College of Humanities and Sciences

African American Studies (AFAM)

AFAM 104. Sociology of Racism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The course will explore the direct and indirect ways in which racial attitudes are acquired, their effect on individuals and society, and the institutional and ideological manifestations of racism as a "faith system," as exploitation and as a form of human conflict. The central focus of interest will be on black-white relationships. Crosslisted as: SOCY 104.

AFAM 105. Survey of African History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of African civilizations from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Africa's place in the world. First semester: to 1800. Second semester: 1800 to the present. Crosslisted as: HIST 105.

AFAM 106. Survey of African History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of African civilizations from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Africa's place in the world. First semester: to 1800. Second semester: 1800 to the present. Crosslisted as: HIST 106.

AFAM 111. Introduction to Africana Studies. 3 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Introduction to Africana Studies

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this course will familiarize students with important events developments, personalities and other phenomena that help facilitate the study and understanding of peoples of African descent dispersed throughout the world from their early continental African past to their present existence.

AFAM 121. Tap Technique I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Beginning study and training in the principles of tap technique with emphasis upon style, body alignment, spatial patterning, flexibility, strength and kinesthetic awareness to move the body in the style required for tap dancing. Crosslisted as: DANC 121.

AFAM 122. Tap Technique I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Beginning study and training in the principles of tap technique with emphasis upon style, body alignment, spatial patterning, flexibility, strength and kinesthetic awareness to move the body in the style required for tap dancing. Crosslisted as: DANC 122.

AFAM 126. African-Caribbean Dance I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Dance based on the movements and rhythms of Africa and the Caribbean. Crosslisted as: DANC 126.

AFAM 127. African-Caribbean Dance I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Dance based on the movements and rhythms of Africa and the Caribbean. Crosslisted as: DANC 127.

AFAM 151. Jazz Dance Technique I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: DANC 102 or permission of instructor. Study and training in the principles and concepts of jazz technique. Emphasis on body alignment, flexibility, balance, rhythmic awareness and mastery of isolated movements of body parts. The course includes the exploration of the relationship between jazz music and jazz dance. Crosslisted as: DANC 151.

AFAM 152. Jazz Dance Technique I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: DANC 102 or permission of instructor. Study and training in the principles and concepts of jazz technique. Emphasis on body alignment, flexibility, balance, rhythmic awareness and mastery of isolated movements of body parts. The course includes the exploration of the relationship between jazz music and jazz dance. Crosslisted as: DANC 152.

AFAM 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: ANTH 200/INTL 200.

AFAM 204. Africa in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: AFAM/ANTH/INTL 200 or permission of instructor. The impact of modern social change upon the traditional aspects of African life. Various aspects of social change as it applies to Africa today will be explored.

AFAM 206. African American Family Relationships. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Focuses on the African-American family from the 1940s to the present. Examines the values and the interpersonal/role relationships that are involved in forming and maintaining African-American families in the contemporary United States. Topics include dating and sexual relationships, marital relationships, parent-child relationships and relationships with members of the extended family. Crosslisted as: SOCY 206/GSWS 206.

AFAM 211. Africana Social and Political Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Guides students in identifying and mapping the continuities and discontinuities in political and social thought of the African world. Through an exploration of the various works of scholars, activists and artists, this course will expose students to nondominant narratives in an effort to expand the breadth and depth of interdependence in Africana contributions to ideas such as, but not limited to, the arts, justice, equality and human emancipation.

AFAM 250. Introduction to African-American Music. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introductory survey of black involvement with the development of music in America from 1607 to the present. African-American musical styles will be studied from many aspects, including their African roots and contemporary popular expression. Performance practices will be analyzed and active cognitive listening skills developed through guided listening to selected recordings. Crosslisted as: MHIS 250.

AFAM 302. Politics of the Civil Rights Movement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The main objectives of the course are to introduce and examine the personalities and activities of the modern Civil Rights Movement. The course provides the historical background leading up to the peak years of the struggle for racial equality in America. It has special focus on the events of the 1960s and particularly their implication for the current state of U.S. Civil Rights. Crosslisted as: POLI 302.

AFAM 303. Black Theatre. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the major developments in the evolution of black theatre through readings and studio performances in black-related and black theatre dramaturgy. Crosslisted as: THEA 303.

AFAM 305. African American Family in Social Context. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101. A socio-historical examination of the development of the family system of Americans from Africa. Focuses on large-scale (macro level) processes such as changes in the major mode of economic production and in political systems and the corresponding changes in black family structure and functioning. Presents the theoretical material on African-American families and social change that prepares students for further study of the family as a social institution and for the study of family policy. This course is designed to meet the needs of upper-division social science majors. Crosslisted as: GSWS 305/SOCY 305.

AFAM 307. Black Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the role of religion in the lives of blacks with an emphasis on African religions and philosophies, the black church in America, and the roles of the various faiths, sects and cults. Crosslisted as: RELS 307/INTL 307.

AFAM 309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: ANTH 309/INTL 309/GSWS 309.

AFAM 310. African American Health: Health Disparities. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines health and health disparities among African-Americans in the U.S. Explores the primary health concerns and issues in the African-American community. Topics include impacts of infant mortality, cardiovascular disease, AIDS, violence and cancer on the overall health status of African-Americans.

AFAM 311. African Diaspora Experiences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Traces the geography and history of dispersed African peoples from their motherland to all parts of the world and reveals the cultural, social, political and economic developments of peoples of African descent worldwide. Surveys the evolution and implication of the trans-Atlantic, trans-Saharan, and trans-Indian Ocean slave trade, in particular the dimensions of experiences of African-descended peoples with emphasis not only on North and South America but also the Caribbean, Europe, Asia, Papua New Guinea and Australia.

AFAM 315. Economic Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ECON 203 with a minimum grade of B and ECON 211; or ECON 210 and ECON 211. An introduction to the process of economic development. Surveys development theory and experiences of underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and of developed countries. Explores obstacles to development and policies and tools for stimulating economic development. Crosslisted as: ECON 315/INTL 315.

AFAM 318. Politics of Race, Class and Gender. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the racial, class and gender influences on the history and development of political values, conflicts, processes, structures and public policy in the United States. Crosslisted as: POLI 318/GSWS 318.

AFAM 322. Personality and Behavior of the African American. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. A study of personality factors such as motivation, ego-functioning and the socialization processes, with special emphasis on living conditions of African-Americans. Crosslisted as: PSYC 322.

AFAM 333. Geography of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the land forms, climate, peoples, livelihoods, settlement patterns and cultural groupings of sub-Saharan Africa. Crosslisted as: URSP 333/INTL 333.

AFAM 342. African-American Art. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ARTH 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200, both with a minimum grade of C. A study of the art forms produced by Americans of African origin from the 17th century to the present with an emphasis on contemporary trends in black art. Crosslisted as: ARTH 342.

AFAM 343. Black Political Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An historical and sociological perspective on the political and social ideas of black thinkers from David Walker to the present. Crosslisted as: POLI 343.

AFAM 345. African-American Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. In this course, students will discuss and analyze the dynamics of the black experience in the American political system. The status of African-Americans in the United States and the struggle for racial equality will be examined, as will the manner in which American institutions have responded to these phenomena. Students will examine the race/class metric in African-American politics, particularly policies of Affirmative Action as a black progress strategy. Crosslisted as: POLI 345.

AFAM 346. Mental Health Across the African Diaspora. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Surveys theory and research on the interaction of culture and mental illness focusing primarily on populations of African descent in a seminar format. Topics to be addressed, through the lens of the Africana world, include epidemiological and ethnographic research on major psychiatric disorders, culture-bound syndromes and idioms of distress, mental health of immigrants and refugees, and cross-cultural competence in clinical practice.

AFAM 347. African American Children and Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Reviews cultural variations in the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of African American children. Addresses historical and contemporary frameworks of child development and highlights the strengths and limitations of extant research paradigms in the study of African American children. Considers integrity-based approaches that explain the developmental competencies of African American children in response to environmental risks that exceed normative expectations.

AFAM 350. Studies in the Music of the African Continent and Diaspora. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS 243 or MHIS/AFAM 250. An in-depth examination of selected topics and issues in African-derived musical and cultural traditions. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: MHIS 350/INTL 370.

AFAM 356. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will introduce students to the basic outlines of government and politics in Africa. The course will consider such topics as colonialism, elitism, and nationalism and modernization strategies. Using the comparative approach, the course will primarily focus on West, East and Central Africa. Crosslisted as: POLI 356/INTL 356.

AFAM 357. Politics of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of racial and political developments in the southern tip of Africa. While South Africa will be the primary focus of analysis, other countries in the region such as Zimbabwe, Angola and Mozambique will be studied. Crosslisted as: POLI 357/INTL 357.

AFAM 358. African Art and Architecture. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. A study of African art and architecture from prehistoric times to the present. Special emphasis is placed on form, content, function and meaning, as well as the impact of African art on modern and African-American art. Crosslisted as: ARTH 358.

AFAM 361. Americans from Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of blacks in the United States, designed to analyze some of the most important aspects of black life and the attitudes of the dominant society within which blacks lived. The second semester emphasizes the changing status, expectations and ideologies of black Americans in the 20th century. First semester: to 1877. Second semester: since 1877. Crosslisted as: HIST 361.

AFAM 362. Americans from Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of blacks in the United States, designed to analyze some of the most important aspects of black life and the attitudes of the dominant society within which blacks lived. The second semester emphasizes the changing status, expectations and ideologies of black Americans in the 20th century. First semester: to 1877. Second semester: since 1877. Crosslisted as: HIST 362.

AFAM 363. African Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of the literature of Africa with particular emphases on fiction and on West Africa. Some attention also will be given to orature. Crosslisted as: ENGL 363/INTL 366.

AFAM 365. Caribbean Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of West Indian writings. Attention will be given to African, European and Amerindian influences, as well as to the emergence of a West Indian literary tradition. Crosslisted as: ENGL 365/INTL 367.

AFAM 379. African-American Literature: Beginnings Through the Harlem Renaissance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An examination of the culture and literature of African Americans from their roots in Africa and the African Diaspora to the Harlem Renaissance. Authors may include Wheatley, Douglass, DuBois, Hurston, Hughes and Cullen. Crosslisted as: ENGL 379.

AFAM 387. History of West Africa to 1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the transformation of West African societies from early times to 1800, with emphasis on the rise of states and empires, the introduction, spread and impact of Islam, the Atlantic slave trade and its effects, and colonialism. Crosslisted as: HIST 381.

AFAM 388. Africa: Social, Cultural and Economic History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of economic, social and cultural developments in Africa from the beginning of the 19th century to the present, with emphasis on agricultural and industrial development, trade, Africa's involvement in the world economy, changes in labor systems, racial dominance, African initiatives and resistance, religion and social evolution, and Africa in world affairs. Crosslisted as: HIST 384.

AFAM 389. History of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of the peoples of southern Africa. Deals with the areas that presently are the Republic of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. Emphasizes the interaction among the various communities and ethnolinguistic groups in southern Africa. Crosslisted as: HIST 383.

AFAM 390. Africa and the Americas: Slavery, Gender and Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines various aspects of slavery in Africa and selected parts of the African diaspora, including the United States, Canada and the Caribbean, with special emphasis on the role played by race and gender. Topics will include African conditions of servility, the trans-Atlantic trade in enslaved Africans, and chattel slavery, demography, labor, law, discipline, abuse, resistance and status. Crosslisted as: HIST 380/GSWS 390.

AFAM 392. Caribbean History to 1838. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of changes in the structure of Caribbean society from the late 15th century to 1838, with emphasis on the development of plantation slavery, social stratification, race, slave resistance, the Haitian Revolution, African cultural patterns and abolition. Crosslisted as: HIST 376.

AFAM 393. Akhenaten to Cleopatra. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of Egyptian history from the period of the Empire (New Kingdom, c. 1570 B.C.) through the Ptolemaic Age of Cleopatra (c. 30 B.C.). Particular areas of concentration will include the Amarna Period of Akhenaten and various aspects of Egyptian daily life.

AFAM 394. Service-learning in African American Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: AFAM 310. Open to African-American studies majors only. Provides an overview of critical public health issues and intervention strategies that may influence life chances and disease susceptibility among African-Americans through a service-learning format.

AFAM 399. Interdisciplinary Research Methods. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces students to the interdisciplinary processes whereby those working in the field develop their arguments and interpretations concerning the black experience. Students will develop increased skills in library research and an awareness of the importance of such methodologies as archaeology, oral history, case studies, participant observations, experiments and surveys. Students will be introduced to the need for critical analysis, the role of biases and frames of references and the reason why scholars working in the field often reach different conclusions with reference to issues of fact, interpretation and significance.

AFAM 401. African-Americans and the U.S. Health Care System. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: AFAM 103, AFAM/SOCY/WMNS/GSWS 305 or permission of the instructor. Explores issues surrounding the disparity in health status and health outcomes between African-Americans and other groups in the United States. Students are required to participate in an experiential exercise designed to enhance learning. Crosslisted as: SOCY 401.

AFAM 411. Applied Concepts in Africana Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: AFAM 111 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: AFAM 399. Explores the processes and challenges involved in studying the experiences of African-descended peoples, with a focus on the development of an idea or observation into a finished and well-executed research product. Investigates how these processes unfold in the works of specific black studies researchers, as they capture the varied consciousnesses, histories and social forces surrounding black life in America, Africa and throughout the diaspora.

AFAM 413. African and Oceanic Art. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A study of the architecture, painting, sculpture and civilizations of the major art-producing tribes of West Africa and Oceania from the 13th century to the present. Crosslisted as: ARTH 350.

AFAM 416. The Origin and Evolution of the Idea of Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103 or permission of instructor. This course is an exploration of the origins and social history of the "idea" of race from the Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. Using both historical and anthropological scholarship, the course presents an analytical framework for race as a sociocultural phenomenon. Crosslisted as: ANTH 416.

AFAM 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: ANTH 420/INTL 420.

AFAM 440. Contemporary Art and Architecture of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARTH 390 with a minimum grade of C. A study of the impact on African art and architecture of Colonialism, urbanization and modernization. Special emphasis is placed on the search for a new identity by contemporary African artists. Crosslisted as: ARTH 440.

AFAM 451. Religion, Racism and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341, WLRD 210 or WRLD 220; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores the complex history and contemporary relationships between religion, racism and social justice. Crosslisted as: INTL 451/RELS 451.

AFAM 491. Topics in African-American Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits; 3 credits may be applied to the African-American studies minor. An in-depth study of specialized areas of African-American studies.

AFAM 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum 4 credits per semester. Maximum total of 4 credits in all independent study courses. Prerequisites: completion of 12 credits in African-American studies courses; junior or senior standing.

AFAM 493. Internship in Africana Studies. 1,3 Hour.

Semester course; variable hours. 1, 2 or 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 6 credits. A minimum of 50 hours of work per credit. Permission from the department chair or internship coordinator required. Determination of the amount of credit (based on hours or effort required) and permission of departmental internship coordinator must be obtained prior to registration for the course. Internship credit is restricted to students with a minimum grade point average of 2.5 and junior or senior status. Through a directed internship with a nonprofit organization, business, industry, government or university, the student will serve as an intern in a position that provides a real-life experience working with a population of African descent with the goal of defining, improving, affirming and/or validating black experiences in the African diaspora. Graded pass/fail.

AFAM 494. Internship in African American Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 150 clock hours in appropriate organization. 3 credits. Prerequisites: AFAM 310, either AFAM/ANTH/INTL/WMNS/GSWS 309 or AFAM/PSYC 322, and AFAM 394. Applicants must be approved by the internship coordinator. Open to African-American studies majors of senior standing only. Students are placed in organizations that offer supervised work or research experience in a health setting appropriate to their interests. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship.

AFAM 499. Capstone Seminar in Africana Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: AFAM 111, AFAM 211, AFAM 311, AFAM 399 and AFAM 411; and senior standing. Involves the planning and execution of a major research project demonstrating the interdisciplinary processes through which those working in the field of Africana studies use diverse sources to develop their arguments and interpretations.

American Studies (AMST)

AMST 195. Richmond. 1 Hour.

15 contact hours. 1 credit. A series of mini-courses dealing with aspects of Richmond's literary and historical importance from the city's beginning to the present.

AMST 391. Topics in American Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit. Selected issues or problems in American civilization with materials drawn from such areas as history, the social sciences, philosophy, literature, the arts and mass communications.

AMST 394. Perspectives in American Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 6 credits in American-related courses. An introduction to the methods, significant works and major trends in American studies. May be taken for American literature credit by English majors. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences.

Anthropology (ANTH)

ANTH 103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 103.

ANTH 105. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: INTL 104.

ANTH 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM 200/INTL 200.

ANTH 210. Biological Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of biological anthropology. Emphasis on the history and study of humans as biological organisms. Topics include genetic, social and ecological determinants of variation in human growth and biological diversity, as well as human adaptation and adaptability, disease, diet, and nutrition.

ANTH 220. Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of social and cultural anthropology. Provides an overview of key themes and theories in the subject, as well as the analytical and methodological tools to critically consider cultural difference, social organization and social change, with reference to a representative range of culture areas and the empirical fields studied by cultural anthropologists.

ANTH 230. Anthropological Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of anthropological linguistics. Emphasis is on the interactions between language and culture from a comparative perspective, as well as the relationship between language and social identities and relationships. Also an introduction to the field's methodology, research techniques, analytical tools and their applications.

ANTH 301. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: BIOL 341.

ANTH 302. Archaeological Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the basic theoretical perspectives and tools of archaeology, including analysis and interpretation of archaeological materials. Students will review the intellectual history of archaeology, applying a variety of theoretical approaches to archaeological data sets and sites.

ANTH 303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the basic practices of archaeology, including planning, excavation, artifact analysis, documentary research, mapping, dating sites and artifacts, and interpretation and presentation of findings. Students will participate in an active field research program and will apply methods at an active site and lab.

ANTH 304. Sociology of Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or ANTH 103/INTL 103. The family in its social and cultural context. Analysis of child rearing, marriage, kinship, family crises and family change in various societies around the world. Crosslisted as: SOCY 304/GSWS 304.

ANTH 307. Human Osteology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210. Corequisite: ANTZ 307. Emphasizes human skeletal development and the identification of specific bones and their anatomical landmarks, including the determination of side for paired bones. Also discussed are methods of estimating age, sex and stature from human skeletal remains and application of human skeletal data to broader anthropological questions.

ANTH 309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM 309/INTL 309/GSWS 309.

ANTH 310. Forensic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive overview of forensic anthropology including its development and the theory and methodology on which it is based. Crosslisted as: FRSC 310.

ANTH 312. History of Human Settlement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A cultural and historical geography of human migration and settlement over the earth. Topics may include agricultural and urban systems, exploration, colonization and imperialism, and changing relationships with the environment, during and since the Middle Ages. Crosslisted as: URSP 312.

ANTH 315. Field Methods and Research Design in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103, and ANTH 220 or ANTH 230. Overview of quantitative and qualitative anthropological field techniques as well as the ethical dimension of anthropological fieldwork. Basics of research design, effective methodology and writing grant proposals.

ANTH 328. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: FRLG 328/ENGL 392/LING 392.

ANTH 330. Language and Prehistory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 230, ANTH/ENGL/LING 390 or ANTH/ENGL 392. Considers the basic principles of diachronic linguistics in terms of the questions that historical linguists ask and the kinds of data they have at their disposal to answer them. Discusses uses of linguistic data in the reconstruction of prehistory in different parts of the world, analyzing strengths and weaknesses of such data and suggesting ways in which it can be usefully combined with data from other disciplines.

ANTH 331. Public Culture: Anthropology Through Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; WRLD 230. Explores how anthropology can contribute to a critical analysis of films as cultural representations. Class discussion will relate particular films both to the cultural context they depict and to the cultural context in which they were produced. Will also examine films as images that produce cultural meanings with the potential to affect the viewer's understanding of the world and comprehension of self.

ANTH 348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: INTL 348.

ANTH 349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 349.

ANTH 350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 350.

ANTH 355. Death and Burial. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Explores beliefs about the dead across time and space, the transformations physical bodies undergo after death and how archaeologists investigate human remains to interpret the beliefs and social practices of past cultures.

ANTH 364. Mythology and Folklore. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of one or more forms of folklore, such as folktales, fairy tales, legends, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads and/or games, with some attention to literary, social or historical significance and contexts. This course may also include approaches to collecting material or to examining later literary forms and texts inspired by folklore. Crosslisted as: ENGL 364.

ANTH 375. Field Archaeology. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 8 field and laboratory hours. 6 credits. Introduction to archaeological field and basic laboratory techniques. Archaeological data collection (excavation or survey) forms the core of the course.

ANTH 380. Medical Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or 220. An introduction to the biological and cultural anthropological study of global health and well-being, including healing processes, the biosocial relations of healing management and relationships between biomedicine and pluralistic medical systems.

ANTH 381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: INTL 381.

ANTH 383. Evolutionary Medicine and Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210, BIOL 101 or BIOL 151. Explores how modern human health and disease have been shaped by evolutionary processes. Particular emphasis is placed on examining health-related traits that are adaptive in one context but maladaptive in others, and why attempts to eliminate some of these traits can have deleterious effects on other aspects of our health. Specific diseases to be addressed include hypertension, diabetes, clinical depression, reproductive disorders, gastrointestinal disorders and drug addiction, among many others.

ANTH 387. Environmental Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Provides an introduction to the kinds of environmental evidence archaeologists access and the kinds of questions they investigate using that evidence. Explores a variety of ways in which archaeologists examine the relationship between humans and the environment and the sorts of effects that different environmental conditions and changes have had on ancient societies.

ANTH 388. African Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Surveys the range of archaeological knowledge currently available about the African continent, highlighting the major interrelated social, economic/technological and cultural transformations in the African past and the most important archaeological sites and discoveries there. Addresses themes of Africa’s enduring connections with the rest of the world, unique patterns of social and cultural development found on the continent, relations between African societies and their environments, and the contemporary significance of the continent’s cultural heritage.

ANTH 389. World Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Examines the diversity and evolution of human cultures through archaeological practices and techniques.

ANTH 390. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An introduction to methods of language analysis, emphasizing the study of sounds and sound patterns, and units of meaning and their arrangements. Crosslisted as: ENGL 390/LING 390.

ANTH 391. Topics in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses that may be applied to the major. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

ANTH 394. Historical Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 or ANTH 105/INTL 104, and any history course. A review of historical archaeology, recognizing its contemporary emphasis on the spread of European cultures across the globe beginning in the 15th century. Methods and findings of archaeological research from the United States, Europe and Africa will be covered with special emphasis on the study of documents and artifacts related to the emergence and present state of the modern world. Students will participate in field research.

ANTH 398. Field Investigations in Anthropology. 1-8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-8 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. Permission of instructor required. A course involving travel and/or study in an off-campus context. Intended primarily for students participating in directed study abroad programs, the course meets the experiential learning requirement for the anthropology major.

ANTH 399. Junior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: ANTH 210, 220 or 230; and junior standing. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation, and lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the anthropology program.

ANTH 403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or ANTH 301/BIOL 341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: BIOL 403.

ANTH 415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: INTL 415.

ANTH 416. The Origin and Evolution of the Idea of Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103 or permission of instructor. This course is an exploration of the origins and social history of the "idea" of race from the Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. Using both historical and anthropological scholarship, the course presents an analytical framework for race as a sociocultural phenomenon. Crosslisted as: AFAM 416.

ANTH 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM 420/INTL 420.

ANTH 425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS 425/INTL 425.

ANTH 430. Visualizing and Exhibiting Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and 105; and ANTH 302, ANTH 303, ANTH 355 or ANTH 389. Addresses the ability to visualize the knowledge gathered by anthropologists through forms of technology such as three-dimensional artifact scanning and 3D printing. Students will use the hundreds of objects scanned by archaeologists and ethnographers across the globe, including in VCU’s Virtual Curation Laboratory, to design dynamic hands-on and virtual exhibits and activities that communicate multiple perspectives on the human condition and that are designed to stimulate and provoke multiple reactions and encourage discussion.

ANTH 450. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL 454/INTL 454.

ANTH 454. Theory in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 220 or ANTH 230, and at least one 3-credit 300-level ANTH course . A study of the connections between theoretical work that addresses understandings of culture and methodological practice centered on creating ethnography.

ANTH 455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL 101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: INTL 455.

ANTH 457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: INTL 457.

ANTH 469. Human Dentition: ID and Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and ANTH 210; or ANTH 301; or BIOL 318. Focuses on the evolutionary anthropology of human dentition. Topics include evolution, genetics and ontogeny of the dentition; functional aspects of tooth size and shape; dental asymmetry; dental morphology and population affinities; dental pathology and subsistence; and dental markers of physiological stress. Students will explore within- and between-group variation, as well as the relationship between dental size and shape and behavior, relatedness and nutrition.

ANTH 490. Anthropology Senior Capstone. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 15 credits in anthropology at the 300 and 400 level or the equivalent; senior standing. Open only to anthropology majors. Explores current research that transects more than one subfield of anthropology. Research foci will be at the discretion of the instructor, but students will explore how the anthropological subfields influence and speak to each other in new translational research, and will assess the emerging literature and scientific questions with a critical and scientific perspective.

