Integrated Circuits4
EGRE   310Microwave and Photonic Engineering3
EGRE   335Signals and Systems I4
EGRE   364Microcomputer Systems4
EGRE   454Automatic Controls4

What follows is a sample plan that meets the prescribed requirements within a four-year course of study at VCU. Please contact your adviser before beginning course work toward a degree.

Freshman year
Fall semesterHours
BIOL   152 Introduction to Biological Sciences II 3
CHEM   101
CHEZ   101
General Chemistry
and General Chemistry Laboratory I
4
EGRB   101 Biomedical Engineering Practicum I 2
MATH   200 Calculus with Analytic Geometry 4
UNIV   111 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry I Focused Inquiry I 3
 Term Hours: 16
Spring semester
CHEM   102
CHEZ   102
General Chemistry
and General Chemistry Laboratory II
4
EGRB   102 Introduction to Engineering 4
MATH   201 Calculus with Analytic Geometry 4
UNIV   112 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry II Focused Inquiry II 3
 Term Hours: 15
Sophomore year
Fall semester
EGRE   206 Electric Circuits 4
MATH   301 Differential Equations 3
PHIS   309 Introductory Quantitative Physiology I 4
PHYS   207 University Physics I 5
 Term Hours: 16
Spring semester
EGRB   203 Introduction to Biomechanics 3
EGRB   215 Computational Methods in Biomedical Engineering I 3
MATH   310 Linear Algebra 3
PHIS   310 Introductory Quantitative Physiology II 4
PHYS   208 University Physics II 5
 Term Hours: 18
Junior year
Fall semester
EGRB   307 Biomedical Instrumentation 4
EGRB   310 Biomechanics 4
EGRB   427 Biomaterials 3
PHIL   201 Critical Thinking About Moral Problems 3
UNIV   200 Inquiry and the Craft of Argument 3
 Term Hours: 17
Spring semester
EGRB   301 Biomedical Engineering Design Practicum 3
EGRB   303 Biotransport Processes 3
EGRB   308 Biomedical Signal Processing 4
EGRB   315 Computational Methods in Biomedical Engineering II 3
Approved social/behavioral science 3
 Term Hours: 16
Senior year
Fall semester
EGRB   401 Biomedical Engineering Senior Design Studio 3
STAT   441 Applied Statistics for Engineers and Scientists 3
Technical electives 9
Approved humanities/fine arts 3
 Term Hours: 18
Spring semester
EGRB   402 Biomedical Engineering Senior Design Studio 3
Technical electives 12
 Term Hours: 15
 Total Hours: 131

Biomedical engineering

EGRB   101. Biomedical Engineering Practicum I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: registration in biomedical engineering department and permission of course coordinator. This course involves the introduction of clinical procedures and biomedical devices and technology to biomedical engineering freshmen. Students will tour medical facilities, clinics and hospitals and will participate in medical seminars, workshops and medical rounds. Students will rotate among various programs and facilities including orthopaedics, cardiology, neurology, surgery, otolaryngology, emergency medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, oncology, physical medicine, ophthalmology, pediatrics and internal medicine.

EGRB   102. Introduction to Engineering. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: registration is restricted to biomedical engineering majors only. Introduces basic engineering principles in the context of biomedical topics, including electrical circuits and components such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, digital electronics and motors. Applications of biomedical systems including heart function, brain waves, human motion and skin responses are discussed. The laboratory introduces fundamental biomedical circuit testing and measurement and proper laboratory writing, with students required to analyze, build and test biomedical devices such as those involving ECG, EMG and Galvanic Skin Response.

EGRB   105. History of Medical Technology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Origins and recent advances in medical technologies including hearing aids, artificial knees, heart-lung machines, medical anesthesia devices and medical imaging systems such as CAT MRI.

EGRB   203. Introduction to Biomechanics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH   201 and PHYS   207. Restricted to biomedical engineering majors only. The theory and application of engineering mechanics applied to the design and analysis of rigid and deformable biomedical and physiological structures. The study of forces and their effects, including equilibrium of two- and three-dimensional bodies, stress, strain and constitutive relations, bending, torsion, shearing, deflection, and failure of physiological and biomedical systems.

EGRB   215. Computational Methods in Biomedical Engineering I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH   201 and sophomore standing in biomedical engineering. Corequisite: MATH   301, MATH   310 or permission of instructor. The goal of this course is to enhance students' software skills for subsequent biomedical engineering courses and laboratories, as well their careers. The course covers the basic fundamentals of programming in MATLAB, as well as data analysis of biomedical data. An important component of this course is developing problem-solving skills.