ANTH 491. Advanced Topics in Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester with different topics.Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; ANTH 210, 220, or 230; and UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. A maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses (including ANTH 391 and 491) may be applied to the major.

ANTH 492. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 12 credits for all independent study and internship courses. Prerequisites: determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and the group coordinator must be procured prior to enrollment in the course; a minimum GPA of 3.0 in the major. Generally open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the anthropology program.

ANTH 493. Anthropology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits for majors and 3 credits for minors. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits in anthropology courses at the 300 level or above, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international business or agency offering opportunities in anthropological field methods or research.

ANTH 497. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

ANTH 498. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

Anthropology Lab (ANTZ)

ANTZ 301. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: BIOZ 341.

ANTZ 303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 303. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 303. Exercises emphasize practical applications of describing, cataloging and analyzing artifacts and faunal and floral remains from archaeological excavations.

ANTZ 307. Human Osteology Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 307. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 307. Exercises will emphasize practical description and identification of human bones and bony morphology, as well as associated soft tissue structures.

ANTZ 403. Primatology Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 403/BIOL 403. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 403/BIOL 403. Exercises will emphasize comparative studies of morphology, behavior and social systems between and among primate groups, as well as the evolution of these characteristics in extant species and populations.

Arabic (ARBC)

ARBC 101. Elementary Arabic. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ARBC 101 to enroll in ARBC 102. Elementary grammar, reading, writing and speaking.

ARBC 102. Elementary Arabic. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ARBC 101 to enroll in ARBC 102. Elementary grammar, reading, writing and speaking.

ARBC 201. Intermediate Arabic I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 102 or the equivalent. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ARBC 202. Intermediate Arabic II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 201 or the equivalent. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ARBC 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 201. Designed to increase student proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and conversation.

ARBC 301. Arabic Creative Expression. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 202 or 205. Designed to develop further all language skills: reading, writing, comprehension and speaking. Course is divided into two parts: (a) language skills (grammar, short stories and poetry) and (b) field project (interaction with native speakers). Both parts include lectures, guest speakers and practicing the language with native speakers from the student body and the community at large.

ARBC 391. Topics in Arabic: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 202 or equivalent. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Conducted in Arabic. An in-depth study of selected topics in Arabic. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 101. Biological Concepts. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A topical approach to basic biological principles. Topics include molecular aspects of cells, bioenergetics, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cellular and organismal reproduction, genetics and evolution, and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the major in biology.

BIOL 103. Environmental Science. 4 Hours.

Hybrid semester course taught mostly online; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Online presentations, assignments, debates and exams require students to understand situations and ideas that involve scientific, social and economic concepts associated with Earth’s environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce major course concepts. Integrates aspects of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and sociology. Topics include ecology, evolution, natural resources, air and water resources, energy and recycling, population biology, and sustainable global societies. Not applicable as a prerequisite for any biology course at the 200 level or above, nor for credit toward the B.S. in Biology. Crosslisted as: ENVS 103.

BIOL 151. Introduction to Biological Sciences I. 3 Hours.

Semester course: 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Pre- or corequisites: MATH 151 and CHEM 101. Introduction to core biological concepts including cell structure, cellular metabolism, cell division, DNA replication, gene expression and genetics. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL 152. Introduction to Biological Sciences II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and CHEM 101, both with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on evolutionary principles, the role of natural selection in the evolution of life forms, taxonomy and phylogenies, biological diversity in the context of form and function of organisms, and and basic principles of ecology. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL 200. Quantitative Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151 with minimum grades of C; and MATH 151, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within a one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Enrollment restricted to biology majors and biology minors. An introduction to the application of the scientific method, experimental design and quantitative aspects of biology.

BIOL 201. Human Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 101, 151, or 152, or BIOL/ENVS 103. Fundamentals of human biology, including the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, human evolution, and the interaction of humans with the environment. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 205. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours, plus online component. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOZ 101, BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, or BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. Restricted to communication arts majors; health, physical education and exercise science majors; pre-health majors in clinical laboratory sciences, clinical radiation sciences, dental hygiene and nursing; students enrolled in the health sciences certificate program; and students in the advising tracks for pre-nursing, pre-occupational therapy, pre-pharmacy and pre-physical therapy and pre-nursing acclerated. Human specimens, models and interactive software are used to study human body structures; emphasis is on the skeleto-muscular aspects. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 209. Medical Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOZ 101, BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, or BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. General principles of microbiology and immunology to provide a thorough understanding of the host-microbe relationship in disease. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 217. Principles of Nutrition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 101, 151 or 152 with a minimum grade of C, or BIOL/ENVS 103 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic principles of nutrition and their application in promoting growth and maintaining health throughout the life cycle. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 291. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 300. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152; BIOZ 151 or LFSC/BNFO 251; BIOZ 152 or LFSC/BNFO 252; CHEM 101 and CHEZ 101, all with a minimum grade of C; BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212, STAT 314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102. A study of the molecular biology of the cell as it relates to gene expression, cell signaling, and cell growth and differentiation.

BIOL 303. Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The morphological, biochemical, taxonomic, genetic and evolutionary characteristics of microorganisms with a primary focus on bacteria. Focuses on the structural, mechanical and biochemical adaptations employed by microorganisms in their interactions with host cells and substrates.

BIOL 307. Aquatic Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. The physical, chemical and especially the biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems.

BIOL 308. Vertebrate Histology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Microanatomy of vertebrate cells, tissues and organs and the relationship of structure to function. Laboratory work involves an in-depth study of vertebrate microanatomy at the light microscope level as well as an introduction to techniques used for the preparation of materials for histological study.

BIOL 309. Entomology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A field-based course that focuses on insect diversification, identification, natural history and basic biology.

BIOL 310. Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOL 152; BIOZ 151 or LFSC/BNFO 251; BIOZ 152 or LFSC/BNFO 252, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212, STAT 314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. The basic principles of molecular and applied genetics of plants, animals and microorganisms.

BIOL 312. Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on environmental interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOL 313. Vertebrate Natural History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. The natural history of vertebrates with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOL 314. Animal Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151, BIOL and BIOZ 152, and BIOL 300, each with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to basic reproductive anatomy and physiology. Examination of the basic factors that affect reproductive performance and how these factors are used to regulate the reproductive processes of domestic animals and humans.

BIOL 317. Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and BIOL and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212, STAT 314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. An introduction to the basic principles of ecology, including interactions among organisms and influences of the physical environment.

BIOL 318. Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and BIOL and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212, STAT 314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. An exploration of the theoretical and empirical foundations of evolutionary biology with a focus on the processes driving evolutionary change across all of life.

BIOL 320. Biology of the Seed Plant. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and BIOL and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. The physiology, structure and adaptation of seed plants.

BIOL 321. Plant Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the developmental changes that take place during the life cycle of lower and higher plants. Emphasis is placed on the control factors that are involved in regulating the ordered changes which take place during development.

BIOL 322. Economic Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152 and BIOZ 151 and 152, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. This class focuses on plant morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, growth and reproduction through an examination of the biology of economically and culturally important plants, including crops used for foods and beverages, medicines and drugs, fibers, and timber.

BIOL 323. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151, BIOL and BIOZ 152, and BIOL 300, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to basic plant physiology, including transport processes, energy production and secondary metabolism with emphasis on adaptations to stress.

BIOL 325. Fungal Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The basic biology of fungi, including growth, structure, genetics, diversity, the commercial uses of fungi and their importance as model organisms. Also discusses the interactions between fungi and plants and fungi and humans.

BIOL 332. Environmental Pollution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: eight credits in biology. The study of pollution in the environment with emphasis on the procedures for detection and abatement. Crosslisted as: ENVS 330.

BIOL 333. Evolution of the Angiosperms. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151,152 and BIOZ 151, 152, all with minimum grade of C. Application of evolutionary concepts to flowering plants. Topics include speciation concepts, evolution of vegetative and sexual characteristics and an overview of angiosperm diversity to the level of family.

BIOL 335. Global Change Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152, all with minimum grade of C. Examines how humans influence biological systems and explores what can be done to adapt to or to mitigate future global change, emphasizing anthropogenic climate change.

BIOL 341. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: ANTH 301.

BIOL 351. Introduction to Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduction to the basic concepts, tools and possibilities of bioinformatics, the analysis of large bodies of biological information. The course stresses problem-solving and integrative projects, making extensive use of exercises in class that draw on bioinformatics resources on the Web and on local servers. Graded as pass/fail. Crosslisted as: BNFO 301.

BIOL 380. Introduction to Mathematical Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 200 and BIOL 151, or permission of instructor. An introduction to mathematical biology. Various mathematical modeling tools will be covered and implemented in a range of biological areas. Additionally, the collaborative research process will be presented and discussed. Crosslisted as: BNFO 380/MATH 380.

BIOL 391. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 392. Introduction to Research. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 demonstration hour. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300, BIOL 310, BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to the scientific process, including the mechanics of problem definition, information gathering and experimental design. Experimentation is discussed in context with methods of data collection and analysis. Aims are to prepare the student for future research experiences and to have the student write detailed research proposals.

BIOL 395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-2 credits. Maximum of 2 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 492, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395). Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 401. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 300 and 317, each with a minimum grade of C. The biology and chemical activities of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, virus and fungi) of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural importance.

BIOL 402. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution of vertebrate forms as demonstrated by anatomical studies of selected vertebrate types.

BIOL 403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or ANTH 301/BIOL 341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 403.

BIOL 411. Animal Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and CHEM 301, each with a minimum grade of C. Physiological principles of animal cells, tissues and organs from the viewpoint of chemical and physical phenomena.

BIOL 413. Parasitology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The epidemiology and pathological effects of eukaryotic parasites, including parasite life cycles and host-parasite relationships.

BIOL 415. Mangrove Avian Field Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; two weeks abroad in Panama (or other tropical location with mangrove forests) followed by class meetings two days per week throughout most of spring semester. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317. An immersive study of tropical ecology with a focus on bird ecology and conservation of mangrove ecosystems through a unique blend of rigorous science and community engagement. Two weeks of study abroad, including engagement with local conservation organizations and participation in education outreach with local schools, followed by discussion, data analysis and presentation of progress and research in a public symposium on campus.

BIOL 416. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an integrative study of birds, including avian evolution and diversity, general anatomy and physiology, behavior, and ecology.

BIOL 417. Mammalogy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 218 and 317 with minimum grades of C. Study of the characteristics, adaptive radiation and distribution of mammals, with emphasis on North American forms.

BIOL 420. Yeast and Fermentation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisites: BIOL 303 and BIOL 310. Addresses the basic biology of yeast used in brewing beer and briefly in wine production. Topics will include yeast properties such as growth, structure, genetics, biodiversity and natural habitats. The process of wine and beer production will be discussed. Laboratory sessions include basic microbiology techniques, yeast isolations and characterization using DNA and biochemical methods, as well as the study of factors that affect fermentation. At the end of the course the students will give a presentation on other fermentation products of their interest such as vinegar, bread, etc., providing an expanded version of this important process.

BIOL 422. Forest Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the fundamentals of forest ecology, with a particular emphasis on Virginia’s diverse forest ecosystems. Students gain an understanding of the principal controls on forest structure, growth and distribution and relate these principles to sustainable forest management.

BIOL 425. Field Botany. 3 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Field Botany

Semester course; 2 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours.(60 percent online, 40 percent field/laboratory) 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 310 and BIOL 317, both with minimum grades of C. Online lectures, discussions, reflections and assessments in conjunction with field experience. Explores the effects of environmental conditions on plant morphology and adaptations, with emphasis on plant anatomy, plant physiology and ecology.

BIOL 430. Invasion Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151, BIOZ 152 and BIOL 317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive view of the ecology and impacts of invasive species. Integrates the effects of historical human demography, ecological disturbance, natural history, species interactions, barriers to invasion, invasive species management and impacts on natural communities and ecosystems.

BIOL 431. Introduction to Marine Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to physical, chemical and geological oceanography and a more detailed treatment of the organisms and ecological processes involved in the pelagic and benthic environments of the world's oceans and estuaries.

BIOL 435. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution, ecology, structure, taxonomy and behavior of reptiles and amphibians.

BIOL 438. Forensic Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302, CHEZ 302, and BIOL 310 or equivalent, each with a minimum grade of C. Provides an understanding of molecular biology testing methodologies as applied to analysis of forensic samples. Current topics in forensic DNA analysis will include quality assurance, DNA databanking, contemporary research and population genetics. Crosslisted as: FRSC 438.

BIOL 440. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology focused on vertebrate model organisms with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development.

BIOL 445. Neurobiology and Behavior. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. The study of animal behavior stressing ecological, evolutionary and neurobiological approaches.

BIOL 448. Neuroscience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 310. An examination of the basic structure of the nervous system, nervous system operation on a cellular and molecular level and the formation of the nervous system during development.

BIOL 450. Biology of Cancer I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS 309. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL 451. Biology of Cancer II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 450 and instructor's permission. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL 452. Biology of Drugs. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Explores how drugs modulate biological signaling pathways to study, cure, enhance and intoxicate organisms. An introduction to basic pharmacology that largely focuses on human pathways and diseases. Topics include major drug classes (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, etc.) and drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, etc.).

BIOL 455. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS 309. A comprehensive introduction to the immune system of higher animals, emphasizing the molecular and cellular basis for antibody-medicated immunity.

BIOL 459. Infectious Disease Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151, BIOZ 152 and BIOL 317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the causes and consequences of infectious disease at levels from individual organisms to global scale. Examines the history of infectious disease ecology in human and nonhuman populations. Students learn about the roles of transmission and coevolution in infectious disease ecology and how population models are used to inform management of epidemics and emerging infectious diseases.

BIOL 460. Human Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 318 or BIOL 341 with a minimum grade of C. The origin and genetic history of modern humans, our historic colonization and migration, the utility of the Human Genome Project, our differences from other primates, adaptation to our environment and disease, and the ethical implications of genetic research in our society.

BIOL 475. Biology Capstone Seminar: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300, BIOL 310 and BIOL 317 with minimum grades of C; and senior standing. Enrollment restricted to biology majors. Students read assigned topical papers before class, prepare critical analyses, discuss and debate selected positions. See Schedule of Classes for specific topics.

BIOL 477. Biology Capstone Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C and 90 hours of undergraduate course work. The following courses qualify as a capstone experience if taken as a co-requisite with this course: BIOL 492 Independent Study, BIOL 493 Biology Internship, BIOL 495 Research and Thesis, BIOL 497 Ecological Service Learning or other courses, including topics courses, that include the core competencies required for a capstone experience and are approved by the chair of the Department of Biology. Graded as Pass/Fail.

BIOL 480. Animal-Plant Interactions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of interactions among animals and plants.

BIOL 489. Communicating Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL 495, senior standing. An opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective communication of their research in writing. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities including preparation of figures for publication and the crafting of a research paper with correct usage of the primary literature. Students will use this as an opportunity to aid the writing of their thesis for BIOL 495.

BIOL 490. Presenting Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL 492 or 495, and senior standing. Opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective oral presentation of their research work. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities such as preparation of visual materials and statistical analysis of data. Students will make several oral presentations directly related to their specific BIOL 492 or 495 projects.

BIOL 491. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 300. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 variable hours. 1-4 credits. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 492, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology. Projects should include data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. A final report must be submitted at the completion of the project.

BIOL 493. Biology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study and internship courses. 1 credit awarded for each 100 hours of work experience in professional biology setting. Prerequisites: BIOL 310 or 317 with minimum grades of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology and of the agency, company or organization in which internship will be held. Internship designed to provide laboratory or field experience in an off-campus professional biology setting. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 495. Research and Thesis. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 variable hours. 1-4 credits. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all undergraduate research in biology (BIOL 395, BIOL 492, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. A minimum of 4 credits is required for honors in biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 392, permission of the supervising faculty member and a research proposal acceptable to the departmental chair. Corequisite: BIOL 489 or BIOL 490, depending on term offering. Activities include field and/or laboratory research under the direct supervision of a faculty mentor. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Research projects must include experimental design and analysis of data. This course must be taken for two consecutive semesters starting in the fall. A written thesis of substantial quality is required upon completion of the research.

BIOL 496. Biology Preceptorship. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 credits. May be repeated with a different course for a maximum of 4 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor and departmental chair required prior to registration. Preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not are limited to, attending class, conducting review sessions and preparing course study/review materials. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 497. Ecological Service Learning. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. A service-learning course coupled to course content and material taught in BIOL 317. Students will seek out ecologically relevant opportunities with local, state and federal community partners who will provide experiences to enhance academic enrichment and personal growth and will help foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 20 service-learning hours with community partner(s).

BIOL 498. Insects and Plants Service-learning. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. A service-learning course related to insect-plant interactions. Field experience with community partners, including public parks, botanical gardens and organic farms. Designed to expand academic instruction, enhance personal growth and foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 40 service-learning hours with a community partner.

Biology Lab (BIOZ)

BIOZ 101. Biological Concepts Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 101, 151 or 152. Laboratory exercise correlated with BIOL 101. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 151. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL 151, MATH 151 and CHEM 101. Laboratory investigation of cellular metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL 151.

BIOZ 152. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, both with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL 152, MATH 151 and CHEM 101. Laboratory investigation of evolutionary concepts, evolution of organisms, biological diversity and ecology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL 152.

BIOZ 201. Human Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 201. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 201 Human Biology. Exercises emphasize the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, and human evolution and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 209. Medical Microbiology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 209. Techniques to culture, isolate and identify microbes with related topics such as water coliform tests, and antibiotics and disinfectant sensitivity testing. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 303. Microbiology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 303. Laboratory application of techniques and concepts in microbiology. Emphasis is placed on techniques to isolate, culture and identify bacteria; genetics and molecular biology of bacteria; safety and aseptic protocols; assays for antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility.

BIOZ 307. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 307. Laboratory and field studies of the biota of aquatic habitats and their relationship with the environment.

BIOZ 310. Laboratory in Genetics. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with minimum grades of C. Prerequisite or corequisite: BIOL 310. Demonstrates the laws and molecular basis of heredity through exercises and experiments that use a variety of organisms.

BIOZ 312. Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 312. A laboratory survey of the invertebrate animals, with emphasis on environment interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOZ 313. Vertebrate Natural History Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 313. Laboratory exercises focusing on the natural history of vertebrates, with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOZ 317. Ecology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, and UNIV 200 or HONR 200; all with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 317. A field-oriented course that provides experience in ecological research, including experimental design, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis.

BIOZ 321. Plant Development Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 321. An experimental approach applied to a phylogenetic survey of developmental model systems. Observational and experimental protocols will be used to collect data and gather information. Problem-solving skills will be utilized to analyze and present experimental results.

BIOZ 341. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: ANTZ 301.

BIOZ 391. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOZ 395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-2 credits. Maximum of 2 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 492, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395). Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOZ 416. Ornithology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 416. A field-oriented course that develops basic skills in bird identification by sight and sound for a variety of regional taxa with emphasis on avian anatomy and adaptations for flight. Students conduct an independent or small-group research project on a question of their choice relating to avian ecology or behavior, including experimental design, data collection and analysis, and a final project presentation.

BIOZ 438. Forensic Molecular Biology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL/FRSC 438. Provides comprehensive coverage of the various types of DNA testing currently used in forensic science laboratories. Students will have hands-on experience with the analytical equipment employed in forensic science laboratories and the techniques for human identification in forensic casework. Students also will explore and practice both scientific writing and writing of DNA case reports. Crosslisted as: FRSZ 438.

BIOZ 476. Biology Capstone Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 310 with a minimum grade of C, and 90 credit hours of undergraduate course work. Application of basic methods used in cellular and molecular biology to the investigation of topics of current biological interest. Emphasis on experimental design, data collection and analysis, communication skills, critical thinking, and ethical and social responsibility.

BIOZ 491. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

Chemistry (CHEM)

CHEM 100. Introductory Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 problem session hour. 3 credits. Prerequisite: students must be eligible to take MATH 131 or higher. A course in the elementary principles of chemistry for individuals who do not meet the criteria for enrollment in CHEM 101; required for all students without a high school chemistry background who need to take CHEM 101-102. These credits may not be used to satisfy any chemistry course requirements in the College of Humanities and Sciences.

CHEM 101. General Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 100 with a grade of C or higher, or high school chemistry and a satisfactory combination of Math SAT score and high school GPA. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 151. Prerequisite for CHEM 102: CHEM 101 with a grade of C or higher. Fundamental principles and theories of chemistry, including qualitative analysis.

CHEM 102. General Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 100 with a grade of C or higher, or high school chemistry and a satisfactory combination of Math SAT score and high school GPA. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 151. Prerequisite for CHEM 102: CHEM 101 with a grade of C or higher. Fundamental principles and theories of chemistry, including qualitative analysis.

CHEM 110. Chemistry and Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The basic principles of chemistry are presented through the use of decision-making activities related to real-world societal issues. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Chemistry.

CHEM 112. Chemistry in the News. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The basic principles of chemistry are used to interpret newspaper and magazine articles of current interest relating to chemistry in manufacturing, the global environment and medicine. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Chemistry.

CHEM 301. Organic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 102 with a minimum grade of C. Prerequisite for CHEM 302: CHEM 301 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive survey of aliphatic and aromatic compounds with emphasis on their structure, properties, reactions, reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry.

CHEM 302. Organic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 102 with a minimum grade of C. Prerequisite for CHEM 302: CHEM 301 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive survey of aliphatic and aromatic compounds with emphasis on their structure, properties, reactions, reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry.

CHEM 303. Physical Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 309 or CLSE 201 with minimum grades of C, and PHYS 202 or PHYS 208, and MATH 201 or MATH 301 or MATH 307. Ideal and nonideal gases, thermodynamics, free energy and chemical equilibrium.

CHEM 304. Physical Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 303 with a minimum grade of C. Kinetics, solution thermodynamics, heterogeneous equilibria, electrochemistry and introductory biophysical chemistry.

CHEM 305. Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301-302 and CHEM 309 with minimum grades of C; and MATH 200. Concepts and principles of physical chemistry as related to the life sciences, forensic science and the B.S in science programs. Major topics include thermodynamics of proteins and nucleic acids, enzyme kinetics and spectroscopic techniques useful in biophysical research such as circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging.

CHEM 306. Industrial Applications of Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302 and CHEZ 302. Chemical engineering students: EGRC 201 and EGRC 205. A study and analysis of the most important industrial applications of inorganic chemistry, with emphasis on structure/properties correlation, materials and energy balance, availability and logistics of starting materials, economic impact and environmental effects. Crosslisted as: CLSE 306.

CHEM 309. Quantitative Analysis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 with a minimum grade of C, and MATH 151. Theory and practice of gravimetric, volumetric and instrumental analysis techniques and treatment of multiple equilibria in aqueous solutions.

CHEM 310. Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 302. This course is designed to expose undergraduate chemistry, biology and pre-medicine majors to the history, theory and practice of medicinal chemistry. The course will emphasize a combination of fundamentals and applications of drug design. In particular, the molecular aspects of drug action will be discussed. Special emphasis will also be placed on the methods used by medicinal chemists to design new drugs. Crosslisted as: MEDC 310.

CHEM 320. Inorganic Chemistry I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 101-102 with minimum grades of C. A systematic, unified study of the structures, properties, reactions and practical applications of inorganic compounds.

CHEM 350. Guided Inquiry in Chemistry. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1.5 lecture hours. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 101-102 with minimum grades of B. Student facilitators lead recitation sections using guided inquiry, group-based activities. Introduces students to the principles of guided inquiry, active learning and collaborative learning in chemistry through practical, hands-on class work, discussions, readings and a final project.

CHEM 351. Chemistry Preceptorship. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1.5 lecture hours. 1.5 credits. Course may be repeated once for a total of 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of relevant course with minimum grade of C, completion of CHEM 350 with a grade of B and permission of course instructor and departmental chair. Student facilitators lead recitation sections or laboratories in chemistry courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not limited to, attending all classes, holding weekly review sessions or office hours and/or routine grading. A weekly reflection journal and final project are required.

CHEM 391. Topics in Chemistry. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all chemistry topics courses may be applied to the major. Prerequisites: CHEM 101-102 and CHEZ 101, 102. A study of a selected topic in chemistry. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

CHEM 392. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 credits; only 3 credits are applicable to the chemistry major. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 101 and 102. The independent investigation of chemical problems through readings and experimentation under the supervision of a research adviser. Written interim and final reports are required.

CHEM 398. Professional Practices and Perspectives Seminar. 1 Hour.

Seminar course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: completion of 18 credits in chemistry. Seminar course for students considering careers in chemistry-related fields covering topics such as scientific professionalism and ethics, and using chemical literature.

CHEM 401. Applications of Instrumental Techniques in Organic and Forensic Chemistry. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302 and CHEZ 302. Theory and laboratory practice of instrumental and chemical methods applied to the analysis of organic compounds with emphasis on applications in forensic chemistry.

CHEM 403. Biochemistry I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302 with a minimum grade of C. A presentation of structural biochemistry, enzymology, biophysical techniques, bioenergetics and an introduction to intermediary metabolism.

CHEM 404. Biochemistry II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 403 with a minimum grade of C. A presentation of metabolism and its regulation as integrated catoblism and anoblism of molecules that are essential to life.

CHEM 406. Inorganic Chemistry II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 304 and 320. An advanced study of inorganic chemistry, including inorganic spectroscopy, organometallic compounds and catalysis, and bioinorganic systems.

CHEM 409. Instrumental Analysis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 303 and 309, and CHEZ 309. Theory and practice of modern spectrophotometric, electroanalytical and chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance methods.

CHEM 491. Topics in Chemistry. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all chemistry topics courses may be applied to the major. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 101 and 102. A study of a selected topic in chemistry. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

CHEM 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 credits; only 3 credits are applicable to the chemistry major. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 101 and 102. The independent investigation of chemical problems through readings and experimentation under the supervision of a research adviser. Written interim and final reports required.

CHEM 493. Chemistry Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits; 1 credit will be given for each 150 hours (approximately one month) of part-time or full-time chemical work experience. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 101 and 102. Acquisition of chemistry laboratory experience through involvement in a professional chemistry setting. Written progress and final reports will be required.

CHEM 498. Honors Thesis. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisites: completion of 29 credits in chemistry, including CHEM 398 and at least six credits of CHEM 492. Students submit to the Department of Chemistry a thesis based on their independent study research. Students also present their results to the department as a research seminar.

Chemistry Lab (CHEZ)

CHEZ 101. General Chemistry Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 101. Experimental work correlated with CHEM 101 with selected forensic science applications. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 102. General Chemistry Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CHEM 101 and CHEZ 101 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 102. Experimental work includes qualitative analysis with selected forensic science applications. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 110. Chemistry and Society Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 110. Experimental work correlated with CHEM 110. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Chemistry. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 301. Organic Chemistry Laboratory I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 301. Experimental work correlated with CHEM 301. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 302. Organic Chemistry Laboratory II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301 and CHEZ 301 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 302. Experimental work correlated with CHEM 302. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 303. Physical Chemistry Laboratory I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM 303, 309 and CHEZ 309. This course covers experiments in calorimetry, molecular and thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, surfaces, electrochemistry, equilibria, polymers, phase diagrams, and biophysical chemistry. Extensive report writing, laboratory notebook writing and statistical analysis of data are emphasized. A final project may be required.

CHEZ 304. Physical Chemistry Laboratory II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 303, 309 and CHEZ 303, 309. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 304. This course covers experiments in absorption and emission spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, kinetics, photochemistry, biophysical chemistry and modeling. Report writing, laboratory notebook writing and statistical analysis of data are emphasized. A final project may be required.

CHEZ 309. Quantitative Analysis Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 309. Laboratory associated with quantitative analysis. Includes practice in volumetric and instrumental laboratory techniques as applied to measurement sciences.

CHEZ 406. Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 320 and CHEZ 102. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 406. Examination of inorganic nonmetal, transition metal and organometallic compounds using modern inorganic methods of synthesis and characterization. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 409. Instrumental Analysis Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302, 304 and 309 with minimum grades of C; CHEZ 303 and 309 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 409. Practice of electrochemical, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods of analysis.

Chinese (CHIN)

CHIN 101. Elementary Chinese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN 101 to enroll in CHIN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

CHIN 102. Elementary Chinese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN 101 to enroll in CHIN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

CHIN 110. Intensive Elementary Chinese. 8 Hours.

Semester course; 10 lecture and 10 laboratory hours. 8 credits. This intensive course combines CHIN 101 and 102 into a single-semester class. Students may receive credit toward graduation for either the CHIN 101-102 series or CHIN 110, but not both.

CHIN 201. Intermediate Chinese. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN 201 to enroll in CHIN 202. Rapid review of the essentials of grammar, conversation and readings from Chinese literature.

CHIN 202. Intermediate Chinese. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN 201 to enroll in CHIN 202. Rapid review of the essentials of grammar, conversation and readings from Chinese literature.

CHIN 210. Intensive Intermediate Chinese. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 6 lecture hours. 6 credits. This intensive course combines CHIN 201 and 202 into a single-semester class. Students may receive credit toward graduation for either the CHIN 201-202 series or CHIN 210, but not both.

CHIN 300. Chinese Vocabulary and Reading. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of Chinese courses through the intermediate level or equivalent. Designed to increase written vocabulary and reading skills through an examination and discussion of literary works by famous Chinese writers. Conducted in Chinese.

CHIN 301. Practical Chinese Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of Chinese courses through the intermediate level or equivalent. Designed to develop students' writing techniques and skills in several types of technical writing in Chinese (business, financial and law documents, memos and resumes). Conducted in Chinese.

CHIN 391. Topics in Chinese. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 16 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN 202 or 210. An in-depth study of selected topics in Chinese. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

English (ENGL)

ENGL 201. Western World Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to the literature of Western cultures from the ancient world through the Renaissance, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 202. Western World Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to the literature of Western cultures from the end of the Renaissance to the present, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 203. British Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to the literature of the British Isles from the Middle Ages through the 18th century, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 204. British Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to the literature of the British Isles from the late 18th century to the present, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 205. American Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to the literature of the United States from its origins through the 1860s, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 206. American Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to the literature of the United States from the 1860s to the present, emphasizing connections among the representative works.

ENGL 211. Contemporary World Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. A study of selected literature published in the past 25 years and chosen from a number of different nations and cultures. Crosslisted as: INTL 211.

ENGL 215. Reading Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An inquiry into literary and cultural texts, emphasizing critical thinking and close reading. Individual sections may survey a portion of literary history or focus on a theme or unifying question.

ENGL 236. Women in Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to literature by and/or about women. Crosslisted as: GSWS 236.

ENGL 250. Reading Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Develops students' visual literacy by exploring and analyzing the various elements of film (cinematography, lighting, editing, art direction, acting and sound, among others). Examples will be drawn from both U.S. and world cinema and from all eras of filmmaking.

ENGL 291. Topics in Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum 6 credits in all topics courses at the 200 level. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to literature through the in-depth study of a selected topic or genre. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered.

ENGL 295. The Reading and Writing of Fiction and Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the basic elements of writing poetry and fiction, using published examples of contemporary fiction and verse as guides in the study of literary form and the production of original creative writing. Students will be offered a practitioner's perspective on genre conventions and the process of revision.

ENGL 301. Introduction to the English Major. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Study of literature focused on skills helpful in the English major, introducing students to the ways in which language is used in literary texts and to the practice of writing responses to those texts. Texts will represent at least two genres (drama, poetry, prose). This course should be taken at the beginning of the student's major, preferably before completing more than six hours of other upper-level English courses. Majors are required to take ENGL 301; they must achieve a minimum grade of C to complete the requirement.

ENGL 302. Legal Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Intensive practice in writing on subjects related to law or legal problems. Emphasis on organization, development, logical flow and clarity of style. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. Crosslisted as: CRJS 302.

ENGL 303. Writing for Stage and/or Screen. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A workshop in playwriting or screenwriting primarily for students who have not yet completed a full-length dramatic work. Students will present a portfolio of work at the end of each course.

ENGL 304. Advanced Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. An advanced study of informative and persuasive prose techniques, with attention to the relationships among content, form and style. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences.

ENGL 305. Writing Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. An introduction to the craft of writing poetry. Students will explore the elements of poetic technique and produce a volume of quality work.

ENGL 307. Writing Fiction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A fiction workshop primarily for students who have not produced a portfolio of finished creative work. Students will present a collection of their work at the end of each course.

ENGL 309. Writing Creative Nonfiction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A creative nonfiction workshop primarily for students who have not produced a portfolio of finished creative work. Students will present a collection of their work at the end of each course.

ENGL 310. Business and Technical Report Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Development of critical writing skills used in business, science, technology and government, including instructions, descriptions, process explanations, reports, manuals and proposals. The course will include such topics as communication theory, technical style, illustrations, formats for proposals, reports and manuals.

ENGL 311. Introduction to Literary Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Introduces students to the variety of critical methods that are sometimes employed — often subconsciously or habitually — in writing about literature. Requires students to think abstractly and theoretically about the nature of the literary text, but it also gives students valuable practice in mastering different critical methods through close engagements with short stories, poems and plays.

ENGL 320. Early Literary Traditions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of early and medieval literature such as epic, romance, saga or lyric poetry written in England or influencing English literature prior to 1500.

ENGL 321. English Drama From 900 to 1642. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the origin of the English drama and its development until the closing of the theaters in 1642, exclusive of Shakespeare.

ENGL 322. Medieval Literature: Old English to Middle English. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of texts in Old and Middle English, and the literary and cultural traditions that influence the rise of English literature over 500 years from the early to the High Middle Ages, or from Bede and Beowulf to Chaucer.

ENGL 324. Late Medieval Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. An introduction to the literature of the 15th and 16th centuries. Works surveyed will likely include those of Langland, Julian of Norwich, Kempe, Malory, Henryson, Skelton, More, Tyndale, Foxe, Surrey, Spenser and Sidney.

ENGL 325. Early Modern Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. An introduction to the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries, which may include Sidney, Spenser, Donne, Jonson, Lanyer, Wroth, Phillips, Cavendish, Bradstreet, Hutchinson, Milton and Bunyan.

ENGL 326. Shakespeare in Context. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Examines selected works of Shakespeare in historical, political, sociocultural, literary and/or other contexts.

ENGL 330. Restoration and 18th-century Drama. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of English drama from 1660-1777, usually including the comedy of manners, sentimental comedy, ballad opera, farce and heroic and bourgeois tragedy.

ENGL 331. Restoration and 18th-century British Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of representative poetry, drama and prose from the Restoration and 18th century, usually including Behn, Dryden, Pope, Swift, Johnson and Gay.

ENGL 332. 18th-century British Novels and Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of the British narratives in the long 18th century, usually including Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Burney, Sterne, Austen, Radcliffe and Walpole.

ENGL 335. British Literature of the Romantic Era. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Exploration of the literature and the cultural phenomenon of Romanticism in Britain during the years 1783-1832, with reading from poets such as Blake, Wordsworth, Byron and Shelley, and from a variety of other writers.

ENGL 336. 19th-century British Novels and Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of British narratives of the 19th century, usually including Austen, Dickens, Thackeray, the Brontes, George Eliot and Hardy.

ENGL 337. Victorian Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A survey of the poetry of Victorian Britain, usually including Tennyson, the Brownings, Arnold and the pre-Raphaelites.

ENGL 340. Early 20th-century British Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Representative British and Irish poetry, fiction and drama of the early 20th century, including such writers as Yeats, Joyce, Shaw, Lawrence, Conrad, Auden, Forster and Woolf.

ENGL 341. British Literature and Culture After 1945. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A British studies course that surveys writing in Britain and Ireland since the mid-20th century, with emphasis on social, economic and ideological contexts. Includes such authors as William Golding, Doris Lessing, Seamus Heaney, Harold Pinter, Philip Larkin, Iris Murdoch, Kazuo Ishiguro, Salman Rushdie and Carol Ann Duffy.

ENGL 342. The Modern Novel. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An examination of the novel, chiefly British and European, in the 20th century.

ENGL 343. Modern Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of British and American poetry in the first half of the 20th century.

ENGL 344. Modern Drama. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the development of Continental, English and American drama since Ibsen.

ENGL 345. Contemporary Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of British and American poetry from approximately 1945 to the present for the purpose of determining the aesthetic and thematic concerns of contemporary poets.

ENGL 347. Contemporary Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of internationally prominent texts in various genres produced during the past 30 years. Familiarizes students with distinctive properties of literary expression that have emerged in this period, such as the political, historical, economic and social influences that have shaped literary production.

ENGL 352. Feminist Literary Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. The study of contemporary feminist thought and feminist approaches to analyzing literature and culture. This course examines the history and development of feminist theory as a methodology in the humanities, explores several of the major theoretical trends of the past 30 years and examines applications of feminist theory to specific works of literature. Crosslisted as: GSWS 352.

ENGL 353. Women Writers. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once when a different group of writers is studied. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of selected literature written by women and about women writers. Crosslisted as: GSWS 353.

ENGL 354. Queer Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of queer literature. Considers issues of history, theory, aesthetics, politics, authorship and interpretive communities and examines the intersection of social identities with particular attention to race/ethnicity, sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, class and/or nationality. Crosslisted as: GSWS 354.

ENGL 355. African-American Women Writers. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Surveys the African-American women’s literary tradition from slavery to the present. Explores the variety of ways African-American women writers gained self-expression in the midst of gender and race oppression. Also explores the rise of black feminist discourse in the U.S. as a project of reclaiming and giving voice to writers who had previously been silenced or suppressed.

ENGL 361. The Bible as Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Literary aspects of the Bible will be considered. Also, attention will be given to the history of the English Bible. Crosslisted as: RELS 361.

ENGL 363. African Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of the literature of Africa with particular emphases on fiction and on West Africa. Some attention also will be given to orature. Crosslisted as: AFAM 363/INTL 366.

ENGL 364. Mythology and Folklore. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of one or more forms of folklore, such as folktales, fairy tales, legends, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads and/or games, with some attention to literary, social or historical significance and contexts. This course may also include approaches to collecting material or to examining later literary forms and texts inspired by folklore. Crosslisted as: ANTH 364.

ENGL 365. Caribbean Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of West Indian writings. Attention will be given to African, European and Amerindian influences, as well as to the emergence of a West Indian literary tradition. Crosslisted as: AFAM 365/INTL 367.

ENGL 366. Writing and Social Change: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/workshop hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit with a different topic. Prerequisite: three credits in a 200-level literature course (or equivalent). A focused study of the literatures of underserved communities such as those of prisoners, recovering addicts, inner-city teens or immigrants. Students will collaborate with one such community on an original writing project.

ENGL 367. Writing Process and Practice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Joins writing theory to writing practice. Students will explore their own writing practice and expand their knowledge of rhetorical processes and the teaching/learning of writing. Covers readings and investigations into theories about writing and the writing process, as well as the principles of working one-on-one with student writers. In the latter part of the semester students will devote two hours per week to peer consulting in the Writing Center.

ENGL 368. Nature Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of the literary genre of nature writing in English. Crosslisted as: ENVS 368.

ENGL 369. Illness Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An overview of the history, interpretations and practices of reading and writing illness narratives — through case studies and theoretical perspectives, in fictionalized and nonfiction accounts, from the viewpoint of various actors (doctors, patients, patient families and their caregivers). Students will further examine the role of narrative knowledge in health care. Crosslisted as: SCTS 301.

ENGL 371. American Literary Beginnings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the most important writings from the founding of the first colonies to the establishment of the federal government with attention to such authors as Bradford, Byrd, Bradstreet, Equiano, Cabeza de Vaca and Franklin.

ENGL 372. U.S. Literature: 1820-1865. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of the writings of American authors in the middle decades of the 19th century, with attention to such authors as Poe, Emerson, Thoreau, Stowe, Hawthorne, Melville, Douglass and Whitman.

ENGL 373. U.S. Literature: 1865-1913. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of writings from the end of the Civil War to World War I, with attention to such authors as Dickinson, Clemens, Howell, James, Wharton, Crane, Norris, Dreiser, Chopin and Chesnutt.

ENGL 374. U.S. Literature: Modernism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of the most important writings between World War I and World War II, with attention to such authors as Anderson, Frost, Eliot, Stein, Glasgow, Fitzgerald, Wright, Cather, Hemingway, O'Neill, Hurston, Toomer and Faulkner.

ENGL 375. U.S. Literature After 1945. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of American writings since the end of World War II, with attention to such authors as Albee, Baldwin, Carver, Coover, Ellison, Erdrich, Ginsberg, Lowell, Morrison, Plath, Pynchon, Salinger and Walker.

ENGL 377. 19th-century U.S. Novels and Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of selected novels with some attention to other forms of narrative that reflect the experiences of diverse groups in the United States.

ENGL 378. 20th-century U.S. Novels and Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of selected novels with some attention to other forms of narrative that reflect the experiences of diverse groups of the United States.

ENGL 379. African-American Literature: Beginnings Through the Harlem Renaissance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An examination of the culture and literature of African Americans from their roots in Africa and the African Diaspora to the Harlem Renaissance. Authors may include Wheatley, Douglass, DuBois, Hurston, Hughes and Cullen. Crosslisted as: AFAM 379.

ENGL 380. Southern Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of the literature of the South with attention to writers such as Byrd, Poe, Chopin, Faulkner, Welty, Wolfe, O'Connor, Walker and Percy.

ENGL 381. Multiethnic Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of the literature and culture of multiethnic writers in the United States. May include Native American, Latino/a, African-American, Asian-American and/or Jewish-American authors.

ENGL 382. African-American Literature: Realism to the Present. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An examination of the culture and literature of African-Americans from the Harlem Renaissance to the present day. Authors may include Wright, Ellison, Hayden, Brooks, Walker, and Morrison.

ENGL 385. Fiction into Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the translation of literature into film. Topical approaches vary from semester to semester. Consideration is given to the literature in its original form and to the methods of translating it into film.

ENGL 386. Children's Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Designed to give students an appreciation of children's literature; includes biography, fable, myth, traditional and modern fanciful tales and poetry, as well as a survey of the history of children's literature. Crosslisted as: TEDU 386.

ENGL 387. Literature for Adolescents. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Designed to acquaint the prospective middle and secondary school English teacher with the nature, scope and uses of adolescent literature. The student is acquainted with reading materials for meeting the varied needs and interests of adolescents. Crosslisted as: TEDU 387.

ENGL 388. Writing in the Workplace. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Advance study and practice of writing in fields such as technology, science, administration and government, including visual rhetoric in both print and electronic forms.

ENGL 389. The Teaching of Writing Skills. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Studies the theory and methods for teaching writing to students in middle and secondary schools. Teaches strategies for prewriting, composing, peer revision, evaluation and topic construction. Includes extensive journal and essay writing. Crosslisted as: TEDU 389.

ENGL 390. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An introduction to methods of language analysis, emphasizing the study of sounds and sound patterns, and units of meaning and their arrangements. Crosslisted as: LING 390/ANTH 390.

ENGL 391. Topics in Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum of 12 credits in all topics courses at the upper level. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An in-depth study of a literary genre, an aesthetic or cultural theme in literature, or of a major writer in English or American literature. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

ENGL 392. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: ANTH 328/FRLG 328/LING 392.

ENGL 401. Shakespeare. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Advanced study of Shakespeare’s works. May focus on a specific genre (tragedies, comedies, romances, histories, lyrics, narrative poems) or period of Shakespeare’s career.

ENGL 402. Chaucer. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of "The Canterbury Tales," with some attention to the early works.

ENGL 403. Milton. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of shorter poems, selected prose, "Paradise Lost" and "Samson Agonistes.

ENGL 407. Medieval Epic and Romance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: three credits in a 200-level literature course (or equivalent). A study of the vernacular epic and romance in England and on the continent prior to 1500.

ENGL 410. Medieval Studies: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Studies in the English language and literature of the Middle Ages in its cultural context.

ENGL 411. Early Modern Studies: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Studies in the language, literature and culture of early modern Britain, ca. 1500 to 1700.

ENGL 412. 18th-century Studies: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Studies in the literature, language and culture of the 18th century in Britain and/or the United States.

ENGL 413. 19th-century Studies: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Studies in the literature, language and culture of the 19th century in Britain and/or the United States.

ENGL 414. 20th-century Studies: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Studies in the literature, language and culture of the 20th century in Britain, the United States and/or elsewhere in the Anglophone world.

ENGL 433. Advanced Dramatic Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: ENGL 303. A practical approach to the creation of original scripts for theatre or film. Crosslisted as: THEA 426.

ENGL 435. Advanced Poetry Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: ENGL 305. Study of the craft of writing, with instruction and guidance toward constructive self-criticism. Workshop members will be expected to produce a substantial volume of quality work and to become proficient in critical analysis in order to evaluate and articulate the strength of their own poetry. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences.

ENGL 437. Advanced Fiction Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: ENGL 307. Study the craft of fiction writing, with instruction and guidance toward constructive self-criticism. Workshop members will be expected to produce a substantial volume of short stories or portion of a novel and to become proficient in the critical analysis of fiction in order to evaluate and articulate the strength of their own work. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences.

ENGL 439. Advanced Creative Nonfiction Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: ENGL 309. Advanced study of the craft of creative nonfiction writing, with instruction and guidance toward constructive self-criticism. Workshop members will be expected to produce a substantial volume of writing or a portion of a book-length work of nonfiction, and to become proficient in the critical analysis of literary nonfiction in order to evaluate and articulate the strength of their own work.

ENGL 445. Form and Theory of Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the poetics, including prosody, with attention to the nature and functioning of language in poetry (especially metaphor), the development of poetic genres and the process by which poems are created and come to have meaning.

ENGL 447. Form and Theory of Fiction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of narration in verbal and other media, with attention to the nature, organization and functioning of language in narrative, the development of narrative genres, and the process by which narratives are created and come to have meaning.

ENGL 449. Form and Theory of Creative Nonfiction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An examination of one or more types of creative nonfiction. These may include magazine articles, research-based reportage, New Journalism, memoir, biography, autobiography, the meditative essay, the personal essay and others. May also include creative writing in the genre.

ENGL 450. Modern Grammar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Study of modern English grammar and usage with some attention to linguistic theory. Recommended for teachers at all levels. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. For English majors, these courses (limit of six credits) may be counted as part of graduate or undergraduate degree, but not both. Crosslisted as: LING 450.

ENGL 451. History of the English Language. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. The historical development of the English language; etymology, morphology, orthography and semantics. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. For English majors, these courses (limit of six credits) may be counted as part of graduate or undergraduate degree, but not both. Crosslisted as: LING 451.

ENGL 452. Language and Gender. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211,215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of relationships between gender and language by focusing on such issues as differences between the ways women and men use language, relationships between language and power and ways in which language reflects and reinforces cultural attitudes toward gender. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. Crosslisted as: LING 452/GSWS 452.

ENGL 453. Modern Rhetoric. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of a broad range of modern rhetorical theories, emphasizing their possible relationships with linguistics, literary criticism, civic engagement and the process of writing. Crosslisted as: LING 453.

ENGL 454. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: INTL 454/ANTH 450.

ENGL 480. Authors: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An advanced study of a specific author’s texts and contexts. Taught in a seminar format with an emphasis on research.

ENGL 481. Genres: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. An advanced study of a single genre, either over time or at a particular historical moment. Taught in a seminar format with an emphasis on research.

ENGL 482. Literary Topics: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. An in-depth study of an aesthetic or cultural theme in literature. Taught in a seminar format with an emphasis on research.

ENGL 483. Literary Texts and Contexts: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An advanced study of a select group of literary texts with emphasis on the culture and historical moment in which they were produced. Taught in a seminar format with an emphasis on research.

ENGL 484. Literary Movements: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. An advanced study of a group of writers whose work shares a common subject matter, writing style or philosophy. These may be defined by members of the movement (e.g., the Beats) or by critics in retrospect (e.g., the Metaphysical Poets). Taught in a seminar format with an emphasis on research.

ENGL 485. Literary Theory and Criticism: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An advanced study of a single theoretical and critical methodology, or a small cluster of them, as well as of their application to a variety of literary texts. Taught in a seminar format.

ENGL 491. Topics in Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum of 12 credits in all topics courses at the upper level. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. Intensive study and practice of writing in a specific genre or application. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

ENGL 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester. Student may take no more than 9 hours total. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291,or 295. This course is designed for students who wish to do extensive reading and writing in a subject not duplicated by any English course in this bulletin.

ENGL 493. English Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: three credits in a 200-level literature course (or equivalent). Open to students with demonstrated writing ability; completion of ENGL 302, 304 or 327 is recommended. Permission and determination of credit must be established prior to registration. Students will apply research, writing and/or editing skills in an approved job in areas such as business, government, law or financial services.

ENGL 499. Senior Seminar in English. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 301 with a minimum grade of C. Restricted to seniors in English with at least 85 credit hours taken toward the degree. A study of a specific topic, author, movement or genre in a seminar format. Students will produce an extended, documented essay as a seminar paper. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

European Cultures (EUCU)

EUCU 307. Aspects of German Culture. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A broad interdisciplinary approach to an understanding of German culture, language and literature. Lectures in English by guest speakers and/or use of films as required. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of German is required. All work is done in English.

EUCU 311. Classical Mythology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The basic myths of the Greek and Roman heritage. Their impact in culture then and now; from the origins of Greek myth to the superstitions of the late Roman and early Christian world.

Foreign Languages (FRLG)

FRLG 100. Basic Language and Cultural Awareness Abroad: ____. 1 Hour.

Semester course. 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Introduces basic language skills and cultural customs and expectations to students of all disciplines planning foreign travel to a specific location. Students will learn useful vocabulary and phrases to apply in many different travel situations. Predominant focus will be placed on the culture of the specific region and include foundational communication skills. This course cannot be used to fulfill foreign language requirements for major, minor, collateral or General Education purposes. See Schedule of Classes for specific languages being taught each semester. Graded as pass/fail.