EGRB   301. Biomedical Engineering Design Practicum. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB   101, EGRB   102, EGRB   203, EGRB   215, EGRE   206 (or equivalent), each with a minimum grade of C. Restricted to students with junior standing in the biomedical engineering program. Explores the professional and ethical responsibilities of a biomedical engineer. Emphasis will be placed on design issues associated with biomedical engineering, teamwork, regulatory issues and human and animal subjects.

EGRB   303. Biotransport Processes. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHIS   309, 310 (or equivalents); EGRB   203; and PHYS   207. Course involves the study of mass, momentum and heat transfer within the human body, between the human body and the environment, and in the design of devices and systems that are involved with transport processes in medical and clinical settings. The underlying principles of mass, momentum and energy transfer will be addressed followed by a study of such processes that are ongoing in the human body. The design of biomedical devices and systems that involve transport processes also will be studied. Examples include cardiovascular blood flow, transport across cell membranes, respiration and thermoregulation.

EGRB   307. Biomedical Instrumentation. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE   206, EGRB   215. A study of the physical principles, design and clinical uses of biomedical instrumentation. Analysis and design of low frequency electronic circuits, which are most frequently used in biomedical instruments, will be conducted. Analysis of biosensors, biopotential electrodes, the measurements of biopotential signals including electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG), blood pressure, blood flow, and respiratory system will be conducted. Laboratory work on basic biomedical electronics and instrumentation will be performed.

EGRB   308. Biomedical Signal Processing. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH   301 and 310; PHIS   309 and 310; EGRB   215. Explores the basic theory and application of digital signal processing techniques related to the acquisition and processing of biomedical and physiological signals including signal modeling, AD/DA, Fourier transform, Z transform, digital filter design, continuous and discrete systems.

EGRB   310. Biomechanics. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB   203, EGRB   215, PHIS   309 and PHIS   310. Corequisites MATH   301 and MATH   310. A study of the forces, stresses and strains in the human body during normal function. Emphasis is placed on the mechanics of various components of the body including hard (bone) and soft (skin, vessels, cartilage, ligaments, tendons) tissues from a structure-function perspective. Stress and strain relationships for these biomaterials will be analyzed based upon the fundamentals of engineering mechanics. In addition, the distinctive features of biological materials will be studied with respect to their differences from nonliving materials and elaborated upon in laboratory exercises using material evaluation protocols.

EGRB   315. Computational Methods in Biomedical Engineering II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB   215, MATH   301 and MATH   310. The goals of this course are to: (1) prepare software skills for using LabVIEW for collecting real-time data from sensors, process information and control actuators and (2) prepare mechanical design skills using SolidWorks for designing structures and mechanisms, as well as performing simple analyses for assessing mechanical design criteria.

EGRB   401. Biomedical Engineering Senior Design Studio. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 9 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB   301, EGRB   303, EGRB   307, EGRB   308, EGRB   310, EGRB   315 and EGRB   427, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to students with senior standing in the Department of Biomedical Engineering or by permission of instructor. A minimum of nine laboratory hours per week is dedicated to the design, development and execution of the senior design (capstone) project for biomedical engineering under the direction of a faculty research adviser in biomedical engineering or an acceptable substitute as determined by the course coordinator. Tasks include team meetings (for team projects), brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects. Monthly progress reports are due to the research adviser and course coordinator. At the end of the first semester, each team will orally present to the BME faculty project background information and discuss potential technical approaches and deliverables.

EGRB   402. Biomedical Engineering Senior Design Studio. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 9 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: Completion of EGRB   401 with a minimum grade of C. A minimum of nine laboratory hours per week is dedicated to the design, development and execution of the senior design (capstone) project for biomedical engineering under the direction of a faculty research adviser in biomedical engineering or an acceptable substitute as determined by the course coordinator. Tasks include team meetings (for team projects), brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects. Monthly progress reports are due to the research adviser and course coordinator. Final project reports must be submitted before the end of the semester. All design teams must participate in the School of Engineering public poster session. At the end of the semester and conclusion of the two-semester design process, teams must present their final designs and deliverables before the BME faculty.

EGRB   403. Tissue Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: junior standing in engineering and PHIS   309 and 310, or permission of instructor. Study of the design, development and clinical application of tissue engineered components for use in the human body. Analysis of biology, chemistry, material science, engineering, immunology and transplantation as pertains to various tissue engineered components including blood vessels, bone, cartilage, pancreas, liver and skin.

EGRB   405. Finite Element Analysis in Solid Mechanics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB   310 and MATH   301. Finite element analysis as presented in this course is a numerical procedure for solving continuum mechanics problems that cannot be described by closed-form mathematical solutions. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the theoretical basis for the method, using a commercial software program, and understanding the volume of information that can be generated. Applications to both one- and two-dimensional problems in solid mechanics and biomechanics will be explored.

EGRB   406. Artificial Organs. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHIS   309 and PHIS   310 (or equivalents), EGRB   303, 307 and 310, or permission of instuctor. This course explores the design, operating principles and practices regarding artificial organs and their use in the human body. Analysis of dialysis systems for kidney replacement, artificial hearts and heart assist devices, cardiac pacemakers, sensory organ assist and replacement devices, and artificial liver and pancreas devices. Design aspects, legal ramifications, regulatory issues and clinical implantation issues will be addressed.

EGRB   407. Physical Principles of Medical Imaging. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: junior standing in the School of Engineering and PHYS   208. A study of the physical principles and basic clinical uses of medical imaging. Analysis of radiation and interaction of radiation, generation and control of X-rays, X-ray diagnostic methods, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonic imaging will be conducted. Basic principle of radionuclide imaging also will be introduced.

EGRB   408. Advanced Biomedical Signal Processing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB   308. This course will briefly review the basic theory of discrete-time signal processing techniques in biomedical data processing. Advanced signal processing techniques including adaptive signal processing, wavelets, spectral estimation and multirate signal processing will be employed. Specific examples utilizing electrocardiogram (ECG) and other biological signals are provided. Topics covered are alternance phenomenon in biological systems, late potential in ECG, intrapotential in ECG and coherence analysis.

EGRB   409. Microcomputer Applications in Biomedical Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB   307. Covers microcomputer applications (hardware and software) as applied to biomedical science and biomedical engineering. Basic hardware components of a microcomputer are discussed with particular reference to configurations needed for analyzing biomedical events. Software applications including data encoding, data storage, graphical interfaces and real-time processing are explored for analysis of physiological and biomedical signals. Students will develop algorithms using LabView and MatLab to solve problems in biomedical engineering in the laboratories.

EGRB   410. Cellular Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHIS   309 and PHIS   310, both with minimum grades of C. This course will be a detailed study of the structure and function of the cell from an engineering perspective. Fundamental molecular biology, cell biology and biochemistry topics (cellular structure, signal transduction, cell adhesions, cytoskeleton) will be introduced. Engineering principles (kinetics, transport, mechanics, thermodynamics, electrochemical gradient) will be applied to these topics. Emphasis is placed on methods to disrupt, enhance or mimic in vivo cellular function in biomedical applications.

EGRB   411. Cell Mechanics and Mechanobiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB   310 and EGRB   410 with minimum grades of C or permission of instructor. Focusing on cellular-extracellular matrix interactions, students will gain a quantitative understanding of the way cells detect, modify and respond to the physical properties within the cell environment. Coverage includes the mechanics of single-molecule polymers, polymer networks, two-dimensional membranes, whole-cell mechanics and mechanobiology. Mechanobiology topics include cancer and development, pulmonary system, cardiovascular system, and the nervous system. Students will gain understanding of techniques in cellular manipulation and quantification of cellular forces.

EGRB   412. Regenerative Engineering and Medicine. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB   410 or equivalent with minimum grade of C. Students will apply fundamental concepts of cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, medicine and pathology, as well as material science and engineering principles to design novel strategies for cell and drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Emphasis will be placed on designs and methods to solve current complex biomedical problems.

EGRB   413. Computational and Experimental Models of Cellular Signal Transduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB   215 and EGRB   410 with minimum grades of C. Students will study the process by which an extracellular protein binding event is transduced and interpreted as an incoming signal into a cell. Students will learn the biology of cellular signal transduction and will also learn how to apply computational models and experimental techniques to predict and investigate these pathways. Students will follow the course of a protein within a signal transduction cascade, from binding to a receptor, activating intracellular pathways, inducing new transcription and translation and targeting of the protein to its final location. Students will develop MATLAB-based mathematical models to predict signal transduction dynamics, and then will study experimental techniques that are used to both disrupt and measure signal transduction.