FRLG 101. Foreign Languages: ____. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FRLG 101 to enroll in FRLG 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG 102. Foreign Languages: ____. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FRLG 101 to enroll in FRLG 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG 201. Foreign Languages: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FRLG 102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG 202. Foreign Languages: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FRLG 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG 204. Language and Groups in the United States. 3,4 Hours.

Semester course; 3-4 lecture hours. 3-4 credits. Taught in English. This course introduces students to the sociocultural experience and formation of identity of non-English-speaking peoples in the United States. Students explore the dynamic between English and a specific heritage language and its interaction with artistic, cultural and social issues through fiction and nonfiction texts, films and multimedia pertaining to specific language groups, such as: Latinos, Italian-Americans, German-Americans or Native Americans. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL 204.

FRLG 328. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: ANTH 328/ENGL 392/LING 392.

FRLG 345. Great Cities of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated under different topics for a total of 6 credits. Enrollment restricted to students with sophomore standing or with permission of instructor. An interdisciplinary course with a focus on the origin, expansion and significance of one or more cities, the specifics of its/their culture and the role of language. Particular emphasis will be placed on relating the physical, social and economic aspects of the city's growth and development to the cultural expression of urbanism. Crosslisted as: INTL 345/URSP 350.

FRLG 493. World Languages Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits, however only 3 credits can count toward the major concentration. Prerequisites: prior completion of 9 credits in the respective foreign language at the 300 level, with a course in advanced grammar and composition, one in conversation and one in civilization. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in the target foreign language in internationally oriented public and private organizations and agencies. All course work must be completed in the target language.

Foreign Literature in English Translation (FLET)

FLET 321. Early German Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Changing perspectives in German literature from its pagan beginnings, through the Medieval Golden Age, Baroque extremism, the Enlightenment and Storm and Stress up to Classicism and Goethe's Faust. Treatment of The Nibelungenlied, the courtly epic, Simplicissimus, and selections by Lessing, Schiller and Goethe. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of German is required. All work is done in English.

FLET 322. Modern German Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Growing psychological awareness and alienation of the individual in German literature of the 19th and 20th centuries. Representative works chosen from among writers of the past century and such modern writers as Thomas Mann, Kafka, Hesse, Brecht, Kafka, Hesse, Brecht, Boll and Grass. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of German is required. All work is done in English.

FLET 391. Topics in Foreign Literature in English Translation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. An in-depth study of selected topics in foreign literature. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of a foreign language is required. All work is done in English. Crosslisted as: INTL 391.

FLET 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1, 2 or 3 credits. Maximum of 3 credits per semester, maximum total of 6 credits for all FLET independent study courses. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 hours in any literature course. Determination of course content and permission of the instructor and department chair must be obtained prior to registration of the course. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest and for which they have the necessary background.

Forensic Science (FRSC)

FRSC 202. Crime and Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces the scientific theory, concepts and practices used in any physical science by relating them to the analysis of physical evidence performed in forensic laboratories and the fundamentals of crime scene investigation, and their relationship to the criminal justice system and criminal investigations. Not applicable for credit toward B.S. in Forensic Science.

FRSC 300. Survey of Forensic Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, each with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM 301 and CHEZ 301, and UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Enrollment restricted to forensic science majors or by permission of instructor. Introduces the theory, concepts and practices used in the analysis of physical evidence performed in crime laboratories, and the fundamentals of crime scene investigation. Also introduces ethical and quality assurance issues of crucial importance in modern crime laboratories.

FRSC 309. Scientific Crime Scene Investigation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301 and either FRSC 300 or FRSC 350, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to forensic science majors or by permission of instructor. Provides scientific theory of crime scene investigation and crime scene reconstruction and basic knowledge of proper crime scene protocol and evidence processing techniques. Includes the processes for documentation, collecting and preserving physical evidence.

FRSC 310. Forensic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive overview of forensic anthropology including its development and the theory and methodology on which it is based. Crosslisted as: ANTH 310.

FRSC 325. Forensic Medicine. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: FRSC 300, CHEM 301 and CHEZ 301, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to forensic science majors or by permission of instructor. An investigation of topics in death scene investigations as well as autopsy findings associated with natural and unnatural deaths.

FRSC 365. Forensic Microscopy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture/laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301 and either FRSC 300 or FRSC 350, each with a minimum grade of C. An in-depth course in the theory and practical application of microscopy to the examination, identification and individualization of physical evidence submitted to forensic laboratories.

FRSC 375. Forensic Evidence, Law and Criminal Procedure. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Pre- or co-requisites: FRSC 300 or FRSC 350. Open only to forensic science majors or by permission of instructor. The law of criminal procedure and rules of evidence as applied to forensic science. Topics will include scientific versus legal burdens of proof, legal terminology and trial procedure.

FRSC 385. Forensic Serology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301 and either FRSC 300 or FRSC 350, each with a minimum grade of C. Examines the application of basic chemical, biological, immunological and microscopic laboratory techniques to the examination and identification of body-fluid stains, including both presumptive and/or confirmatory identification of blood, semen, saliva, urine and feces. Applies methods that are used in forensic laboratories to identify the species of origin and includes a review of advanced methods for automated serological analysis. Laboratory exercises will supplement lectures to give students practical knowledge of the laboratory procedures.

FRSC 391. Topics in Forensic Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum total of 6 credits for all forensic science topics courses may be applied to the major. Prerequisites: CHEM 301 and either FRSC 300 or FRSC 350, each with a minimum grade of C. A study in selected topics in forensic science. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and additional prerequisites.

FRSC 400. Forensic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 409 and CHEZ 409; and either FRSC 300 or FRSC 350, each with a minimum grade of C. Provides an understanding of presumptive and confirmatory chemical analyses used in a forensic laboratory for the characterization and identification of physical evidence, such as accelerants and explosives, paints and polymers, suspected drug substances, and toxicology. Chemical analyses as pertaining to firearms, toolmarks and glass will also be explored.

FRSC 410. Forensic Pattern Evidence. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FRSC 309 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to forensic science majors or by permission of instructor. Covers topics in pattern evidence analysis including analysis of latent prints and impression evidence of footwear and tire treadmarks as applied to forensic casework. Covers both the theoretical and practical aspects using lectures and laboratory exercises focusing on the visualization, examination and interpretation of pattern evidence.

FRSC 412. Forensic Analysis of Firearms and Toolmarks. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FRSC 365 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to forensic science majors or by permission of instructor. An investigation of topics in firearms and toolmark examination for forensic applications. Covers both theoretical and practical aspects using lectures and laboratory exercises.

FRSC 438. Forensic Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302, CHEZ 302, and BIOL 310 or equivalent, each with a minimum grade of C. Provides an understanding of molecular biology testing methodologies as applied to analysis of forensic samples. Current topics in forensic DNA analysis will include quality assurance, DNA databanking, contemporary research and population genetics. Crosslisted as: BIOL 438.

FRSC 445. Forensic Toxicology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301, CHEM 302 and CHEZ 301, each with a minimum grade of C. Provides a comprehensive overview of the basic principles of toxicology and the practical aspects of forensic toxicology. Students will learn to define the toxic agents most commonly resulting in legal problems in U.S. society and also the process by which the U.S. judicial system is aided by scientific investigation. Crosslisted as: PATH 445.

FRSC 490. Professional Practices in Forensic Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301; FRSC 300 or FRSC 350; and one additional forensic science course, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to seniors in forensic science with at least 85 credit hours toward the degree. An examination and evaluation of historical and current issues in the scientific analysis of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Individual and group activities relating to professional practices (ethics, quality control and testimony) of forensic scientists.

FRSC 492. Forensic Science Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301; and FRSC 300 or FRSC 350, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to forensic science majors with junior or senior standing and a minimum GPA of 2.5. A determination of the amount of credit and the written permission of both the instructor and the program director must be procured prior to registration for the course.

FRSC 493. Forensic Science Internship. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. May be taken only once. Prerequisites: 27 forensic science core program credits and at least a 2.75 GPA. Open only to forensic science majors with senior standing. An application is required in advance of admission with permission of the internship coordinator. Through placement in an approved organization, the student will obtain a broader, more practical knowledge of forensic science and its applications. Written progress and final reports are required. Graded as pass/fail.

Forensic Science Lab (FRSZ)

FRSZ 391. Topics in Forensic Science Laboratory. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable laboratory hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum total of 6 credits for all forensic science topics courses may be applied to the major. Prerequisite: FRSC 300 or 350. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic in forensic science. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and additional prerequisites.

FRSZ 400. Forensic Chemistry Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: FRSC 400. Practical laboratory application with instrumentation used in a forensic laboratory for the chemical analysis of various types of physical evidence, including accelerants, explosives, paints, fibers, glass, suspected drug substances and other evidence.

FRSZ 438. Forensic Molecular Biology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL/FRSC 438. Provides comprehensive coverage of the various types of DNA testing currently used in forensic science laboratories. Students will have hands-on experience with the analytical equipment employed in forensic science laboratories and the techniques for human identification in forensic casework. Students also will explore and practice both scientific writing and writing of DNA case reports. Crosslisted as: BIOZ 438.

French (FREN)

FREN 101. Elementary French. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FREN 101 to enroll in FREN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

FREN 102. Elementary French. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FREN 101 to enroll in FREN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

FREN 110. Intensive French I. 8 Hours.

Semester course; 10 lecture and laboratory hours. 8 credits. This intensive course combines FREN 101 and 102 into a single semester.

FREN 201. Intermediate French. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

FREN 202. Intermediate French Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 201. In order to complete French through the intermediate level, a student may select FREN 202 or 205. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

FREN 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

FREN 210. Intensive French II. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 6 lecture and laboratory hours per week. 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 101 and 102, or FREN 110. This intensive course combines FREN 201 and 202/205 into a single semester.

FREN 295. Gateway to the French Major/Minor. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 201 or permission of instructor. Non-foreign language majors who wish to take one or two upper-level classes only need to complete FREN 202, 205 or equivalent. This course is composed of three different areas: 1) writing and analytical skills: enhancement of grammatical and writing skills and development of analytical techniques using a variety of texts; 2) improving students' oral communication; 3) listening skills: extensive use of recorded material and Language Learning Center resources to improve and enhance listening skills in a variety of authentic contexts.

FREN 300. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisites: for FREN 300: FREN 202 or 205; for 301, FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A systematic review of French grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building; translation and composition.

FREN 301. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisites: for FREN 300: FREN 202 or 205; for 301, FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A systematic review of French grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building; translation and composition.

FREN 305. Advanced Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202 or 205. Conducted in French. Development of advanced oral skills while conversing about topics on current French culture and society. Proficiency in listening comprehension is stressed through regular activities based on a variety of different situations of communication.

FREN 307. French Conversation and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. The course is designed to develop the student's conversational skills, oral comprehension ability and knowledge of contemporary culture through discussion of selected French films. Emphasis is also placed on vocabulary development and writing practice.

FREN 320. French Civilization and Culture I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A survey of French civilization and culture from its origins to the French Revolution. Introduction to and analysis of the most important aspects of Gallo-Roman society and of the Merovingian, Carolingian and Capetian dynasties which influenced the institutions of the Ancien Regime and still serve as cultural archetypes and icons in contemporary French culture.

FREN 321. French Civilization and Culture II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A survey of French civilization and culture from the Napoleonic era to the present. This course retraces important cultural and social traditions found during the first Empire, the Restoration, the Second Republic, the Second Empire, the Commune, the Third and Fourth Republics which influenced and continue to shape contemporary French civilization and culture of the Fifth Republic.

FREN 330. Survey of Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. First semester: through the 18th century. Second semester: 19th and 20th centuries.

FREN 331. Survey of Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. First semester: through the 18th century. Second semester: 19th and 20th centuries.

FREN 410. Explication de Textes. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. This course provides an introduction to terms encountered in text analysis: prosody, versification, rhetorical language, narratology and genres. It presents traditional and current schools of literary criticism and applies them to an interdisciplinary selection of texts. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 420. French Regional Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321. Conducted in French. Focuses on the culture and civilization specific to each of France's 22 regions. History, culture, architecture as well as sociopolitical, linguistic identities, artisanal trades and folklore are presented for each region. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 421. French Contemporary Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321. Conducted in French. Focuses on the contemporary culture found in French society. The individuals and events shaping current French social, political, artistic and cultural life are examined. Each theme is illustrated by current audiovisual materials. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 422. French Cinema. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321. Conducted in French. Tracing French cinema from les Frores Lumiore and Georges Melius through the New Wave to new contemporary directors, this course focuses on the thematic selections and stylistic techniques particular to French cinematographic culture. The class is offered concurrently with the annual VCU French Film Festival, thereby permitting students to directly communicate with French actors and directors participating in the festival. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 425. French Media. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Analysis of the French media: written press, radio and television. Advanced comprehension skills required and stressed through regular exercises pertaining to different journalistic discourses and styles. Proficiency in journalistic writing is developed in class through the creation of an electronic French newspaper on the Internet. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 426. Pop France. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 321or 331. Conducted in French. Explores contemporary French popular culture, put in a wider historical context. Discusses mainstream media, new media, commercial cinema, comic strips, pulp fiction and food, while devoting several weeks to music. Investigates the complex sociolinguistics of argot (slang), with a special interest in the banlieues' (suburbs') multicultural subculture and multifaceted codes. Also questions the possibility of a "pop philosophy" in French thought.

FREN 430. Great Poets and Their Times. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Poetry of select major poets of a select century or centuries within a context of the historical, artistic and broad cultural setting of the poets' times. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 431. The 16th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of works representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Rabelais, the Pleiade, Minting and the Baroque poets. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 432. The 17th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Baroque and Classical readings including prose, poetry and drama of the authors of the reign of Louis XIV; Pascal, La Rochefoucauld, La Bruyure, Corneille, Racine and Moliere. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 433. The 18th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: the "philosophes" including Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau and readings from Marivaux, Provost and Vauvenargues. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 434. The 19th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Romanticism, Realism, Naturalism and Symbolism. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 435. Contemporary French Literature. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. An overview of French literature from 1900 to the present. Discusses texts that have particular resonance in relation to contemporary issues, including literary works that have contributed most saliently to French culture over this time period.

FREN 440. Commercial French. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. This course introduces students to the cultural, economic and linguistic dimensions of the Francophone commercial sector. It builds the student's reading, writing, listening and speaking proficiencies through active engagement with business-related materials and activities. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 450. Francophone Literatures and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Introduces students to the literatures and cultures of the Francophone world. Provides an overview of the Francophone world and an in-depth study of literary works written in French from Africa, the Caribbean, North America, Asia and Europe. Also explores the impact of Colonial history on Francophone literatures and cultures. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL 450.

FREN 491. Topics in French. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. An in-depth study of selected topics in French. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

FREN 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses in French. Prerequisite: FREN 301; FREN 320 or 321; Senior standing with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. Determination of course content and permission of the instructor must be obtained prior to registration of the course. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest.

Gender, Sexuality and Women’s Studies (GSWS)

GSWS 201. Introduction to Gender, Sexuality and Women's Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary and cross-cultural introduction to the perspectives and core concerns pertaining to gender, sexuality and women's studies.

GSWS 206. African American Family Relationships. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Focuses on the African-American family from the 1940s to the present. Examines the values and the interpersonal/role relationships that are involved in forming and maintaining African-American families in the contemporary United States. Topics include dating and sexual relationships, marital relationships, parent-child relationships and relationships with members of the extended family. Crosslisted as: AFAM 206/SOCY 206.

GSWS 236. Women in Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to literature by and/or about women. Crosslisted as: ENGL 236.

GSWS 291. Topics in Women's Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. An in-depth examination of specialized areas of interest in women's studies. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

GSWS 301. Feminist Social Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Pre- or corequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. This course examines the major theoretical traditions and thinkers of feminist theory from the works of early liberal feminists like Wollstonecraft to the present thought of postmodern and lesbian feminists like Wittig. It examines arguments about human nature, the origins and effects of patriarchy, the conflict between equality and gender difference and feminist critiques of traditional theories of knowledge.

GSWS 304. Sociology of Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or ANTH 103/INTL 103. The family in its social and cultural context. Analysis of child rearing, marriage, kinship, family crises and family change in various societies around the world. Crosslisted as: ANTH 304/SOCY 304.

GSWS 305. African American Family in Social Context. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101. A socio-historical examination of the development of the family system of Americans from Africa. Focuses on large-scale (macro level) processes such as changes in the major mode of economic production and in political systems and the corresponding changes in black family structure and functioning. Presents the theoretical material on African-American families and social change that prepares students for further study of the family as a social institution and for the study of family policy. This course is designed to meet the needs of upper-division social science majors. Crosslisted as: AFAM 305/SOCY 305.

GSWS 309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM 309/ANTH 309/INTL 309.

GSWS 316. Women and the Law. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will introduce students to the history, politics and status of women under the American legal system. Topics to be covered may include equal protection, sexual violence, the particular rights of women of color and lesbians, reproductive rights of women of color and lesbians, reproductive rights, women criminals and women in the legal profession. Crosslisted as: POLI 316.

GSWS 318. Politics of Race, Class and Gender. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the racial, class and gender influences on the history and development of political values, conflicts, processes, structures and public policy in the United States. Crosslisted as: AFAM 318/POLI 318.

GSWS 319. Women and American Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course analyzes the participation of women in American politics. Attention is given to both women's historical and contemporary roles in politics, their participation as voters and citizens, and their behavior as candidates and office holders. Additional topics may include workplace, family and education issues and reproductive rights. Crosslisted as: POLI 319.

GSWS 333. Gender in Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or permission of instructor. Explores different theoretical approaches to gender and its intersections with other sources of inequality, including sexuality, race, class and age. Possible topics include masculinities, gender and the body, and how gender operates in various institutional settings, such as the economy and the family. Crosslisted as: SOCY 333.

GSWS 334. Sociology of Women. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or consent of instructor. This course will examine the position and status of women across societies and the social forces that maintain existing patterns and arrangements. The integration of family and work in women's lives will be emphasized. Crosslisted as: SOCY 334.

GSWS 335. Psychology of Women. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Overview of issues in psychology relevant to women. Topics include: research methods of women's issues; sex-role socialization; women and hormones; psychological androgyny; personality theory and counseling strategies for women; women and language; women and violence; and rape and abuse. Crosslisted as: PSYC 335.

GSWS 336. Violence Against Women. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or GSWS 201. An examination of violence against women from a global and local perspective with a primary focus on violence perpetrated against women in the U.S. Requires a minimum of 20 hours of community service. Crosslisted as: SOCY 336.

GSWS 339. History of Women in Europe I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of European women from antiquity to the Enlightenment. A major focus will be primary sources by and about women. Crosslisted as: HIST 330.

GSWS 340. History of Women in Europe II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of European women from the French Revolution to the present. A major focus will be primary sources by and about women. Crosslisted as: HIST 331.

GSWS 341. American Women's History I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Students will analyze historical changes in the social, cultural, political and economic position of women in America from the colonial period through the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention. Methods include reading, lecture and discussion. Topics include differences and similarities of women's experiences across lines of class, race and ethnicity, the struggle for suffrage and social reform, shifting gender roles and changing employment opportunities. Crosslisted as: HIST 365.

GSWS 352. Feminist Literary Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. The study of contemporary feminist thought and feminist approaches to analyzing literature and culture. This course examines the history and development of feminist theory as a methodology in the humanities, explores several of the major theoretical trends of the past 30 years and examines applications of feminist theory to specific works of literature. Crosslisted as: ENGL 352.

GSWS 353. Women Writers. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once when a different group of writers is studied. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of selected literature written by women and about women writers. Crosslisted as: ENGL 353.

GSWS 354. Queer Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of queer literature. Considers issues of history, theory, aesthetics, politics, authorship and interpretive communities and examines the intersection of social identities with particular attention to race/ethnicity, sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, class and/or nationality. Crosslisted as: ENGL 354.

GSWS 355. Queer Cinema. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Theoretical focus on cinematic works about and/or by those identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer. Examines concepts of gender, sexuality and women’s studies through analysis of selected works in the medium of film as well as engages with theoretical texts in the field.

GSWS 356. Open Minds. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Experiential seminar held at a local correctional institution that connects students to inmates as learning partners. Examines the history and development of American prisons in context, supplementing theoretical studies with the lived experiences of inmates.

GSWS 366. Women and Global Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of women and global politics, providing both a feminist re-examination of traditional international-relations theories and a comparative analysis of the political, legal and economic status of the world's women. The impact of women on global political institutions such as the United Nations will be addressed as well as other feminist and grass roots means of taking political action. Crosslisted as: POLI 366/INTL 368.

GSWS 371. Women in Islam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, RELS 108, GSWS 201 or ENGL 215. Critical study of the roles and rights of women in Islam. Crosslisted as: RELS 371.

GSWS 372. Global Women's Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the spiritual writings of women in various cultures and religious traditions. Crosslisted as: RELS 372/INTL 372.

GSWS 373. Gender and the Bible. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 108 or GSWS 201 or RELS 301 or RELS 302; and ENGL 215 or UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Studies the Hebrew and Christian scriptures with emphasis on gender. Attention to traditional, feminist, womanist and postcolonial interpretation. Crosslisted as: RELS 373.

GSWS 380. Lesbian and Bisexual Women. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course examines the lives of contemporary lesbian and bisexual women from psychological, sociological, developmental, political and cultural perspectives. The intersection of race, class, ethnicity, religion, age, disability and locale with lesbian/bisexual identity will be explored.

GSWS 382. Gender, Crime and Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CRJS 181 or permission of instructor. Examines the role of gender as it relates to crime and justice. Special attention will focus on the gendered experiences of practitioners, offenders and victims within the criminal justice system in terms of processing, adjudication and institutional responses. Crosslisted as: CRJS 382.

GSWS 390. Africa and the Americas: Slavery, Gender and Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines various aspects of slavery in Africa and selected parts of the African diaspora, including the United States, Canada and the Caribbean, with special emphasis on the role played by race and gender. Topics will include African conditions of servility, the trans-Atlantic trade in enslaved Africans, and chattel slavery, demography, labor, law, discipline, abuse, resistance and status. Crosslisted as: AFAM 390/HIST 380.

GSWS 391. Topics in Gender, Sexuality and Women's Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. An in-depth examination of specialized areas of interest in gender, sexuality and women's studies. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

GSWS 392. Women's Health Care Across the Life Span. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course is intended for upper-level undergraduate students. Introduces students to the health issues that affect women throughout the life span. The impact of physiological, psychological, cultural and political factors upon women's well-being will be addressed.

GSWS 393. Feminist Research and Methods. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Completion of STAT 210 (or equivalent) is strongly recommended. Explores the implications of feminist theorizing across disciplinary and cultural contexts for both methodology and epistemology. Examines how knowledge and power intersect, how gender theory and feminist politics influence research, how the knower influences knowledge production and how social location shapes inquiry.

GSWS 401. Topical Senior Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: 21 credits in gender, sexuality and women's studies or permission of the instructor. Students are required to produce a senior research project on a topic related to the theme of the seminar.

GSWS 414. Psychology of Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Overviews the psychological research on women's health. Topics include health behavior change, personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, disease-specific behaviors and interventions. Crosslisted as: PSYC 414.

GSWS 450. Black Feminist Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Theoretical focus on black feminist thought, spanning the first wave of feminism in the U.S. from the late-19th and early 20th century onward. Though primarily U.S.-focused, this course examines black feminist thought globally, as well as that of lesbians, transgendered or queer individuals, foregrounding topics such as race, gender, class, sexuality, activism, liberation, labor and social movements. Also examines the history and development of black feminist thought, considers it as a methodology in the humanities and social sciences, explores several of its major theoretical trends of the past 100 years and examines its applications to cultural phenomena and current events.

GSWS 452. Language and Gender. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211,215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of relationships between gender and language by focusing on such issues as differences between the ways women and men use language, relationships between language and power and ways in which language reflects and reinforces cultural attitudes toward gender. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. Crosslisted as: ENGL 452/LING 452.

GSWS 453. Western Religions, Women and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200; and RELS 108, GSWS 201 or WRLD 210. Explores the experience and portrayal of women in the three Abrahamic traditions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Study focuses on how these religions and their texts bear upon the social, economic, political and spiritual lives of women. Special attention is given to the impact of globalization and religious fundamentalism on women. Crosslisted as: INTL 453/RELS 453.

GSWS 457. Women, Art and Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ARTH 103, ARTH 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Open to School of the Arts majors only. A re-examination of a variety of issues concerning women, art and society: the position assigned women within the history of art as it relates to historical place and the aesthetic values of the canon, the gendering of style, patronage, audience and gaze. Through a survey of images of and by women, as well as through an analysis of art historical and critical texts, this course addresses the question: "How are the processes of sexual differentiation played out across the representations of art and art history? Crosslisted as: ARTH 357.

GSWS 491. Topics in Women's Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 12 credits. An in-depth examination of specialized areas of interest in women's studies. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

GSWS 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 4 credits in all independent study courses. Open generally to students of only junior and senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in women's studies courses. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and coordinator must be obtained prior to registration for the course.

GSWS 493. Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1, 2 or 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: internship credit is limited to students with a minimum grade point average of 3.0 and junior or senior status. Directed internship, local or abroad, or other approved study-abroad experience with the objective to provide real-life experience. Determination of the amount of credit (based on hours or effort required) and permission of departmental internship coordinator must be obtained prior to registration for the course. Graded pass/fail.

German (GRMN)

GRMN 101. Elementary German I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4 credits. For students with no prior knowledge of German. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

GRMN 102. Elementary German II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 101 Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

GRMN 201. Intermediate German I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 102. Conducted in German. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on building proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

GRMN 202. Intermediate German II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 201. Conducted in German. Designed to increase student’s proficiency in German through the continued focus on aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

GRMN 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 201. Conducted in German. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

GRMN 300. Composition and Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202 or 205. Conducted in German. Development of written and oral skills through review of selected aspects of German grammar, writing practice and speaking activities based on a variety of situations.

GRMN 301. Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300. Conducted in German. A study of key aspects of advanced German grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building.

GRMN 305. German Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300. Conducted in German. Practice in the spoken language with emphasis on discussions relating to topics of current interest.

GRMN 307. German Conversation and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 recommended. Conducted in German. The course is designed to develop the student's communication skills, oral comprehension ability and knowledge of contemporary culture through discussion of selected German films. Emphasis is also placed on vocabulary development and writing practice.

GRMN 311. German Through the Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 or GRMN 301 recommended. Designed to develop language proficiency by using material available through the various media: newspapers, magazines, films, Internet, podcasts and radio broadcasts.

GRMN 314. Commercial German. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 301. Designed to develop the student's ability to use German as a means of oral and written communication in the business world. Emphasis on the acquisition of technical tools necessary for business exchanges in specialized fields.

GRMN 320. From the Vandals to Kant: Civilization and Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 or GRMN 301 recommended. Conducted in German. A survey of German-speaking culture and literature from its origins to the Enlightenment. Also emphasizes enhancing German-language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN 321. From Faust to Nazism: Civilization and Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 or GRMN 301 recommended. Conducted in German. A treatment of German culture and literature from the Age of Goethe to the rise of Nazism. Also emphasizes enhancing German language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN 322. From Kafka's World to the EU: Civilization and Literature III. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 or GRMN 301 recommended. Conducted in German. A survey of German culture and literature from the 1920s to today. Also emphasizes enhancing German language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN 420. The Turn of the Century. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Conducted in German. A course dealing with the major intellectual, philosophical, artistic and cultural trends from the turn of the century through the Weimar period as reflected in the writings of authors such as Kafka, Mann and Hesse. Includes impressionism, expressionism and neue Sachlichkeit.

GRMN 421. The Postwar German Scene. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Conducted in German. A course dealing with the political, social and intellectual developments of the German-speaking countries from the end of World War II to the present as reflected in the literary works of their major authors.

GRMN 422. German Film. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of selected topics in German film from the beginnings to today, particularly as seen in their social, historical and cultural contexts. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN 423. Folk/Popular Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of selected topics related to folk traditions and/or popular culture in German-speaking countries. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN 424. Culture and Society. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of issues in the culture and society of German-speaking countries today. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN 425. Language in Context: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 301, 305, 307 or 311; and GRMN 320, 321 or 322. Conducted in German. Study of German language and linguistics. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN 491. Topics in German. 1-3 Hours.

Variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. An in-depth study of selected topics in German. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

GRMN 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses in German. Prerequisites: GRMN 301; GRMN 320 or 321 or 322; GRMN 420 or 421 or 422 or 423 or 424 or 491; and senior standing with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest.

Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science (HPEX)

HPEX 107. Badminton. 1 Hour.

1 credit.

HPEX 121. Self Defense: Karate or Judo. 1 Hour.

1 credit.

HPEX 201. Individual Sports and Lifelong Leisure Activities. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/laboratory hours. 3 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Prepares students to develop educational skills and methodology for instruction of individual sports in the classroom, gymnasium and outdoor field settings; students acquire skills needed to teach individual sports in middle and high school environments.

HPEX 202. Team Sports and Activities. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/laboratory hours. 3 credits. Open only to general health and physical education majors in the health, physical education and exercise science program. Students develop educational skills and methodology for instruction of team sports and group activities in classroom, gymnasium and outdoor field settings. Students acquire skills needed to teach team sports and activities in middle and high school environments.

HPEX 203. Wilderness Education I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Designed to examine the principal philosophical foundations of adventure theory and wilderness leadership. Concepts of judgment, decision-making, leadership and environmentally correct practices are introduced.

HPEX 211. Tumbling and Elementary Rhythmics. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prepares students to work with elementary children 4 to 12 years of age in rhythmic activities; includes elementary tumbling, activities and games designed to help a child's rhythmic ability.

HPEX 216. Lifeguard Training. 1,2 Hour.

1-2 credits.

HPEX 217. Water Safety Instruction. 1,2 Hour.

1-2 credits.

HPEX 218. Scuba. 1 Hour.

1 credit.

HPEX 220. Introduction to Athletic Training. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 205 and BIOZ 205L. Corequisite: HPEZ 220L. An introduction to the field of athletic training. Includes the prevention and basic care of athletic injuries in the physically active.

HPEX 230. History and Philosophy of Health and Physical Education. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An overview of the professional aspects of health and physical education. Historical and philosophical concepts, evaluation and research methods, current issues and trends, and career opportunities are discussed. Field experiences allow exposure to various professionals and facilities related to the health and physical education domains.

HPEX 231. Principles of Accident Prevention. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course is designed to provide information on the magnitude of the accident problem in the nation. Special attention is given to concepts and theories of accident prevention, particularly as they relate to use of highways.

HPEX 232. Introduction to Driver Education. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A current automobile operator's permit is required. An introduction to the vehicle operator's task within the highway transportation system: driver task analysis.

HPEX 250. Medical Terminology. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Self-directed learning experience for students entering a medical or allied health profession. Presents medical terms by their root word, suffix and prefix. Develops skills to build and decode medical terms by their word parts. Develops ability to recognize and use common medical abbreviations.

HPEX 271. Safety, First Aid and CPR. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course includes American Red Cross and/or American Heart Association certification in Multimedia Standard First Aid and Basic Life Support (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). In addition, basic principles of accident causation and prevention are presented.

HPEX 291. Special Topic in Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 3 credits. Restricted to health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Offers students the opportunity to participate in an approved professional experience related to the students' knowledge base of general education and professional introduction courses; may include participatory and experimental formats dictated by the faculty supervisor; credits determined by the number of contact hours of the experience.

HPEX 292. Independent Study in Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. May be repeated up to a maximum of 3 credits. Enables a student to create an individualized research project or professional experience based on specific professional needs and goals; must have adviser's approval; experiences based on the student's knowledge base of general education and professional core introduction courses; credits determined by the number of contact hours and extensiveness of the project.

HPEX 293. Field Practicum I. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable practicum hours. 3-6 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Provides observational and small group experiences for the pre-professional student; includes planned observations, tutorials and small group involvement under the supervision of the faculty and field supervisor; summary papers, observational logs, resumes and updated five-year plans are completed in this writing intensive course; minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain specific course requirements.

HPEX 294. Field Practicum II. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable practicum hours. 3-6 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Provides observational and small group experiences for the pre-professional student; includes planned observations, tutorials and small group involvement under the supervision of the faculty and field supervisor; minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain specific course requirements.

HPEX 295. Clinical Practicum I. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable practicum hours. 3-6 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Provides observational and small group experiences for the pre-professional student; includes planned observations, tutorials and small group involvement under the supervision of the faculty and clinical supervisor; summary papers, observational logs, resumes and updated five-year plans are completed in this writing intensive course; a minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain specific course requirements.

HPEX 296. Clinical Practicum II. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable practicum hours. 3-6 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Provides observational and small group experiences for the pre-professional student; includes planned observations, tutorials and small group involvement under the supervision of the faculty and clinical supervisor; a minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain specific course requirements.

HPEX 300. Health Care Delivery in the U.S.. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces students to the American health care system and provides an opportunity to analyze the diverse components comprising the system. Major components of the system are examined, including inpatient and outpatient services, financing, insurance and technology. Provides the student a perspective of the variety of career choices in health care.

HPEX 310. Fitness and Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Presents the knowledge and pedagogical principles of strength, flexibility, aerobic and anaerobic training programs, as well as the role that exercise and lifestyle play on overall health. Emphasis is on understanding, experiencing and applying conditioning principles for individuals and how they impact health.

HPEX 325. Pathology and Pharmacology in Athletic Training. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 220, HPEZ 220L, PHIS 206 and PHIZ/BIOZ 206L. Acquaints the student with the pathology of athletic injuries and the proper use of pharmacology in the treatment of athletic injuries. Includes the pathomechanics of sports injuries and the use of medication in the treatment of sports injuries.

HPEX 330. Elementary Health and Physical Education. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prequisites: HPEX 230, and either HPEX 201 or HPEX 202. Open only to general health and physical education majors in the health, physical education and exercise science program. Emphasis is given to the role of movement and theory in the education program and its implications for curriculum development and learning. Major consideration is given to the development of movement competency through thematic instruction.

HPEX 331. Methods in Driver Education. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: HPEX 232. This course is designed to provide driver education instructional principles and methodology.

HPEX 332. Motor Learning and Performance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course is designed to introduce the student to the major concepts of motor control and motor learning and the influencing conditions. It will provide a framework for understanding the structure and function of the nervous system in relation to perception and motor control. Other topics include the general nature of skill acquisition and how learners interact with the environment while performing motor tasks. The theoretical framework underlying learning and memory are related to the acquisition of motor skills.

HPEX 333. Psychosocial Aspects of Sport and Physical Activity. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The focus of this course is the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and groups within sport and physical activity in terms of the psychological effects and factors of sport participation, and in terms of the social relationships and social settings within which sport participation occurs.

HPEX 334. Measurement and Analysis in Teaching and Exercise Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Corequisite: HPEZ 334. Topics include selecting, administering, scoring and evaluating tests in the areas of general motor performance, health screening, fitness, sport skills and knowledge. Includes scientific test construction and basic statistical analysis.

HPEX 335. Elementary Physical Education for Physical Education Majors. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Designed to enhance knowledge of elementary physical education through an analysis of the aims, goals, objectives, programs and teaching methods. Construction of year-round curriculum and daily lesson plans. Emphasis also placed upon the acquisition of administrative and organizational knowledge dealing with facilities, equipment, teaching aids, testing, measurement and safety.

HPEX 337. Technology in Teaching Health and Physical Education. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Emphasis is placed on the application of the latest software and hardware technology used in the field of health and physical education. Students use public school settings and authentic data whenever possible.

HPEX 345. Nutrition for Health and Disease. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Overview of basic nutritional knowledge for both healthy individuals and those with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The course relies on evidence-based research when discussing food and nutrition. Topics include science and politics of dietary guidelines; the science and controversies of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals; supplements; obesity and weight loss; digestion and absorption; allergies and intolerances; functional foods, phytochemicals and organic food.

HPEX 350. Nutrition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides learning opportunities that enable the student to acquire a practical and useful knowledge based on the sound principles of applied human nutrition. Emphasis will be on nutritional needs through the cycles of life providing information that will enhance the student's own lifestyle and provide experience in interpreting nutritional information for the public.

HPEX 351. Issues in Sexuality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An overview of content, principles and strategies relating to issues in human sexuality both in the community and school settings. Basic concepts of human sexuality as they develop in today's world are presented. Issues include sexual maturity, reproductive systems, conception, birth, abortion and varieties of sexual behavior and sexual dysfunctions and disorders.

HPEX 352. Substance Abuse. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of drugs that are used and abused in contemporary society. Multidisciplinary lectures and discussions include the historical and sociological perspectives of drugs in the school and community; the psychological and physiological effects of drug use; and the role of local and regional resources. Designed for students, teachers, counselors, administrators and other interested persons. Rehabilitation methods and prevention programs also will be discussed.

HPEX 353. Disease Trends, Prevention and Control. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Pre- or corequisite: HPEX 250. Provides students an opportunity to examine the major categories of diseases, infectious and noninfectious, including significant examples in each category. Students will also research major diseases affecting the U.S. population as well as global populations. Current modalities for the prevention, treatment and control of these diseases will be studied.

HPEX 354. Coping and Adaptation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Focuses on common stress factors in life such as death, personal loss, life changes, divorce and emotional problems, such as anger, loneliness and frustration. Strategies for dealing with such stressors are discussed and applied to both personal and professional settings.

HPEX 355. School and Community Health Resources. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Acquaints the student with current available school and community resources and educational materials for health information. Available services in a community health program will be surveyed.

HPEX 356. Community Health Education and Promotion: Theory and Practice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 300 and 353. Pre- or corequisite: HPEX 355. Introduces theories, roles and skills that are the foundation for the professional practice of community health education. Emphasizes the growing significance of health education in preventing and/or treating health problems, health promotion and improving quality of life. Presents the historical evolution and development of the profession and the various settings in which health educators practice. Assists in the preparation of students for certification as health education specialists.

HPEX 357. Personal Health and Behavior Change. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Designed to provide students with a basic understanding of various contemporary personal and community health issues. Special emphasis placed on increasing awareness of multiple factors that affect individual health-behavior change and, subsequently, influence current and future health status.

HPEX 358. Introduction to Epidemiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: STAT 210. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Introduction of students to the field of public health epidemiology, emphasizing methods for assessing factors associated with the distribution and etiology of health and disease. Skills include methods for identifying and evaluating sources of health information, calculation of key epidemiologic measures, epidemiological investigation techniques, and evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different study designs.

HPEX 370. Coaching Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. A lecture/discussion course that identifies the practical administrative and organizational responsibilities coaches encounter. Realistic problem-solving is stressed.

HPEX 371. Psychology of Physical Activity. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines psychological issues related to physical activity, exercise and sport participation. Topics include individual and group motivation theory and techniques, leadership effectiveness, mental health, mental skills training, injury rehabilitation, eating disorders, exercise adherence, addiction, overtraining and use of ergogenic aids. Emphasizes examination of current research and application of psychological principles in a physical activity setting.

HPEX 372. Survey of Kinesiology and Physiology of Exercise. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the basic concepts of human biomechanics and exercise physiology. Includes basic and applied kinesiology and metabolic, endocrinological, cardiovascular and respiratory responses and adaptations to exercise. Emphasizes the integration of kinesiological and physiological principles.

HPEX 373. Structural Kinesiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 205. Corequisite: HPEZ 373. Presents the anatomical aspects of human motion with particular attention given to application of anatomical structure and terminology in analysis of physical activities; emphasizes structure and function of the human musculoskeletal system and qualitative analysis of motor skills.

HPEX 374. Musculoskeletal Structure and Movement. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 205. Pre- or corequisite: PHYS 201. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Provides an understanding of the mechanical aspects of human motion with particular attention given to application of anatomical structure, terminology and biomechanics in the analysis of physical activity. Laboratory learning allows students to acquire practical knowledge and skills in palpation, biomechanical analysis and instrumentation.

HPEX 375. Physiology of Exercise. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHIS 206. Corequisite: HPEZ 375. Physiological changes in the human organism resulting from exercise, investigation of recent research in diet, drugs, fatigue, cardiovascular/respiratory fitness, conditioning programs for various age groups and the effects of exercise upon various components of physical fitness and health. Application of specific problems to physical education programs. Laboratory experience in the use of research instruments.

HPEX 380. Resistance Training for Health and Performance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 310 and HPEX 375. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Provides students with the knowledge, skills and abilities to design and implement resistance training programs for a variety of populations. Covers the scientific and practical basis for resistance training to reduce injuries, improve health and optimize performance. Students actively participate in and demonstrate knowledge of a range of resistance exercise techniques, as well as preparticipation screening. Helps prepare those students wishing to attempt the National Strength and Conditioning Association's Certified Strength and Conditioning exam.

HPEX 391. Special Topic in Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. May be repeated up to a maximum of three credits. Offers students the opportunity to participate in an approved professional experience related to the students' knowledge base of general education, professional introduction and some core professional courses; may include participatory experiences in which the student plays an active role in the experience; credits determined by the number of contact hours of the experience.

HPEX 392. Independent Study in Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. May be repeated up to a maximum of 3 credits. Enables a student to create an individualized research project or professional experience based on specific professional needs and goals; must have adviser's approval; experiences based on the student's knowledge base of general education and professional introduction and some professional core courses; credits determined by the number of contact hours and extensiveness of the project.

HPEX 393. Field Experience I. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 3-6 credits. Prerequisites: permission of instructor; acceptance into teacher preparation program; and CPR certification. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Precedes the in-depth student teaching experience or the in-depth exercise science field experience; includes planned observations, tutorials, small group involvement under the supervision of the faculty and field supervisor; practices routine, basic and advanced procedures; minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain specific course requirements.

HPEX 394. Field Experience II. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 3-6 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Designed to provide supervised practical experience in the teaching process or delivery of health education/health promotion programs; opportunities to further abilities in physical education and exercise science through practical application of skills in school or agency settings; a minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain specific course requirements.

HPEX 395. Clinical Experience I. 3 Hours.

Semester course: 3 clinical hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites for students in the exercise science concentration: HPEX 375, junior standing and permission of instructor. Prerequisites for students in the health sciences concentration: HPEX 250, HPEX 300, HPEX 353 and BIOL 205, junior standing, and permission of instructor. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Students are also expected to maintain current CPR/AED/FA certification throughout the semester. Students should consult with an adviser or course instructor to obtain concentration-specific course prerequisites and course requirements. Addresses competencies in exercise science, health promotion and/or health science. Provides experiences at an approved affiliate site under the supervision of faculty and approved site supervisors. Students gain practical experience in routine and basic procedures associated with exercise science, health promotion and/or health science. A minimum of 40 contact hours per credit hour required.

HPEX 396. Clinical Experience II. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours. 3-6 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. Addresses required competencies in the athletic training, kinesiotherapy or community wellness education programs; provides experiences in an approved affiliate site under the supervision of faculty and approved clinical instructors; gains practical experience in routine, basic and advanced procedures associated with athletic training, kinesiotherapy or community wellness; a minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain specific course requirements and clinical competencies addressed.

HPEX 420. Athletic Training Administration. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 395 and HPEX 396. Acquaints the student with the proper organization and management techniques used in health care administration of athletic training programs. Includes organization, management and administration of health care of the physically active in the athletic setting.

HPEX 430. The Organization, Administration and Supervision of the Intramural Sports Program. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Experiences in the organization and administration of an intramural sports program. Lecture will be devoted to the theory, philosophy, history and plans for the conduct of an intramural sports program. Laboratory experience will be obtained by working in intramural programs.

HPEX 431. Adapted Physical Activity. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prepares future teachers and professionals to meet the needs of persons with disabilities in organized health, physical education and rehabilitation programs in the school, community or hospital setting. Provides an overview of those disabilities found most frequently in public school and rehabilitation settings.

HPEX 432. Methods and Curriculum in Physical Education. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prepares students to become independent problem-solvers and decision-makers by applying previously acquired knowledge to curriculum design and instruction in multiple settings; students acquire pedagogical skills and gain insight into the development of a physical education curriculum for elementary, middle and high school levels.

HPEX 433. Methods and Curriculum in Health Education. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prepares students to become independent problem-solvers and decision-makers by applying previously acquired knowledge to curriculum design and instruction in a classroom setting; students acquire pedagogical skills and gain insight into the development of a health education curriculum for elementary, middle and high school levels.

HPEX 435. Health Disparities in the U.S.. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 353 and HPEX 358. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Provides an exploration into the magnitude of health disparities in the U.S. and the association with socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, country of origin, cultural history and access to health services. Students are encouraged to broaden their perspectives and understand how various sociocultural factors impact health and health care delivery as it relates to the patient/consumer as well as the health care practitioner. Targets the values, beliefs, attitudes and customs of multiple segments of the population in relationship to age, gender, disability status, sexual orientation, area of residence, etc. Emphasizes and provides learning experiences to assist in the development of cultural competence.

HPEX 440. Chronic Disease and Exercise Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: HPEX 375 and HPEZ 375L. Presents in-depth information of various concepts specifically related to exercise management of persons with chronic disease and/or disability. Provides scientific knowledge of various chronic diseases and disabilities that are commonplace and can be managed with physical activity. General topics include cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, metabolic diseases, immunological and hematological diseases, orthopaedic diseases and disabilities, neuromuscular disorders, and cognitive, emotional and sensory disorders. Focuses on the understanding of specific physical and physiological characteristics associated with the various diseases and disabilities.

HPEX 441. Assessment and Exercise Intervention in Health and Disease. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: HPEX and HPEZ 375. Provides in-depth information of various concepts specifically related to exercise assessment and prescription for healthy persons and those with chronic disease and/or disability. Examines the various concepts specifically related to measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, body composition, flexibility and muscular strength and endurance. Focuses on the development of exercise and physical activity prescriptions for healthy and diseased populations.

HPEX 445. Principles of Health Care Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: HPEX 240 or 300. Exposes the student to basic aspects of administration and management in various health care settings. The traditional areas of administration and management, such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling will be addressed. Contemporary issues such as cultural competence, quality of care, ethics, and fraud and abuse will be examined. The course will provide a theoretical base that will enhance and facilitate the student's application of sound management principles in various practice settings.

HPEX 450. Program Planning and Evaluation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: HPEX 356. Corequisite: HPEZ 450. Presents the foundations of planning, implementation and evaluation of community health education programs. Exposes students to programming and evaluation in a variety of community health settings, including schools, work sites, hospitals, state and local health departments and nonprofit agencies.

HPEX 451. Professional Conference in Community Health Education. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Offers the student an opportunity to participate in a professional conference focusing on community health education. This experience includes observing, summarizing and critically evaluating presentations, as well as preparing and delivering presentations and networking.

HPEX 470. Exercise Programming and Leadership. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 310, HPEX 380 and HPEX 441. Provides knowledge and skills necessary for assessing, interpreting and designing health and activity programs for apparently healthy populations. Students develop leadership skills through presentation of ACSM exercise testing procedures and implementation of exercise prescriptions.

HPEX 475. Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 375 and HPEX 440 or equivalents. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Presents theoretical principles of electrocardiography and the effects of pharmacological intervention in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Specific emphasis placed on myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction and their treatment through exercise rehabilitation protocols. The impact of pharmacological agents on the ECG and on exercise is explored.

HPEX 480. Professional Certification Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: HPEX 380, HPEX 441 and HPEX 470. Enrollment restricted to seniors in HPEX major. Provides structured experiences in the classroom, laboratory and exercise arenas to improve knowledge, skills and abilities in health-related physical fitness assessment and exercise programming. Supplements existing course work by correcting any deficiencies in learning competencies toward being a successful exercise professional. A review of certification materials is also an important component of the course.

HPEX 491. Special Topic in Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. May be repeated up to a maximum of 3 credits. Offers students the opportunity to participate in an approved professional experience related to the students' knowledge base of general education, professional introduction and extensive core professional courses; may include research-based projects or more academically rigorous experiences; credits determined by the number of contact hours of the experience.

HPEX 492. Independent Study in Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. May be repeated up to a maximum of 3 credits. Enables a student to create an individualized research project or professional experience based on specific professional needs and goals; must have adviser's approval; experiences based on the student's knowledge base of general education, professional introduction and extensive core courses; credits determined by the number of contact hours and extensiveness of the project.

HPEX 493. Field Experience III. 3-12 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 3-12 credits. Prerequisites: pass Praxis II; HPEX 393 with a minimum grade of C. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. An in-depth field experience in a public school, health education/health promotion agency or other approved setting; designed to provide the pre-professional student with greater practical application of skills culminating in full responsibility for planning, implementing and evaluating the classroom, agency or facility activities; a minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain a course syllabus regarding prerequisites and specific course requirements.

HPEX 494. Field Experience IV. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 3-6 credits. Prerequisites: pass Praxis II; HPEX 393 with a minimum grade of C. Health, physical education and exercise science majors only. An in-depth field experience in a public school, health education/health promotion agency or other approved setting; designed to provide the pre-professional student with greater practical application of skills culminating in full responsibility for planning, implementing and evaluating the classroom, agency or facility activities; a minimum of 50 contact hours per credit hour required; consult with adviser to obtain a course syllabus regarding prerequisites and specific course requirements.

HPEX 495. Clinical Experience II. 6 Hours.

Semester course: 6 clinical hours. 6 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 395, senior standing, permission of instructor and minimum grade of C in all HPEX prerequisite courses. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Students are also expected to maintain current CPR/AED/FA certification throughout the semester. Students should consult with an adviser or course instructor to obtain concentration-specific course prerequisites and course requirements. Fulfills capstone requirement. Addresses competencies in exercise science, health promotion and/or health science. Provides experiences at an approved affiliate site under the supervision of faculty and approved site supervisors. Students gain practical experience in routine, intermediate and advanced procedures associated with exercise science, health promotion and/or health science. A minimum of 40 contact hours per credit hour required.