EGRB   420. Rehabilitation Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHIS   309 and PHIS   310 (or equivalents), EGRE   206 (or equivalent) and EGRB   310, or permission of instructor. This course explores the principles and practices regarding rehabilitation engineering and the interaction of biomedical engineering with health care delivery to individuals who are disabled. It will cover the three main areas of rehabilitative engineering: assistive technology, prostheses and rehabilitation therapy devices. Design will be an important component of the course.

EGRB   421. Human Factors Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHIS   309 and PHIS   310 (or equivalents), and EGRB   310. This course explores the principles and practices regarding ergonomics and human factors engineering and the interaction of biomedical engineering with human function. Analysis of the functions of the human body regarding motion, sensory mechanisms, cognition and interaction with the environment will be included. Interactions of the human body with technology, workplaces, equipment and computers will be examined. Design of workplaces for optimal human performance will be discussed. Analysis of the design and arrangement of controls and displays will be covered.

EGRB   427. Biomaterials. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: junior standing in biomedical engineering, PHIS   309 and 310, or permission of instructor. Principles of materials science as it relates to the use of materials in the body. Characterization of biomaterials. Study of the properties of biomedical materials used as implants, prostheses, orthosis and as medical devices in contact with the human body. Analysis of physical, chemical, thermal and physiological response factors associated with materials and implant devices used in the human body.

EGRB   491. SPECIAL TOPICS. 3 Hours.

Engineering

ENGR   101. Introduction to Engineering. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: admission to the School of Engineering or permission of instructor. Introduces basic circuits including resistors, diodes, transistors, digital gates and motors. Simple electromechanical systems are considered including motors, gears and wheels. The laboratory introduces fundamental circuit testing and measurement, and proper laboratory notebook writing; students are required to analyze, build and test a digitally controlled robot.

ENGR   121. Engineering Fundamentals. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Open only to non-engineering majors in Certificate in Product Innovation program. Introduces engineering fundamentals to students from non-engineering disciplines. Particular focus is the engineering problem-solving process as applied to open-ended problems. Students will be introduced to the different types of engineering, examine engineering issues and apply the engineering problem-solving process.

ENGR   291. Special Topics in Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. Prerequisite: to be determined by the instructor. Specialized topics in engineering designed to provide a topic not covered by an existing course or program. General engineering or multidisciplinary. May be repeated with different content. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

ENGR   296. Part-time Internship Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credit. Students may attempt this course a total of six times. Enrollment restricted to School of Engineering majors. The student works part time in an approved internship and must work a minimum of 90 hours, but less than 300 hours during the semester. The student works to meet learning objectives while gaining practical experience relevant to their major. The student completes assignments to document, assess and reflect on their learning experience. The supervisor and student both complete evaluations of the learning experience. Graded pass/fail.

ENGR   303. Junior Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. This course provides students an opportunity to explore business and leadership topics. Topics include the fundamentals of product design and new product development, manufacturing and quality systems, finances and financial reports, ethics in the workplace, intellectual property, teamwork, leadership and communications. Students will be assigned selected readings, written compositions and oral presentations. This course prepares the student to participate in the Engineering Laboratory/Manufacturing Internship.

ENGR   395. Professional Development. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Restricted to School of Engineering majors. Professional development course to help prepare students to find a job and succeed in a professional environment, and specifically to work as an intern or in a cooperative education position. Topics covered include career paths; job searches; resume and cover letter writing; preparing for the interview; personal assessment of interests, values and strengths; networking; professional and ethical behavior on the job; overview of legal issues related to hiring, such as nondisclosure agreements and noncompete clauses; overview of personal finance management at the first job; workplace safety; and expectations and requirements for internships and cooperative education positions.

ENGR   396. Internship Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credit. Students may attempt this course a total of three times. Enrollment restricted to School of Engineering majors. The student works in an approved internship and must work a minimum of 300 hours during the semester. The student works to meet learning objectives while gaining practical experience relevant to their major. The student completes assignments to document, assess and reflect on their learning experience. The supervisor and student both complete evaluations of the learning experience. Graded pass/fail.

ENGR   398. Cooperative Education Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credits. Students may attempt this course a total of four times. Prerequisite: ENGR   395. Restricted to School of Engineering majors in good academic standing. The student works full-time in an approved cooperative education position. The student works to meet specific learning objectives while gaining practical experience relevant to their major. The student completes assignments to document, assess and reflect on their learning experience. The supervisor/mentor and student both complete midterm and final evaluations of the learning experience. Graded pass/fail.