HPEX 496. Clinical Experience III. 3-6 Hours.

Semester course: 6 clinical hours. 6 credits. Prerequisites: HPEX 395, senior standing, permission of instructor and minimum grade of C in all HPEX prerequisite courses. Enrollment restricted to HPEX majors. Students are also expected to maintain current CPR/AED/FA certification throughout the semester. Students should consult with an adviser or course instructor to obtain concentration-specific course prerequisites and course requirements. Addresses competencies in exercise science, health promotion and/or health science. Provides experiences at an approved affiliate site under the supervision of faculty and approved site supervisors. Students gain practical experience in routine, basic and advanced procedures associated with exercise science, health promotion and/or health science. A minimum of 40 contact hours per credit hour required.

Health, Physical Education and Exercise Science Lab (HPEZ)

HPEZ 220. Introduction to Athletic Training Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: HPEX 220. Laboratory fee required. A laboratory to introduce the basic skills used by an athletic trainer in the prevention and care of athletic injuries in the physically active.

HPEZ 320. Upper Extremity Assessment of Athletic Injuries Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: HPEX 320. Laboratory fee required. This laboratory course includes practice in the skills of assessment and management of upper extremity athletic injuries in the physically active. Includes head, neck, thoracic, abdominal, shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand and finger injuries.

HPEZ 321. Lower Extremity Assessment of Athletic Injuries Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: HPEX 321. Laboratory fee required. This laboratory course is designed to acquaint the student with the proper assessment and treatment procedures for lower extremity athletic injuries in the physically active. The lab will include prevention, care and treatment of lower back, hip, thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot athletic injuries.

HPEZ 322. Therapeutic Exercise in Athletic Training Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: HPEX 322. This laboratory course is designed to acquaint the student with the proper use of therapeutic exercise in the treatment and rehabilitation of athletic injuries in the physically active. The lab course will include the skills of the therapeutic exercise used in the treatment of groin, thigh, hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, foot, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, finger and back athletic injuries.

HPEZ 324. Therapeutic Modalities in Athletic Training Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: HPEX 324. Laboratory fee required. This laboratory course will allow the student to develop the practical skills required to properly apply therapeutic modalities used to treat athletic injuries in the physically active.

HPEZ 334. Measurement and Analysis in Teaching and Exercise Science Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: HPEX 334. Laboratory experience applying knowledge and skills presented in HPEX 334.

HPEZ 373. Structural Kinesiology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 205. Corequisite: HPEX 373. Laboratory experience applying knowledge and theory from HPEX 373.

HPEZ 375. Physiology of Exercise Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: PHIS 206. Corequisite: HPEX 375. Provides practical application of the physiological principles presented in HPEX 375; assists students in the development of practical application competencies associated with assessment of acute and chronic effects of exercise on the human body.

HPEZ 450. Service-learning in Community Health Education Planning and Evaluation. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 service-learning/laboratory hour. 1 credit. Corequisite: HPEX 450. Provides experience working with community partners to gain firsthand exposure to specific target populations, observing the needs of those populations and current efforts, if any, to address those needs. Community partners include nonprofit agencies, schools, worksites, hospitals and state and local health departments.

History (HIST)

HIST 101. Survey of European History. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. A survey of European civilization from the ancient world to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Europe's place in the world. First semester: to 16th century. Second semester: 16th century to the present.

HIST 102. Survey of European History. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. A survey of European civilization from the ancient world to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Europe's place in the world. First semester: to 16th century. Second semester: 16th century to the present.

HIST 103. Survey of American History. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. A survey of American civilization from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined America's place in the world. First semester: to Reconstruction. Second semester: Reconstruction to present.

HIST 104. Survey of American History. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. A survey of American civilization from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined America's place in the world. First semester: to Reconstruction. Second semester: Reconstruction to present.

HIST 105. Survey of African History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of African civilizations from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Africa's place in the world. First semester: to 1800. Second semester: 1800 to the present. Crosslisted as: AFAM 105.

HIST 106. Survey of African History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of African civilizations from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Africa's place in the world. First semester: to 1800. Second semester: 1800 to the present. Crosslisted as: AFAM 106.

HIST 107. Survey of East Asian Civilizations. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. A survey of East Asian civilizations (China and Japan) from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that shaped, influenced and defined East Asia's place in the world. First semester: to the 14th century. Second semester: from the 14th century to the present.

HIST 108. Survey of East Asian Civilizations. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. A survey of East Asian civilizations (China and Japan) from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that shaped, influenced and defined East Asia's place in the world. First semester: to the 14th century. Second semester: from the 14th century to the present.

HIST 109. Survey of Latin American History. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. A survey of Latin American civilization from its early civilizations to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Latin America's place in the world. First semester: to 1824. Second semester: 1824 to the present.

HIST 110. Survey of Latin American History. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. A survey of Latin American civilization from its early civilizations to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Latin America's place in the world. First semester: to 1824. Second semester: 1824 to the present.

HIST 191. Topics in History. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum total of 6 credits. The study of a selected topic or topics in history. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

HIST 201. The Art of Historical Detection: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces non-history majors to the methods of the discipline by undertaking a series of case studies in historical inquiry. Each case study will consist of a close examination of a single historical question, covering the general background to that question and exploring relevant primary and secondary sources. Students will then use this evidence to propose well-reasoned solutions to the question at hand.

HIST 300. Introduction to Historical Study. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. History majors must complete HIST 300 with at least a grade of C prior to enrolling in more than six credits of 300- or 400-level history courses. This introduction to the historical discipline is required of all history majors. It is designed to enhance basic research, writing and study skills in order to increase student appreciation of, and performance in, the advanced courses within the history major.

HIST 301. The Ancient Near East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the ancient Near Eastern civilizations from the preliterary period to the end of Kassite rule in Babylonia (c. 1160 B.C.). Crosslisted as: RELS 315.

HIST 302. Ancient Egypt. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of the history and culture of ancient Egypt from the Predynastic Period through the age of the New Kingdom. In addition to the historical reconstruction, emphasis is placed on the art, literature and religion of each of the major periods.

HIST 303. Greek Civilization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the unique cultural heritage of Greece and the historical patterns that rose from it, from the Heroic Age to the urban worlds after Alexander, 1400 B.C.-146 B.C.

HIST 304. Roman Civilization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of Roman history as it derived from Roman cultural institutions, from the Etruscan period through the conflict of the pagan and Christian worlds and advent of the barbarians, 753 B.C.-A.D. 454.

HIST 310. The Early Middle Ages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A topical, thematic, integrative and problems approach to the emergence of a distinctive European community during the period frequently alluded to as the "Dark Ages.

HIST 311. High and Later Middle Ages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A detailed historical overview of developments in Western Europe from the end of the first millennium through the end of the 15th century. Crosslisted as: RELS 308.

HIST 312. Europe in the Early Modern Period, 1350-1650. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Describes the political, intellectual, religious and social developments in Europe from the Black Death through the wars of religion, including the Renaissance, the Reformation and the Voyages of Exploration.

HIST 313. Europe in Absolutism and Enlightenment, 1648-1815. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the political, social and economic orders of Old Regime Europe in the context of their increasing contradictions; introduces the cultural and intellectual forces that helped challenge that regime; culminates in the French Revolution and Napoleon.

HIST 314. The Zenith of European Power, 1815-1914. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the period in which the nations of Europe reached their height of world power between the reconstruction of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars and the eve of World War I. Topics include the rise of nationalism, liberalism and socialism; the spread of capitalism and industrial society; the beginnings of mass politics; the new imperialism; the diplomatic revolution in the European state system before World War I.

HIST 315. The Age of Total War in Europe, 1914-1945. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the transformation of European society precipitated by World War I and World War II. Emphasis is placed on the origin, nature and repercussions of total war; the crisis of democracy and the rise of modern dictatorships; changes in political, economic and social institutions; and the decline of European power.

HIST 316. Postwar Europe, 1945 to the Present. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of Europe's social, economic and political recovery after World War II and of the transformation of Europe from the center toward the periphery of world power.

HIST 317. History of France I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A history of France from Gallo-Roman times through the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.

HIST 318. History of France II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A history of France from 1815 to the present.

HIST 319. History of Germany I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Covers major developments in Germany from the 30 Years War and rise of Prussia through the unification of the German nation-state in 1871.

HIST 320. History of Germany II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Covers major developments in Germany from 1871 through World War I, Weimar, Third Reich, World War II and reunification in 1990.

HIST 321. The Holocaust. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A multidisciplinary examination of the events leading to and culminating in the Nazi extermination of six million Jews; the historical settings of European Jewry and of German fascism; the role of traditional anti-Semitism; the psychology of aggressor and victim; the Holocaust in art and literature and the moral implications for today.

HIST 322. Nazi Germany. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The origin and nature of Hitler's Third Reich. A study of the failure of the Weimar Republic; genesis of the Nazi racial ideology and party structure; the Nazi political, social and cultural order after the seizure of power; Nazi foreign policy leading to war and genocide; and an analysis of the personality of Hitler.

HIST 324. History of Early Modern Britain. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the development of British politics, society and culture from the Tudor Revolution in government and through the Reformation, English civil wars and Restoration.

HIST 325. History of Modern Britain. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the development of British politics and society from the Restoration to the mid-20th century, including such topics as the Whig oligarchy, the Industrial Revolution, Victorianism, the impact of the world wars and the problems of Empire.

HIST 326. The British Empire. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the origin, development and decline of British overseas expansion from the late 16th century through the mid-20th century, including colonial settlements in Ireland, North America, the Caribbean, Australia and South Africa; dependencies and protectorates in Africa and the Middle East; and the empire of India. Focuses on the political and legal structures that enabled the administration and subordination of such a large and fragmented area and assesses the extent to which empire shaped and complicated gender, class and racial relations both at home and throughout the British imperial world.

HIST 327. History of Russia I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Russian history to 1855, emphasizing the development of political and social institutions and Russia's unique position between Europe and Asia.

HIST 328. History of Russia II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Russian history from 1855 to the present, emphasizing the development of political and social institutions and Russia's unique position between Europe and Asia.

HIST 329. History of Spain and Portugal. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the history of the Iberian peninsula from ancient times to the present, with an emphasis on the distinctive culture and attitude toward life that developed south of the Pyrenees.

HIST 330. History of Women in Europe I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of European women from antiquity to the Enlightenment. A major focus will be primary sources by and about women. Crosslisted as: GSWS 339.

HIST 331. History of Women in Europe II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of European women from the French Revolution to the present. A major focus will be primary sources by and about women. Crosslisted as: GSWS 340.

HIST 332. History in Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits with different topics. An examination of the uses and misuses of historical events and personalities in film. Lectures and readings are used to critically analyze films dealing with biographies, events and propaganda.

HIST 333. History of the Jewish People I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the Jewish people from the biblical period to the early modern period, including the Israelite conquest of Canaan, Judea in Hellenistic and Roman times, the Diaspora in Islam and in Europe, social and cultural trends, and Jewish settlement in the Ottoman Empire. Crosslisted as: RELS 318.

HIST 334. History of the Jewish People II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the Jewish people from the early modern to the present, including the impact of the Emancipation, the rise of the American Jewish community, the impact of modernism and growth of Reform, the beginnings and growth of Zionism, restoration in Palestine, the Holocaust, the creation of Israel, and the relations of Israel and world Jewry. Crosslisted as: RELS 319.

HIST 335. History of Christianity I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A historical and theological examination of Christianity from its origin to the early modern period, or the age of the Reformations. Emphasis is placed upon an understanding of leading events, ideas, movements and persons in their historical settings. Crosslisted as: RELS 327.

HIST 336. History of Christianity II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A historical and theological examination of Christianity from ca. 1500 to the present. Emphasis is placed upon an understanding of leading events, ideas, movements and persons in their historical settings.

HIST 340. The Middle East, 600-1600. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores two transformative historical events that took place in the Middle East between the sixth and 16th centuries: 1) the emergence of Islam and the development of the Islamic Empire and its social, cultural and political legacy in the Middle East (seventh to 10th centuries) and 2) the influx of outsiders to the region, such as the Turkish-speaking tribes, the crusaders and the Mongols, and the role these newcomers played in shaping the Middle East starting in the 10th century.

HIST 341. Modern Middle East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Analysis of the history, problems and prospects of the nations and peoples of the Middle East with emphasis on developments since the Balfour Declaration of 1917.

HIST 342. Early Modern Ottoman Empire. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the history of the Ottoman Empire from around mid-15th century until roughly the late-18th century. Examines the Ottoman Empire as a Euro-Mediterranean polity, exploring its social, cultural, economic and political history from a global perspective.

HIST 343. Modern Ottoman Empire. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the transformations of the late-Ottoman state and society by organizing the material around several historical processes and frameworks, such as the phenomenon of the gunpowder empires, integration of the empire to the global market, the decline paradigm, impact of colonialism and imperialism, Tanzimat reforms, the shift from subjecthood to citizenship, modernity, transformation of religious identities, state and nation formation, nationalism, secularism, gender and war mobilization.

HIST 344. American Military History to 1900. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Investigates the emergence and evolution of the American military from 1600 to 1900, with a focus on nation building and nationalism, the relationship between the civil and military spheres, professionalization, the experiences of the armed forces, strategic and tactical evolution, and the relationships among war, technology and nature.

HIST 345. American Colonies, 1450-1776. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the development of the 13 original colonies; the establishment and growth of society, politics and the economy; and modification in the relationship between the provinces and Great Britain.

HIST 346. The American Revolutionary Era, 1763-1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the late-18th-century revolutions which molded the American political system -- the revolution of colonial Englishmen against Great Britain and the revolution of the nationalists against the government established by the American Revolution, which produced and firmly established the United States Constitution.

HIST 347. Antebellum America, 1800-1860. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Federalist era to 1860. A study of the events, forces and personalities that shaped Antebellum America and led to Southern secession and Civil War.

HIST 348. The American Civil War and Reconstruction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the major events, forces, personalities and significance of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras.

HIST 349. The Emergence of Modern America, 1877-1914. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the major political, legal, social and economic trends in the United States at this time, focusing on the industrialization of the nation and the resulting effects it had on such diverse matters as urbanization, immigration, economic distribution and cultural affairs, culminating in the Progressive reform movement.

HIST 350. U.S. History, 1900-1945. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the political, social, economic and cultural history of the United States from 1900 to 1945, with emphasis on how the American people have responded to reform, war, prosperity, depression, international status and changing relationships within government and society.

HIST 351. U.S. History Since 1945. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the political, social, economic and cultural history of the United States in the 20th century, with emphasis on how the American people have responded to reform, war, prosperity, depression, international status and changing relationships within government and society.

HIST 352. History of the South I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A regional history of the Old South from the colonial period to 1861, placing particular emphasis upon the distinctive culture and problems of the South and its significance in the history of the United States.

HIST 353. History of the South II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A regional history of the New South from 1865 to the present, placing particular emphasis upon the distinctive culture and problems of the South and its significance in the history of the United States.

HIST 354. History of Native Americans in the South. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the history of Native Americans in the American South and how colonial encounters with Europeans impacted life in indigenous towns, villages and farmsteads.

HIST 355. Native Americans in Modern America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines some of the key historical and cultural issues in American Indian history during the 20th century.

HIST 356. History of Virginia I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Focuses on the central themes, events and personalities of the state’s history from the pre-colonial period to 1865.

HIST 357. History of Virginia II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Focuses on the central themes, events and personalities of the state's history from 1865 to the present.

HIST 358. History of the American Frontier. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the western movement in the United States from the time the first outposts were established to the end of the frontier in the 19th century. Particular attention to the influence of the frontier upon the American mind and ideals.

HIST 360. The Long Civil Rights Movement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines race relations and changes to race relations, focusing on African-Americans in the United States' South but including related struggles for civil rights and equality from the late-1800s to the present.

HIST 361. Americans from Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of blacks in the United States, designed to analyze some of the most important aspects of black life and the attitudes of the dominant society within which blacks lived. The second semester emphasizes the changing status, expectations and ideologies of black Americans in the 20th century. First semester: to 1877. Second semester: since 1877. Crosslisted as: AFAM 361.

HIST 362. Americans from Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of blacks in the United States, designed to analyze some of the most important aspects of black life and the attitudes of the dominant society within which blacks lived. The second semester emphasizes the changing status, expectations and ideologies of black Americans in the 20th century. First semester: to 1877. Second semester: since 1877. Crosslisted as: AFAM 362.

HIST 363. American Religious History I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of religious movements, events and ideas in America from indigenous and colonial traditions to the Civil War, with attention to the diversity of religious expression and the relationship between church and state.

HIST 364. American Religious History II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of religious movements, events and ideas in America from the Civil War to the present, with attention to the diversity of religious expression and the relationship between church and state.

HIST 365. American Women's History I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Students will analyze historical changes in the social, cultural, political and economic position of women in America from the colonial period through the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention. Methods include reading, lecture and discussion. Topics include differences and similarities of women's experiences across lines of class, race and ethnicity, the struggle for suffrage and social reform, shifting gender roles and changing employment opportunities. Crosslisted as: GSWS 341.

HIST 366. American Women's History II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Through reading, lecture and discussion, students will analyze historical changes in the social, cultural, political and economic position of women in America from 1848 to the present. Topics include differences and similarities of women's experiences across lines of class, race and ethnicity; the struggle for suffrage and social reform; shifting gender roles; and changing employment opportunities.

HIST 370. History of Central America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of the history of the region beginning with pre-Columbian civilizations and continuing to the present. Topics include the Spanish conquest, the liberal-conservative struggle, U.S. gunboat diplomacy, the Sandinista Revolution, civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala and current challenges to democracy in the region.

HIST 371. History of Mexico. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of Mexican history, including topics such as the pre-Columbian civilizations, the Spanish conquest and the colonial order, as well as independence, the struggle for reform, revolution and the development of the modern state.

HIST 372. History of Brazil. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of Brazilian history including topics such as the pre-Columbian civilizations, Portuguese colonialism, the independent empire and the republic, and populism and the modern state.

HIST 373. History of the Andes to 1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical view of the historical process of the Andean region from the pre-Columbian period to independence from Spain. Focuses mainly on the core of the region, which currently comprises the territories of Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. Special attention to the indigenous population of the Andes -- also known as "Indians," "Andeans" or "Amerindians" -- and their interactions with other ethnic groups (Europeans, Criollos, Mestizos, as well as Africans and their descendants) in the political, economic, social and cultural realms.

HIST 374. History of the Andes From 1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical view of the historical process of the Andean region from independence from Spain to the present. Focuses mainly on the core of the region, which currently comprises the territories of Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. Special attention to the indigenous population of the Andes -- also known as "Indians," "Andeans" or "Amerindians" -- and their interactions with other ethnic groups (Europeans, Criollos, Mestizos, as well as Africans and their descendants) in the political, economic, social and cultural realms.

HIST 376. Caribbean History to 1838. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of changes in the structure of Caribbean society from the late 15th century to 1838, with emphasis on the development of plantation slavery, social stratification, race, slave resistance, the Haitian Revolution, African cultural patterns and abolition. Crosslisted as: AFAM 392.

HIST 377. Caribbean History Since 1838. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Covers major developments in the history of the Caribbean in the period after the British abolition of slavery in 1834, with a major focus on the social and economic aspects of change.

HIST 378. Atlantic Slavery. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines social and economic aspects of slavery in the Atlantic world, principally Africa, the Caribbean, the United States and Canada.

HIST 379. The History of Modern Japan. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will offer a detailed examination of Japan's modern history, from the rise of Tokugawa rule in 1600 to the end of World War II. A general overview of Japan's traditional society will give way to a historical analysis of the major social, cultural, political and intellectual changes that occurred in Japan throughout this time period.

HIST 380. Africa and the Americas: Slavery, Gender and Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines various aspects of slavery in Africa and selected parts of the African diaspora, including the United States, Canada and the Caribbean, with special emphasis on the role played by race and gender. Topics will include African conditions of servility, the trans-Atlantic trade in enslaved Africans, and chattel slavery, demography, labor, law, discipline, abuse, resistance and status. Crosslisted as: AFAM 390/GSWS 390.

HIST 381. History of West Africa to 1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the transformation of West African societies from early times to 1800, with emphasis on the rise of states and empires, the introduction, spread and impact of Islam, the Atlantic slave trade and its effects, and colonialism. Crosslisted as: AFAM 387.

HIST 383. History of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of the peoples of southern Africa. Deals with the areas that presently are the Republic of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. Emphasizes the interaction among the various communities and ethnolinguistic groups in southern Africa. Crosslisted as: AFAM 389.

HIST 384. Africa: Social, Cultural and Economic History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of economic, social and cultural developments in Africa from the beginning of the 19th century to the present, with emphasis on agricultural and industrial development, trade, Africa's involvement in the world economy, changes in labor systems, racial dominance, African initiatives and resistance, religion and social evolution, and Africa in world affairs. Crosslisted as: AFAM 388.

HIST 385. The History of Modern Japan. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will offer a detailed examination of Japan's modern history, from the rise of Tokugawa rule in 1600 to the end of World War II. A general overview of Japan's traditional society will give way to a historical analysis of the major social, cultural, political and intellectual changes that occurred in Japan throughout this time period.

HIST 386. History of Late Imperial China, 900-1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the history of China from 900 to 1800 CE. A general overview of China's political economy is followed by a historical analysis of the major social, cultural, political, intellectual and economic changes that occurred in China between 900 and 1800 CE. In addition, students will be introduced to such concepts and issues as empire building, conquest dynasties, steppe and sedentary societies, sociocultural history and Western and Chinese historiography.

HIST 387. The History of Modern China, 1800 to the Present. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines China's modern history beginning at the height of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) in 1800. A general overview of China's traditional political economy is followed by a historical analysis of the major social, cultural, political, intellectual and economic changes that occurred in China from 1800 to the present. This course is divided into three sections: the first examines the factors leading to the collapse of China's last dynasty in 1912; the second focuses on the revolutionary changes taking place in China during the first half of the 20th century (from 1912 to 1949); and the final section looks at Communist China since 1949.

HIST 389. History in Film: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits with different topics. An examination of the uses and misuses of historical events and personalities in film. Lectures and readings are used to critically analyze films dealing with biographies, events and propaganda.

HIST 390. Historical Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 or ANTH 105/INTL 104, and any history course. A review of historical archaeology, recognizing its contemporary emphasis on the spread of European cultures across the globe beginning in the 15th century. Methods and findings of archaeological research from the United States, Europe and Africa will be covered with special emphasis on the study of documents and artifacts related to the emergence and present state of the modern world. Students will participate in field research. Crosslisted as: ANTH 394.

HIST 391. Topics in History. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1, 2 or 3 lecture hours. Variable credit. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. An in-depth study of a selected topic in history. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

HIST 392. Revolutions in Science I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the history of science from the ancient Greeks to 1800, focusing on the development of scientific ideas, practices and institutions in Western society. Crosslisted as: SCTS 392.

HIST 393. Revolutions in Science II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the history of science from 1800 to the present, focusing on the development of scientific ideas, practices and institutions in Western society. Crosslisted as: SCTS 393.

HIST 397. Genetics and Society: 1865 to the Present. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the science and technology of heredity in its historical, cultural and political contexts, emphasizing the ways in which genetic theories have been applied in attempting to solve social and biological problems. Crosslisted as: SCTS 397.

HIST 398. History of Medicine and Public Health: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different thematic content for a maximum of six credits. Studies in selected topics in the history of medicine, medical science or public health. Includes introduction to the interdisciplinary approaches practiced in the history of medicine as well as the historical content and relevant analytical skills needed to examine the specific course theme. Crosslisted as: SCTS 398.

HIST 399. Introduction to Science and Technology Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the study of science, technology and medicine from political, sociological and historical perspectives, focusing on case studies that illustrate the methods and theories used to examine the structure and behavior of the scientific community and the role of scientific knowledge in shaping public culture. Crosslisted as: GVPA 399/SCTS 300.

HIST 401. Studies in Ancient History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of ancient history.

HIST 402. Studies in Medieval History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of medieval history.

HIST 403. Studies in Early Modern European History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Repeatable once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of early modern European history.

HIST 404. Studies in Modern European History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Repeatable once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of modern European history.

HIST 406. Studies in Middle Eastern History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of Middle Eastern history.

HIST 407. Studies in Early American History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of early American history.

HIST 408. Studies in Modern American History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of modern American history.

HIST 409. Studies in Latin American History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of Latin American history.

HIST 410. Studies in African History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours, 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of African history.

HIST 411. Studies in the African Diaspora: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of the African diaspora.

HIST 412. Studies in Asian History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of Asian history.

HIST 413. Studies in Atlantic History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of Atlantic history.

HIST 414. Studies in Indigenous History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of indigenous history.

HIST 415. Studies in the History of Religion: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of religious history.

HIST 416. Studies in the History of Women, Gender and Sexuality: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: 3 credits of 300-level HIST or permission of instructor. Repeatable once, with a different topic, for credit. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of the history of women, gender and sexuality.

HIST 417. Studies in African American History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: 3 credits of HIST at the 300-level or permission of instructor. Courses taught under this heading provide advanced study and analysis of the theory and field of African American history.

HIST 420. Studies in Historical Method: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: any 300-level HIST course. Focuses on a particular methodology used by historians as they investigate the past.

HIST 421. Studies in Comparative History: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once, with a different topic, for credit. Prerequisite: any 300-level HIST course. Undertakes a topic that cuts across regions and cultures, making comparative judgments about human events.

HIST 485. Seminar in Historiography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for maximum of 6 credits with different topics. Introduction to questions in historiography, meaning, methodology and interpretation in the teaching and writing of history.

HIST 490. Seminar in History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisite: HIST 300 with a minimum grade of C. Research and analysis of a selected historical topic in a seminar setting. See the Schedule of Classes for each semester's offerings.

HIST 492. Independent Study. 2-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 2-4 credits per semester. Maximum total of 6 credits. Open generally to students of only junior and senior standing who have acquired 12 credits in the departmental disciplines. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course.

HIST 493. Internship. 2-4 Hours.

Semester course; 2-4 hours; 2-4 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: HIST 300 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment generally open to students with senior standing. Students receive credit for work on historical projects with approved agencies. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of departmental internship coordinator must be procured prior to registration for the course.

Humanities and Sciences (HUMS)

HUMS 100. Intensified Problem Solving in Chemistry 100. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 workshop hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: Students must be eligible to take MATH 131 or higher. Corequisite: CHEM 100. Problem-solving sessions will engage students in cooperative learning in open discussions of the elementary principles of chemistry. Students work on chemistry problems in small groups in which each student participates in the presentation of problem solutions to the class. Students receive mock quizzes and exams and will be given assistance on homework problems assigned in their chemistry lecture. This course is for students who do not meet the criteria for enrollment in CHEM 101. These credits may not be used to satisfy any chemistry course requirements in the College of Humanities and Sciences.

HUMS 101. Intensified Problem Solving in Chemistry 101. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 workshop hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 100 with a grade of C or higher or a satisfactory score on the Chemistry Placement Test. Students must be eligible to take MATH 151 or higher. Corequisite: CHEM 101. Problem-solving sessions will encompass the fundamental principles and theories of chemistry. Students will form and work in small study groups and must participate in open discussions of the concepts of chemistry. Each student participates in the presentation of problem solutions to the class. Students will receive mock quizzes and exams and will be given assistance on homework problems assigned in the general chemistry lecture. These credits may not be used to satisfy any chemistry course requirements in the College of Humanities and Sciences.

HUMS 102. Intensified Problem Solving in Chemistry 102. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 101 with a grade of C or higher, MATH 151 or higher. Corequisite: CHEM 102. Problem-solving sessions will encompass the fundamental principles and theories of chemistry. Students will form and work in small study groups where they engage in cooperative learning and must participate in open discussions of the concepts of chemistry. Each student participates in the presentation of problem solutions to the class. Students will receive mock quizzes and exams and will be given assistance on homework problems assigned in the general chemistry lecture. These credits may not be used to satisfy any chemistry course requirements in the College of Humanities and Sciences.

HUMS 202. Choices in a Consumer Society. 1 Hour.

Semester course. 1 credit. Corequisite: UNIV 112. Provides a framework for understanding the nature of choices made in a consumer society, with an emphasis on the financial consequences of those choices. Students will gain the practical knowledge needed to make informed personal financial decisions as they address immediate, short-term and long-term consumer choices. Administered primarily as a self-paced, computer-aided instructional course.

HUMS 250. Reading Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 111 or equivalent. Develops students' visual literacy by exploring and analyzing the various elements of film (cinematography, lighting, editing, art direction, acting and sound, among others). Examples will be drawn from both U.S. and world cinema and from all eras of filmmaking.

HUMS 291. Special Topics in the Humanities and Sciences. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 credits. May be repeated with different content. Specialized topics in the liberal arts and sciences designed to provide an overview of a topic not provided by an existing course or program. May be multidisciplinary. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor.

HUMS 300. Great Questions of the Social Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The social sciences explore human aspects of the world in fields of study that include anthropology, criminology, economics, education, geography, law, political science, psychology and sociology. This course explores fundamental questions of social science and examines their historical and contemporary relevance.

HUMS 391. Special Topics in the Humanities and Sciences. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated with different content. Specialized topics in the liberal arts and sciences designed to provide an overview of a topic not provided by an existing course or program. May be multidisciplinary. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor.

Humanities and Sciences – Interdisciplinary (HUSI)

HUSI 190. College Seminar. 1 Hour.

1 lecture hour. 1 credit. May be repeated once for credit. Open only to students who participate in these programs. A seminar designed for first-year programs coordinated through the office of the dean of the College of Humanities and Sciences. Designed to help students integrate general education courses.

HUSI 491. College Topics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Open primarily to seniors; others with permission of instructor. A discussion of complex issues that are of enduring value or of critical interest to society. The goals of the course are to (1) bring general principles from disciplinary or a variety of disciplinary contexts to bear on specific problems; (2) exercise critical thinking; (3) understand and integrate diverse perspectives; and (4) explore models of decision-making, underlying assumptions and implications. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Interdisciplinary Science (INSC)

INSC 201. Energy!. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 131, 141, 151, 200, or higher; or MGMT 171, 212, or 301; or STAT 208, 210, 212, or higher; or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. A study of global energy demands, how they are being met, environmental consequences and alternative energy sources.

INSC 300. Experiencing Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 5 studio hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 4 credits in biology, 3 credits in physical science, 3 credits in mathematics, and STAT 208, 210, 212, or 312. Study of the methods and processes used by scientists in investigations. Guided, active replication of great discoveries in major scientific disciplines in physical science, life science and earth science.

INSC 301. Investigatory Mathematics and Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 4 credits in biology, 4 credits in physical science, 3 credits in mathematics and STAT 208 or STAT 210. Students investigate real-world science problems, formulate model solutions to the problems, produce project reports and present their solutions to class. Problems selected from areas including water quality, epidemics and spread of diseases, heat loss and gain, genetics and drugs in the body.

INSC 310. Content of Elementary Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture/laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: 11 credits of science courses. Designed for preservice elementary school teachers. Develops mastery of select topics in the physical, earth and life science strands appropriate to the K-6 level. Topics will be presented in the context of hands-on activities designed for the classroom, using techniques such as guided inquiry and the learning cycle.

INSC 490. Capstone Research Experience in Interdisciplinary Science. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Restricted to seniors in the science major with at least 85 credit hours taken toward the degree. Intensive study of a contemporary scientific problem engaging more than one scientific discipline. Emphasis on understanding scientific research and science writing. Course taught online.

International Studies (INTL)

INTL 101. Human Societies and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary inquiry into how societies around the world are organized and how they are interrelated on social, economic, political and cultural dimensions. The course is organized around themes that are important to prominent globalization processes -- topics such as human rights, global inequalities, cultural globalization, global crime, globalization and religion, the global mass media, and environmental issues. Students also explore the implications of rapid social change for international issues and interpersonal interaction.

INTL 102. Introduction to Political Economy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Seminar on the development of critical thought and economic analysis of policy issues. Focus is on how policy choices affect society and the individual, the economic methodology that guides policy choices, and the institutional and political environments within which policy is derived. Issues cover a broad range of topics including environmental issues, tax policy, inflation expectations, unemployment, foreign trade and the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policies. Crosslisted as: ECON 101.

INTL 103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 103.

INTL 104. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: ANTH 105.

INTL 105. International Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introductory analysis of interstate relations and world affairs. Attention focuses on theories of international politics, military capabilities and their application, international organizations, global economic trends, domestic sources of state behavior and other selected issues as appropriate. Crosslisted as: POLI 105.

INTL 151. Global Communications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores how communication media and globalization drive each other and how they both impact the nation-state as well as international institutions. Examines how technology, the global economy and international media corporations influence culture, politics, business, law and other institutions in countries around the world. Explores the relationship between media systems and governments and how both are affected by technology and globalization. Crosslisted as: MASC 151.

INTL 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM 200/ANTH 200.

INTL 201. Introduction to the Middle East and North Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary introduction to the region of the Middle East and North Africa, its peoples and cultures. Covers the geography, climate, economy, language, religious and social systems, as well as other social systems and cultural features that are traditional to the peoples of the region.

INTL 202. Indentities in a Global Community. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to intercultural communication. Designed to help students develop an understanding of cultures, to appreciate the opportunities and challenges that each culture presents to people and to learn how individuals have dealt with those opportunities and challenges.

INTL 203. Cultural Texts and Contexts: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Through the analysis and interpretation of literary, cinematic and other cultural texts, this course explores the ways cultural and national identities have been shaped, imagined and contested in various regions of the world. While responding to the readings and films as artistic manifestations or social documents, students will also become familiar with the aesthetic, political and social contexts in which the works were and are produced. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: WRLD 203.

INTL 204. Language and Groups in the United States. 3,4 Hours.

Semester course; 3-4 lecture hours. 3-4 credits. Taught in English. This course introduces students to the sociocultural experience and formation of identity of non-English-speaking peoples in the United States. Students explore the dynamic between English and a specific heritage language and its interaction with artistic, cultural and social issues through fiction and nonfiction texts, films and multimedia pertaining to specific language groups, such as: Latinos, Italian-Americans, German-Americans or Native Americans. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: FRLG 204.

INTL 211. Contemporary World Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. A study of selected literature published in the past 25 years and chosen from a number of different nations and cultures. Crosslisted as: ENGL 211.

INTL 303. World Regions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the various regions of the earth, including land forms, climate, resources, peoples, agriculture and urban conditions. Regions to be selected each semester from Anglo-America, Latin America, western Europe, Eastern Europe, the former USSR, Middle East and North Africa, Africa (south of the Sahara), Indian subcontinent, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. May be taken only once for credit. Crosslisted as: URSP 303.

INTL 306. Introduction to Judaism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of the dynamics and characteristic patterns of Jewish civilization encompassing history, practices and beliefs. Crosslisted as: RELS 306.

INTL 307. Black Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the role of religion in the lives of blacks with an emphasis on African religions and philosophies, the black church in America, and the roles of the various faiths, sects and cults. Crosslisted as: AFAM 307/RELS 307.

INTL 309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM 309/ANTH 309/GSWS 309.

INTL 311. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto. Crosslisted as: RELS 311.

INTL 312. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Crosslisted as: RELS 312.

INTL 314. Man and Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course. 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative study of the ecology and natural history of human populations, including the environments as determining factors in the evolution of human institutions and technology, resources management, and population crises; cultural traditions as mechanisms of population control; basic theory of population biology. Crosslisted as: ENVS 314.

INTL 315. Economic Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ECON 203 with a minimum grade of B and ECON 211; or ECON 210 and ECON 211. An introduction to the process of economic development. Surveys development theory and experiences of underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and of developed countries. Explores obstacles to development and policies and tools for stimulating economic development. Crosslisted as: AFAM 315/ECON 315.

INTL 317. Islam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the emergence of Islam in Arabia in the seventh century and its subsequent developments, including a look at the Qur'an (the holy book), the Prophetic traditions, the concept of God, and mysticism (sufism) and law (shari'ah) and an overview of ritual practices, fundamental beliefs, theological principles and current issues in Islam and international relationship. Crosslisted as: RELS 317.

INTL 320. International Marketing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MKTG 301. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Designed to help students develop an understanding of international marketing policies and the differences among foreign marketing environments. Students compare and contrast domestic and international marketing and examine recent changes in the international marketing environment. Crosslisted as: MKTG 320.

INTL 327. Introduction to Intercultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the basic concepts, principles and skills for improving verbal and nonverbal communication with persons from different cultures. Using a cultural general approach, topics discussed include the concept of culture, barriers to intercultural communication, verbal communication process and nonverbal communication aspects. Appropriate for business and non-business majors. Crosslisted as: MGMT 329.

INTL 328. Russian Society in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or permission of the instructor. An analysis of Russian culture and social institutions as they are today and in historical perspective. Throughout the course interrelationships among politics, the economy and social life are examined, with particular emphasis on the ideological implications of Russian/Soviet architecture, art and mass media; on environmental issues and health; on social problems and the legal systems; and on gender, the work world and family interaction.

INTL 329. International Economics. 3 Hours.

3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ECON 203 with a minimum grade of B and ECON 211; or ECON 210 and ECON 211. An analysis of economic and political influences on exports and imports, balance of payments, foreign investment, exchange rates and international monetary systems. Crosslisted as: ECON 329.

INTL 330. Global Societies: Trends and Issues. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/POLI 105 or POLI 201 or SOCY 101. An analysis of factors that are promoting the globalization of social, economic and political relations, and an inquiry into implications of these developments for individuals, localities, nations and the world community. The course will highlight the impact of culture and ethnicity, historical and emerging patterns of international business activity and their societal significance, divergent strategies for economic and social development in the world's regions, and the effects of population growth and environmental problems on public life within and among nations. Crosslisted as: SOCY 330.

INTL 331. Survey of Latin American Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 300; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN 301. Conducted in Spanish. An introduction to major authors and trends up to the present. Crosslisted as: SPAN 331.

INTL 333. Geography of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the land forms, climate, peoples, livelihoods, settlement patterns and cultural groupings of sub-Saharan Africa. Crosslisted as: AFAM 333/URSP 333.

INTL 334. Regional Geography of ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the land forms, climate, resources, peoples, agricultural and urban conditions in a specific region such as North America, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and India, the USSR and Eastern Europe. See the Schedule of Classes for specific region to be studied each semester. Crosslisted as: URSP 334.

INTL 340. World Cities Outside of North America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of urban habitats in a variety of geographical regions with emphasis on their differences and their common experiences. Crosslisted as: URSP 340.

INTL 341. Global Ethics and the World's Religions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical survey of ethical concepts and issues in the thought and practice of major religious traditions. Comparison of ethical perspectives on selected themes and attention to cooperative efforts toward a global ethic. Crosslisted as: RELS 340.

INTL 345. Great Cities of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated under different topics for a total of 6 credits. Enrollment restricted to students with sophomore standing or with permission of instructor. An interdisciplinary course with a focus on the origin, expansion and significance of one or more cities, the specifics of its/their culture and the role of language. Particular emphasis will be placed on relating the physical, social and economic aspects of the city's growth and development to the cultural expression of urbanism. Crosslisted as: FRLG 345/URSP 350.

INTL 348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: ANTH 348.

INTL 349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 349.

INTL 350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 350.

INTL 351. Governments and Politics of the Middle East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative analysis of political systems in the Middle East including the study of contemporary aspects of traditionalism, the political nature of transition, the instruments of political modernization, and evolution and revolution in the political process of Middle Eastern states. The course will explore the primary bases of cleavage and conflict and the principal forces that shape the policies and political dynamics of the region. Crosslisted as: POLI 351.

INTL 352. European Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative study of the political systems of selected western and eastern European countries. Crosslisted as: POLI 352.

INTL 353. Latin American Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of politics characteristic of Latin American systems, including democratic reformism, military authoritarianism and revolutionary socialism. The course also examines the contemporary problems of fledgling democracies as they cope with economic and debt crises and various opposition challenges. Crosslisted as: POLI 353.

INTL 354. Russian and Post-Soviet Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the origins, institutions, processes and disintegration of the Soviet political system and the ongoing reform efforts during the post-Soviet period. Special emphasis is placed on the politics of the transition to a democratic political system and a market economy. Other topics include nationality issues, social problems and foreign policy. Crosslisted as: POLI 354.

INTL 355. Asian Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative analysis of the politics and governments of major Asian states, with a focus on Japan, China and India. Crosslisted as: POLI 355.

INTL 356. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will introduce students to the basic outlines of government and politics in Africa. The course will consider such topics as colonialism, elitism, and nationalism and modernization strategies. Using the comparative approach, the course will primarily focus on West, East and Central Africa. Crosslisted as: POLI 356/AFAM 356.

INTL 357. Politics of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of racial and political developments in the southern tip of Africa. While South Africa will be the primary focus of analysis, other countries in the region such as Zimbabwe, Angola and Mozambique will be studied. Crosslisted as: POLI 357/AFAM 357.

INTL 358. Concepts of Comparative Government. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Comparative study of politics and governments. Introduces concepts and theories used in the study of political systems. Topics include democratization and democratic governance, the role of the state, one-party and military regimes, revolution, and economic and political development. Crosslisted as: POLI 358.

INTL 360. World Classics of Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical reading of selected works from among the spiritual classics of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism and other religious traditions. Crosslisted as: RELS 350.

INTL 361. Issues in World Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of several significant issues in world politics. Topics may include peacekeeping and collective security, international economic competitiveness, global environmental politics as well as selected others. Topics will vary with current events and trends in the international arena. Crosslisted as: POLI 361.

INTL 362. International Organizations and Institutions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the background development structure and operations of organizations and institutions such as the United Nations, the European Community and the Organization of American States. Crosslisted as: POLI 362.

INTL 363. U.S. Foreign Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analytical survey of processes and practices in the formulation of U.S. foreign policy, including an introduction to the goals, problems of implementation and current challenges faced by policy makers. Crosslisted as: POLI 363.

INTL 364. Vietnam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the complete record of the conflict in Vietnam. The primary focus will be on the period of U.S. involvement. The course will examine closely how and why the U.S. became involved in Vietnam and what impact the Vietnam War has had on political institutions and behavior. In particular, the course will examine what impact the period of U.S. involvement has had upon U.S. foreign policy. The course also will consider additional topics including public opinion and the war, the relationship between the president and Congress in light of the war, and contemporary U.S. politics as a backlash against the political movements of the 1960s. Crosslisted as: POLI 364.

INTL 365. International Political Economy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of both theoretical and current policy issues in international political economy. Theories to be covered include liberalism, mercantilism, Marxism, regionalism, world systems theory and others. Policy issues include differing styles of capitalism in the industrialized world, the political economy of development, the politics of international corporate alliances and others. Crosslisted as: POLI 365.

INTL 366. African Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of the literature of Africa with particular emphases on fiction and on West Africa. Some attention also will be given to orature. Crosslisted as: AFAM 363/ENGL 363.

INTL 367. Caribbean Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of West Indian writings. Attention will be given to African, European and Amerindian influences, as well as to the emergence of a West Indian literary tradition. Crosslisted as: AFAM 365/ENGL 365.

INTL 368. Women and Global Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of women and global politics, providing both a feminist re-examination of traditional international-relations theories and a comparative analysis of the political, legal and economic status of the world's women. The impact of women on global political institutions such as the United Nations will be addressed as well as other feminist and grass roots means of taking political action. Crosslisted as: GSWS 366/POLI 366.

INTL 370. Studies in the Music of the African Continent and Diaspora. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS 243 or MHIS/AFAM 250. An in-depth examination of selected topics and issues in African-derived musical and cultural traditions. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: AFAM 350/MHIS 350.

INTL 372. Global Women's Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the spiritual writings of women in various cultures and religious traditions. Crosslisted as: GSWS 372/RELS 372.

INTL 381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: ANTH 381.

INTL 390. Historic and Ethnic Textiles. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FASH 290 or IDES 446 or permission of instructor. An examination of the history of textile design and production around the world. Crosslisted as: FASH 390.

INTL 391. Topics in Foreign Literature in English Translation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. An in-depth study of selected topics in foreign literature. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of a foreign language is required. All work is done in English. Crosslisted as: FLET 391.

INTL 398. Directed Study Abroad. 8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0-8 credits per semester. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits with approval of student's major department. Permission of academic adviser required. A course involving travel and/or residence in a foreign country as features of the student's work on a pre-arranged project. Intended primarily for students participating in student exchange programs.

INTL 409. Modern Islamic Thought and Global Trends. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS 312 or INTL/RELS 317; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Introduces students to the integral relationship of Islam to major events of global concern and contextualizes these events into the wider modern and postmodern developments of Islamic thought and its intellectual and ideological self-interrogation. This course will provide students with the opportunity to study both the background of modern Islamic thought and selected contemporary events. Crosslisted as: RELS 409.

INTL 410. The Chinese Tradition in Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the development of Confucianism, of alternative ways of thought prior to the fall of the Han Dynasty and of neo-Confucianism. The systems of thought are examined in the light of their social, political and religious impact on China, Korea and Japan. Crosslisted as: PHIL 410/RELS 410.

INTL 412. Zen Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. A study of Zen Buddhism, including backgrounds in Indian philosophy and practice, development in China and Korea, and present-day Zen theory and practice in Japan and in Western countries. Crosslisted as: PHIL 412/RELS 412.

INTL 413. Comparative Financial Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FIRE 311. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). An analysis of the structure and functioning of financial systems in different parts of the world. Emphasis is on the evolution of such systems in relation to the U.S. financial system. Different regions of the world may be studied in different semesters. Crosslisted as: FIRE 413.

INTL 415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: ANTH 415.

INTL 416. International Financial Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FIRE 311. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Financial management of business in an international environment. Emphasis on tools and techniques to prepare financial managers of multinational firms to effectively respond to the challenges of the international environment. Crosslisted as: FIRE 316.

INTL 418. International Management. 3 Hours.

3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing. The study of the environment of international business, ethics and social responsibility in international settings, culture and its effect on behavior and management practice, and the strategies and management practices of firms engaged in international activities. Aims to provide students with the knowledge, skills and sensitivities needed to be effective managers in the international business environment. Crosslisted as: MGMT 418.

INTL 419. Doing Business in Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing and permission of instructor. Designed primarily as a core integrative course for students enrolled in the Certificate in International Management Studies, but other students are welcome. The course has three goals: a) integration of foreign languages, European studies and international management; b) infusion of other business areas relevant to doing business in Europe (such as international marketing, finance law and economics); and c) the development of cultural sensitivity and social responsibility. The course will be organized as a series of seminars with faculty and other speakers from the above disciplines. Crosslisted as: MGMT 419.

INTL 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM 420/ANTH 420.

INTL 421. Civilization of Latin America II. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN 300 or 301. This course explores the cultural diversity of Latin America and the social and political forces behind cultural change. Topics will focus on a specific interdisciplinary theme, such as urban life, the politics of identity and on a specific area of Latin America. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: SPAN 421.

INTL 425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS 425/ANTH 425.

INTL 441. Islamic Mysticism: the Sufis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS 312 or INTL/RELS 317; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Introduces students to the major Sufi masters and their works. It covers ideological and practical development of Islamic mysticism as compared to the developments within Islam itself. Crosslisted as: RELS 441.

INTL 446. International Human Resource Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MGMT 331, INTL/MGMT 418 or ECON/INTL 329. Covers the application of human resource management activities in an international context. Highlights similarities and differences with domestic methods; current practices in the selection, development, compensation and maintenance of parent-country, host-country and third-country nationals; and the impact of regulatory and cultural differences between countries. Crosslisted as: MGMT 446.

INTL 448. Digital Marketing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MKTG 301 and MKTG 330. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Examines Internet marketing as a necessary ingredient to successful worldwide marketing strategy. Students analyze markets using Web-based techniques for market evaluation, competitive analysis, market comparison and selection. Discussion includes comparison of e-business versus traditional business perspectives on marketing strategies and tactics. Crosslisted as: MKTG 448.

INTL 449. Religion, Globalization and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341, WLRD 210 or WRLD 220; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores the role religions are playing in the work of building a socially just and environmentally sustainable world community. Crosslisted as: RELS 450.

INTL 450. Francophone Literatures and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Introduces students to the literatures and cultures of the Francophone world. Provides an overview of the Francophone world and an in-depth study of literary works written in French from Africa, the Caribbean, North America, Asia and Europe. Also explores the impact of Colonial history on Francophone literatures and cultures. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: FREN 450.

INTL 451. Religion, Racism and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341, WLRD 210 or WRLD 220; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores the complex history and contemporary relationships between religion, racism and social justice. Crosslisted as: RELS 451/AFAM 451.

INTL 452. The Politics of Developing Areas. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Analysis of the processes of political and economic development. Includes a study of various challenges facing developing countries, such as economic inequalities, environmental degradation, mass political participation, military coups, revolution and civil war. Crosslisted as: POLI 359.

INTL 453. Western Religions, Women and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200; and RELS 108, GSWS 201 or WRLD 210. Explores the experience and portrayal of women in the three Abrahamic traditions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Study focuses on how these religions and their texts bear upon the social, economic, political and spiritual lives of women. Special attention is given to the impact of globalization and religious fundamentalism on women. Crosslisted as: RELS 453/GSWS 453.

INTL 454. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL 454/ANTH 450.

INTL 455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL 101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: ANTH 455.

INTL 456. Catholic Ethics and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 280 or 380, or RELS/INTL 312, or RELS 340/INTL 341; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. An exploration of the Catholic church's major theological, ethical, constitutional and strategic concerns, and an analysis of Catholic social teaching and its relation to current social issues such as abortion, peace and conflict, poverty, and human rights. Crosslisted as: RELS 455.

INTL 457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: ANTH 457.