ENGR   399. Cooperative Education Experience II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGR   398. Restricted to School of Engineering majors in good academic standing. A student that has completed at least one work term in a full-time approved cooperative education position completes an additional full-time work term. The student works to meet specific learning objectives while gaining practical experience relevant to their major. The student completes assignments to document, assess and reflect on their learning experience. The supervisor/mentor and student both complete midterm and final evaluations of the learning experience.

ENGR   402. Senior Design Studio (Seminar). 1 Hour.

Continuous courses; 1 lecture hour. 1-1 credit. Prerequisites: senior standing and participation in a senior design (capstone) project; completion of ENGR   402 to enroll in ENGR   403. This weekly seminar presents and discusses topics relevant to senior-level engineering students in support of the capstone project and upcoming graduation. A single course coordinator manages and administers the course and schedules the various faculty lectures and guest speakers. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following: proposal writing, project planning and management, scheduling resources and budgeting for technical projects, patents and intellectual property, quality systems (six sigma, ISO standards, statistical process control), entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation and professional registration.

ENGR   403. Senior Design Studio (Seminar). 1 Hour.

Continuous courses; 1 lecture hour. 1-1 credit. Prerequisites: senior standing and participation in a senior design (capstone) project; completion of ENGR   402 to enroll in ENGR   403. This weekly seminar presents and discusses topics relevant to senior-level engineering students in support of the capstone project and upcoming graduation. A single course coordinator manages and administers the course and schedules the various faculty lectures and guest speakers. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following: proposal writing, project planning and management, scheduling resources and budgeting for technical projects, patents and intellectual property, quality systems (six sigma, ISO standards, statistical process control), entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation and professional registration.

ENGR   410. Review of Internship. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisites: chemical, electrical and computer, or mechanical engineering major and experience to satisfy the engineering internship requirements. Students complete oral presentations and written reports summarizing the internship experience.

ENGR   411. Fundamentals of Engineering Exam Preparation. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: senior or graduate standing, or permission of instructor. This course prepares students for taking the fundamentals of Engineering Exam. Passing the FE Exam is the first step to getting a Professional Engineering license. This course is not intended to teach the various subject matters, but to review the subject areas and help students prepare as well as possible for the examination.

ENGR   490. Engineering Seminar. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different content. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. A series of specialized topics in engineering that are of general interest but not covered by an existing course or program. Lectures will be presented in seminar format by speakers from business, industry, government and academia. Subjects will be multidisciplinary in nature. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor.

ENGR   491. Special Topics in Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. Prerequisite: determined by the instructor. Specialized topics in engineering designed to provide a topic not covered by an existing course or program. General engineering or multidisciplinary. May be repeated with different content. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

ENGR   492. Independent Study in Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. May be repeated with different content. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. Students must submit a written proposal to be approved by the supervising instructor prior to registration. Investigation of specialized engineering problems that are multidisciplinary or of general interest through literature search, mathematical analysis, computer simulation and/or laboratory experimentation. Written and oral progress reports as well as a final report and presentation are required. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor.

ENGR   496. Internship Review. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credits. Prerequisite: ENGR   296 or ENGR   396. Restricted to School of Engineering majors. This course is to be taken following the completion of a minimum of 300 hours of approved internship experience relevant to the student’s major and documents that a student has fulfilled all internship requirements, including a final evaluation by the employer, a final self-evaluation, a final report describing the experience and a final oral presentation about the experience. Graded pass/fail.

ENGR   497. Vertically Integrated Projects. 1,2 Hour.

Semester course; 3 or 6 laboratory hours. 1 or 2 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 credits Prerequisites: permission of the project faculty adviser. This course provides undergraduate students the opportunity to participate in multiyear, multidisciplinary projects under the guidance of faculty and graduate students in their areas of expertise. As they address research and development issues, students learn and practice many different professional skills, make substantial technical contributions to the project, and experience many different roles on a large, multidisciplinary design/discovery team. Students must earn a minimum of 4 credits in ENGR   497 with a minimum grade of C in order for these credits to be eligible to count toward a technical or departmental elective. More restrictive requirements may be imposed by individual departments.

ENGR   498. Review of Cooperative Education Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credits. Prerequisite: ENGR   398. Restricted to School of Engineering majors. This course is completed following the final work term of a cooperative education experience and is required to obtain transcript notation to document that a student has fulfilled all the requirements of the school’s cooperative education program. The requirements include a final evaluation by the employer, a final self-evaluation, a final report describing the experience and a final oral presentation about the experience.