INTL 468. Comparative National Security Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of national security policies and policy-making in a diverse set of nation-states. Emphasis is placed on comparing how threat perception, historical context, ideology, political structure and leadership impact national security policies of both powerful and weak nation-states. Crosslisted as: POLI 368.

INTL 480. China in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Traces how China is making the transition from a planned to market economy, and what implications this transition has on the political, social and urban landscape. Class discussions are grounded on a basic understanding of China's modern history and regional geography. Crosslisted as: POLI 360.

INTL 490. Seminar in International Issues. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in international studies major with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. An individualized research project focusing on international issues and undertaken in a seminar setting.

INTL 491. Topics in International Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a particular topic in international studies. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

INTL 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum total of 4 credits in all independent study courses. Generally open to students of junior and senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in international studies courses. Determination of amount of credit and permission of instructor and director must be obtained before registration of the course.

INTL 493. International Studies Internship. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; 50 clock hours in a local, national or international internship placement per credit. Variable credit. 1-6 credits with a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: junior or senior standing, and approval of selection committee or program director. The internship is designed to present opportunities for qualified students to acquire exposure to internationally oriented public and private organizations and agencies. The course includes a rigorous evaluation of the internship experience based on learning objectives stipulated in a contract between the student, faculty adviser and a field supervisor.

INTL 499. Senior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: completion of 18 INTL credits at the 300- or 400-level; senior standing. Pre- or corequisite: INTL 490, 492, or 493. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation and on the lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the international and area studies program.

Italian (ITAL)

ITAL 101. Elementary Italian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ITAL 101 to enroll in ITAL 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

ITAL 102. Elementary Italian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ITAL 101 to enroll in ITAL 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

ITAL 201. Intermediate Italian. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ITAL 202. Intermediate Italian Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in Italian through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

ITAL 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

ITAL 300. Advanced Composition and Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 202 or 205. Development of advanced written and oral skills through both systematic review of Italian grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building, and conversational activities based on a variety of situations. Conducted in Italian.

ITAL 320. Italian Cinema: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 300. Conducted in Italian. Traces Italian cinema from Neorealism to contemporary cinema, exploring genres such as comedy and Westerns as well as landmark works by the most important directors. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

ITAL 330. Themes in Italian Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 300. Conducted in Italian. An in-depth study of selected topics in Italian texts. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

ITAL 391. Topics in Italian. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. Pre- or corequisite: ITAL 320 or ITAL 330. Conducted in Italian. An in-depth study of selected topics in Italian. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Language and Cultural Competence (LGCC)

LGCC 101. Introduction to Language and Culture for Professionals I: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated for credit with a different language. Designed for anyone concerned about the effectiveness of communicating with diverse linguistic communities. The communication focus includes an introduction to basic structures and target terminology used in the professions. This course cannot be used to fulfill requirements of general education in the college or the foreign language major or minor.

LGCC 102. Introduction to Language and Culture for Professionals II: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated for credit with a different language. Prerequisite: LGCC 101 or the equivalent. Designed for anyone concerned about the effectiveness of communicating with diverse linguistic communities. The communication focus includes continued practice with basic structures and target terminology used in the professions. This course cannot be used to fulfill requirements of general education in the college or the foreign language major or minor.

LGCC 197. Basic Cultural Competence Training. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 hours. 1-3 credits. Designed for anyone concerned about the effectiveness of people working and living in multicultural societies. Bridges theory and practice through a series of hands-on exercises, simulations, stories and real-world examples to optimize the learners' skill development necessary for effective intercultural communication. Graded as pass/fail.

LGCC 201. Intermediate Language and Culture for Professionals I: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisite: LGCC 102 or the equivalent. Designed for anyone concerned about the effectiveness of communicating at an intermediate level with diverse linguistic communities. Delves further into grammatical structures, cultural concepts and target terminology used in the professions. This course cannot be used to fulfill requirements of general education in the college or the foreign language major or minor.

LGCC 202. Intermediate Language and Culture for Professionals II: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisite: LGCC 201 or the equivalent. Designed for students concerned about the effectiveness of communicating at an advanced intermediate level with diverse linguistic communities. Offers continued instruction in cultural concepts, basic structures and target terminology used in the professions. This course cannot be used to fulfill requirements of general education in the college or the foreign language major or minor.

LGCC 297. Cultural Competence for Health Care Professionals. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 hours. 1-3 credits. Designed for health care, social work, public health and related providers who work with the growing number of immigrants, refugees and minorities in the U.S. Focus is on the basics of intercultural-communication competence for health care settings to help health care providers build deeper knowledge and understanding of patients/clients' cultural values and beliefs and how they may influence clients' attitudes and behaviors. Graded as pass/fail.

LGCC 405. Spanish Language and Culture for Health Care Providers I. 2 Hours.

Continuous courses; 2 lecture hours. 2-2-2 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Completion of LGCC 405 to enroll in LGCC 406. Completion of LGCC 406 to enroll in LGCC 407. Open only to students enrolled in health care programs such as nursing, medicine, allied health, pharmacy, dentistry, or health care practitioners. A survey of the changing demographics of patients in health care and the language and cultural skills required to provide adequate health care services. The communication focus includes basic structures and medical terminology used during assessments and phrases commonly used during physical examinations. These courses cannot be used to fulfill requirements for the Spanish major or minor, nor can they fulfill the general education language requirement.

LGCC 406. Spanish Language and Culture for Health Care Providers II. 2 Hours.

Continuous courses; 2 lecture hours. 2-2-2 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Completion of LGCC 405 to enroll in LGCC 406. Completion of LGCC 406 to enroll in LGCC 407. Open only to students enrolled in health care programs such as nursing, medicine, allied health, pharmacy, dentistry, or health care practitioners. A survey of the changing demographics of patients in health care and the language and cultural skills required to provide adequate health care services. The communication focus includes basic structures and medical terminology used during assessments and phrases commonly used during physical examinations. These courses cannot be used to fulfill requirements for the Spanish major or minor, nor can they fulfill the general education language requirement.

LGCC 407. Spanish Language and Culture for Health Care Providers III. 2 Hours.

Continuous courses; 2 lecture hours. 2-2-2 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Completion of LGCC 405 to enroll in LGCC 406. Completion of LGCC 406 to enroll in LGCC 407. Open only to students enrolled in health care programs such as nursing, medicine, allied health, pharmacy, dentistry, or health care practitioners. A survey of the changing demographics of patients in health care and the language and cultural skills required to provide adequate health care services. The communication focus includes basic structures and medical terminology used during assessments and phrases commonly used during physical examinations. These courses cannot be used to fulfill requirements for the Spanish major or minor, nor can they fulfill the general education language requirement.

Language Skills (LASK)

LASK 103. Introduction to Languages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A course designed to help students understand how languages function through a survey and contrastive analysis of language systems, with attention to the sociocultural, psychological and historical aspects of languages. Completion of this course does not qualify a student to take the 200 level of a language without passing a language placement test. Crosslisted as: LING 103.

LASK 203. Classical Elements in the English Language. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Development of English vocabulary through a study of Greek and Latin elements in English: derivatives, roots and loan words. Some emphasis on the special vocabularies of the sciences.

Latin (LATN)

LATN 101. Elementary Latin. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 4 lecture hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of LATN 101 to enroll in LATN 102. First semester: a study of the Latin language with emphasis on the Latin elements found in English. Latin vocabulary. Second semester: introduction to Latin authors and related aspects of Roman civilization.

LATN 102. Elementary Latin. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 4 lecture hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of LATN 101 to enroll in LATN 102. First semester: a study of the Latin language with emphasis on the Latin elements found in English. Latin vocabulary. Second semester: introduction to Latin authors and related aspects of Roman civilization.

LATN 201. Readings in Latin Literature. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: LATN 102. Completion of LATN 201 to enroll in LATN 202. Brief grammar review with a parallel study of political and literary trends and developments as found in several of the major Latin writers. First semester: prose, with emphasis on Cicero, Pliny the Younger and Sallust. Second semester: poetry, with selected readings from Catullus, Tibullus, Ovid and Vergil.

LATN 202. Readings in Latin Literature. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: LATN 102. Completion of LATN 201 to enroll in LATN 202. Brief grammar review with a parallel study of political and literary trends and developments as found in several of the major Latin writers. First semester: prose, with emphasis on Cicero, Pliny the Younger and Sallust. Second semester: poetry, with selected readings from Catullus, Tibullus, Ovid and Vergil.

LATN 330. Themes in Latin Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: LATN 202. An in-depth study of selected topics such as science and medicine, law, or satire in works by authors such as Caesar, Cicero, Horace, Catullus, Ovid, Virgil, Marcus Aurelius and Lucretius. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester. Texts are in the original language.

LATN 331. Representative Authors in Latin Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: LATN 202. Selected readings by authors from the Archaic Period, the Classical Age, Silver Age and Patristic Latin with a focus on their impact on the political and social agendas of the day and on us today. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester. Texts are in the original language.

Linguistics (LING)

LING 103. Introduction to Languages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A course designed to help students understand how languages function through a survey and contrastive analysis of language systems, with attention to the sociocultural, psychological and historical aspects of languages. Completion of this course does not qualify a student to take the 200 level of a language without passing a language placement test. Crosslisted as: LASK 103.

LING 390. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An introduction to methods of language analysis, emphasizing the study of sounds and sound patterns, and units of meaning and their arrangements. Crosslisted as: ENGL 390/ANTH 390.

LING 392. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: ANTH 328/ENGL 392/FRLG 328.

LING 401. Comparative Structures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 301; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; SPAN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. A comparison of English and Spanish, with emphasis on pronunciation and problems encountered in the teaching of Spanish. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: SPAN 401.

LING 402. Language Issues in the Spanish-speaking World. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 301; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; SPAN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. Through a variety of topics this course explores the links between language and human behavior as exemplified by language phenomena in the Spanish-speaking world. Topics will be drawn mainly from sociolinguistics, language and culture, and education and applied linguistics. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: SPAN 402.

LING 450. Modern Grammar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Study of modern English grammar and usage with some attention to linguistic theory. Recommended for teachers at all levels. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. For English majors, these courses (limit of six credits) may be counted as part of graduate or undergraduate degree, but not both. Crosslisted as: ENGL 450.

LING 451. History of the English Language. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. The historical development of the English language; etymology, morphology, orthography and semantics. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. For English majors, these courses (limit of six credits) may be counted as part of graduate or undergraduate degree, but not both. Crosslisted as: ENGL 451.

LING 452. Language and Gender. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211,215, 236, 291 or 295. A study of relationships between gender and language by focusing on such issues as differences between the ways women and men use language, relationships between language and power and ways in which language reflects and reinforces cultural attitudes toward gender. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. Crosslisted as: GSWS 452/ENGL 452.

LING 453. Modern Rhetoric. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of a broad range of modern rhetorical theories, emphasizing their possible relationships with linguistics, literary criticism, civic engagement and the process of writing. Crosslisted as: ENGL 453.

Mass Communications (MASC)

MASC 101. Mass Communications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open only to mass communications majors or media studies minors, or by permission of School of Mass Communications. A comprehensive overview of mass media which examines its history and evolution. Emphasis is given to the ways in which communications technologies have shaped and are shaped by society. Considers how digital and earlier technologies have led to increasing integration of world cultures and economies. Includes discussion of mass media law and ethics, including the origins and evolution of a free press and the legal framework of contemporary mass media practice.

MASC 151. Global Communications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores how communication media and globalization drive each other and how they both impact the nation-state as well as international institutions. Examines how technology, the global economy and international media corporations influence culture, politics, business, law and other institutions in countries around the world. Explores the relationship between media systems and governments and how both are affected by technology and globalization. Crosslisted as: INTL 151.

MASC 201. Curiousness. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Study and practice of the first attribute for success in creativity: curiousness. Students engage in practical applications, readings, lectures, demonstrations and in-class exercises that build curiosity and help students identify and trust their natural curious nature. Provides advertising and non-advertising majors with rigorous and provocative challenges to stimulate further interest in creating for media.

MASC 203. Journalism Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 101 minimum grade of C, UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200 with minimum grade(s) of C, and minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5. Study and practice in fact gathering and development of basic writing skills for print, broadcast and online journalism. Focuses on journalistic storytelling, grammar, Associated Press style and knowledge of current affairs.

MASC 204. Story. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 101 minimum grade of C and 201 minimum grade of C, UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200 with minimum grade(s) of C, and minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5. Focuses on writing for advertising and consumer communications (the best advertising tells stories to which consumers can relate). Students study the parts of a story, what makes a story interesting and how to find those things. Practice includes looking for, finding and constructing a story. A survey of many different ways storytelling is involved in making advertising. Practice in applying storytelling skills to several advertising and communication projects.

MASC 210. Public Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduction to public relations principles and practices, including analysis of tools, media, ethical responsibilities and emerging technologies. Special attention to the theory and research literature on rational and ethical persuasion.

MASC 251. Global Health and Social Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An online service-learning class in which students explore the theory and practice of social media campaigns for global health issues and develop projects for nonprofit clients. The class will explore the following issues: theories and concepts of social media campaigns about global health issues; practical application of social media in health campaigns; targeting online audiences through social media; utilization of multimedia content for social media; and organizational strategies for social media to achieve social benefits.

MASC 261. History and Development of Journalism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 101 with a minimum grade of C. An examination of the regulatory, technical, economic and creative foundations of print, broadcast and Web-based journalism. Historical, contemporary and ethical issues are also addressed.

MASC 290. Ethical Problems in Mass Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 101 minimum grade of C. Examination and analysis of contemporary issues and problems in conventional and new media. The philosophical foundation and principles of ethical decision-making are explored. Critical and unresolved issues are discussed within the legal and ethical framework of modern mass media practice. Students are required to design and justify resolutions to the issues and present defenses for the resolution proposals.

MASC 291. Topics in Communications. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated once with different content. A study of a specialized topic in mass communications. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered.

MASC 300. Technical Prowess. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 204 minimum grade of C. For advertising students only. Examines the functions of visual and graphic communication in the print and electronic media. Focuses on mastery of graphics software and basic design principles used in advertising. Students gain hands-on experience with state-of-the-art computer graphics and layout programs. (May not be taken if student has taken MASC 301 or 334.).

MASC 301. Graphics for Journalism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 with a minimum grade of C. For journalism students only. Examines the functions of visual and graphic communication in the print and electronic media. Focuses on creative typographic and layout design principles and integrates practice in editing, graphic creation, digital-image manipulation and professional publishing. Students gain hands-on experience with state-of-the-art computer graphics and layout programs used in newspaper and magazine journalism. (May not be taken if student has taken MASC 300 or 334.).

MASC 303. Reporting for Print and Web. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 203 minimum grade of C and UNIV 200 minimum grade of C or HONR 200 minimum grade of C. Detailed study in reporting and writing news stories for print publications and websites. Focus on interviewing, writing news and features and preparing for entry-level reporting assignments. Students also will learn online presentation skills, including photos, audio, video and interactive elements.

MASC 305. Copy Editing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 301 minimum grade of C. Instruction and practice in basic newspaper and online editing with a focus on practical experience in editing local and news service copy for publication. Includes emphasis on headline writing, development of news judgment, accuracy and fairness, and potential legal problems for copy editors. Attention also will be paid to layout and design for newspapers and online.

MASC 317. Visual Acuteness. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 300 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to advertising majors. Study and practice of visual problem-solving and graphic design. This course uses design thinking, conceptual thinking and process. Topics include building harmonious systems, using the typographic grid and understanding the relationship between type and image.

MASC 333. Public Relations Writing and Media Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 203, MASC 210, and UNIV 200 or HONR 200, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students. An intensive writing course focusing on researching and writing materials in support of the public relations function. Practice in preparing various collateral including news releases and advisories, story pitches, special events background materials, media kits, employee newsletters, community relations materials, and formal public speaking scripts. Explains the role and function of the news media and the unwritten rules that govern interaction with the news media. Students will learn how to construct an effective media relations strategy, how to be interviewed with skill and assurance and how to evaluate media relations within the organization’s public relations plan.

MASC 334. Public Relations Graphics and Production I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students or media studies minors. Study of the functions of visual and graphic communication for public relations practice. Focuses on basic design principles and skills in editing, graphic creation, digital-image manipulation, Web and interactive content. Students gain hands-on experience with state-of-the-art computer graphics and layout programs. (May not be taken if student has completed MASC 300 or MASC 301.).

MASC 335. Public Relations Graphics and Production II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 334 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students only. Continues development of visual and graphic communication skills acquired in MASC 334. Introduces development of additional multimedia skills to include photography, electronic newsletters and video storytelling. (May not be taken if student has completed MASC 300 or 301.).

MASC 336. Social Media in Public Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students. Covers development, trends and application of social media. Focuses on social media as a strategic tool for public relations professionals. Identifies and analyzes functionality and best practices, including audience engagement, benchmarking and appropriate metrics for social media monitoring, measurement and evaluation.

MASC 337. Public Relations Management and Case Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students. Through intensive review, study and discussion of public relations case studies, students will use and further develop their critical-thinking abilities to analyze how the public relations function was managed to serve organizational goals. Students will critique existing case studies as well as develop their own individual case studies.

MASC 338. Professionalism in Public Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students. Study of public relations careers, including in-depth examination of types of practice and industry choices for professionals. Includes development of job-seeking skills such as networking, resume and cover letter writing, interviewing, as well as professional skills such as impromptu and extemporaneous speaking, presentation development and effective meeting management. Focus on ethical practice and understanding of effective long-term professional development activities such as the Accredited in Public Relations and Accredited Business Communicator credentials.

MASC 341. Feature and Article Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 303 minimum grade of C or 363 minimum grade of C. Practice in preparing articles and features for newspapers and magazines. Emphasis is on creative journalistic writing and development of writing skills.

MASC 359. International Media Coverage: The Middle East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 101 or MASC 151 with a minimum grade of C. This interdisciplinary course explores the media's role in covering cultural, political, religious and other issues in the Middle East. Students will examine the role and impact of the media in both the United States and Middle East in shaping global and regional public opinion. Using webcam and online technology, VCU students will discuss cross-cultural perspectives with students from the other U.S. universities and universities in the Middle East. Crosslisted as: WRLD 359.

MASC 361. History and Development of Journalism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 or 204 with a minimum grade of C. An examination of the regulatory, technical, economic and creative foundations of print, broadcast and Web-based journalism. Historical, contemporary and ethical issues are also addressed.

MASC 363. Introduction to Broadcast Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: MASC 367. Students will concentrate on developing news writing and reporting skills for television and radio. Course work will include weekly writing assignments and the production of broadcast-quality radio and television stories. Knowledge of current events is essential.

MASC 367. Audio and Video Journalism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: MASC 363. Open to mass communications majors only. Focuses on the purpose, function and execution of basic techniques of audio and video field and studio production operations, especially as they relate to news. Emphasizes the production of broadcast-quality media content. Fieldwork production, remote production and live production, along with audio and video recording and editing, are covered.

MASC 380. History of Advertising. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 or 204 with a minimum grade of C. A foundation survey, from prehistoric to present day. What is advertising? How did it get to be that way and what might it become? Advertising's place in society through several eras, with emphasis on U.S. advertising history, but attention also paid to the role of advertising in other countries. An overview of the creation of the ad agency, a summary of its parts, an explanation of its workings and its place in society. Understanding advertising as practiced from various viewpoints including the agency, public, clients and social and political groups.

MASC 381. Great Advertising. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 380 minimum grade of C. Explores the practitioner-oriented approach to the creation, preparation and evaluation of advertising, branding and communications. Views great advertising from the perspective of integrated marketing communication and utilizes case studies of advertising and branding campaigns for some of the world's best-known brands.

MASC 382. Acumen. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 380 minimum grade of C. Focuses on excelling in the business aspects of advertising, branding and communications. To understand an advertising client's business needs, one must understand how the client does business. Students will learn about advertising from within the context of marketing, business and commerce.

MASC 392. Perspicuousness. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 204 with a minimum grade of C and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Intensive practice in choosing the right word for the right occasion. Study of the different types of advertising copy used by both local and national advertisers. Focuses on creative thinking and inspired writing for advertising, branding and communications.

MASC 393. Creativity for Television. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 380 minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. Learn the process of developing professional-level television advertising with a concentration in creative thinking and solutions. Students create TV commercials with attention to scripts, storyboards, talent, visual composition, editing, music, sound effects and direction.

MASC 394. Imagination. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 300 with a minimum grade of C. Study of art direction: practice in visualizing and utilizing media space aesthetically. Students complete assignments each week, ranging from traditional advertising to alternative media venues. Results are presented in front of the class for critique by faculty and fellow students.

MASC 397. Ubiquity. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 204 minimum grade of C. Using media to help achieve the client's ad objective. An intensive problem-based course on using mass, personal and social media to engage the consumer, to help communicate the brand's message and to add impact to a communications campaign. Students will study media planning and buying of all types of media (TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, outdoor, online and nontraditional).

MASC 398. Awareness. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 204 with a minimum grade of C. Understanding what advertisers can look for in their research and how they use research to connect with consumers. Through this intensive research practicum focused on account planning, students will learn to research consumers, competition and brands. Students will use quantitative (such as online surveys) and qualitative (such as focus groups, panel studies, one-on-one interviews) methods to research consumers and target audiences. Students will conduct competitive market research on brands.

MASC 399. Empathy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 204 with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on managing client accounts, team management, group dynamics, negotiating and presentation skills. Students learn how to persuade through understanding of others, including how to make smarter decisions, spark innovation and solve problems more quickly, and how to create a culture of candor, trust, resilience and accountability in clients and in coworkers.

MASC 403. Advanced Reporting. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 303 minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. Capstone course for journalism/print-online concentration. Intensive study of the techniques of reporting meetings and news of public affairs. Attention will be paid to covering governmental agencies at all levels. Instruction in newspaper editing included. Quality of writing will be a paramount and continual consideration. Emphasis on fast-paced deadlines. This course may not be taken simultaneously with MASC 404, MASC 475 or MASC 496 without permission from the instructor.

MASC 404. Specialized Project Reporting. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 303 with a minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. Capstone course for journalism/print-online concentration. Provides news beat experience for students reporting on complex issues facing the public in the urban community. Emphasis also on editing, team reporting, in-depth research and interviewing techniques, and use of public records. This course may not be taken simultaneously with MASC 403, MASC 475 or MASC 496 without permission from the instructor.

MASC 408. Communications Ethics and Law. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 or 204 with a minimum grade of C. Study of ethical and legal issues affecting the practice of journalism and public relations. Examination and analysis of contemporary issues and problems in conventional and new media. The philosophical foundation and principles of ethical decision-making are explored. Critical and unresolved issues are discussed within the legal and ethical framework of modern mass media practice.

MASC 409. Truth and Honor. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 204 minimum grade of C and 380 minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. A survey of laws pertaining to the creation of advertising, such as trademark and copyright, and to the effects of advertising in the culture. A discussion of ethical questions pertaining to persuasion, communication and the effects of advertising in the culture.

MASC 415. Advanced Video Journalism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 363 and 367, both with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: MASC 460. Students learn advanced field shooting and editing techniques as well as the inner workings of the television studio, including studio camera operation, advanced audio and video editing, visual storytelling, and advanced camera techniques.

MASC 423. Tourism and Hospitality Public Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students. Examines the role and practice of public relations in the tourism and hospitality industries. Students will learn how to use public relations strategies and tactics to stimulate interest among travelers in destinations and specific activities. Emphasis on media relations, special events, sponsorships/partnerships and social media.

MASC 424. Sports and Entertainment Public Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students. Examines the role and practice of public relations in the sports and entertainment industries. Students will learn the role of public relations in managing relationships with the news media, fans and fan groups, and other key audiences. Focus on media relations, social media, sponsorships/partnerships, promotions and community relations.

MASC 425. Public Relations Research. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to mass communications majors. An introduction to the role of research in public relations, with primary emphasis on content analysis, focus group, survey and communication audit methods and the evaluation of quantitative research data.

MASC 433. Special Events. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students only. Students learn the theory and organizational strategies of special events as a function of public relations. Topics include client consulting, objective setting, budgeting, sponsorships, vendor negotiations and follow-up procedures.

MASC 435. Crisis Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 and MASC 210, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students. Students learn techniques for dealing with sudden and unexpected situations that have a negative impact on organizations and their images to key constituencies. Through case studies and crisis simulation exercises, students develop strategic solutions for crisis situations. Students are provided with the insights, confidence and practical expertise needed to manage the consequences of a wide range of possible crises in ways that maintain, or even enhance, their employer’s reputation.

MASC 438. Organizational Communications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 425 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students only. Focuses on the tools to communicate with employees, volunteers and special organizational internal publics, and how those internal messages are used to achieve the goals and objectives of organizations. Students learn the theories of organizational communication and the techniques used to conduct an internal audit of the communication climate in an organization.

MASC 439. Agency. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 333, 335, 336, 337 and 425, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students. Application of public relations theory and methods in the preparation of a plan for a public relations campaign. Special attention to the planning process including issues analysis, and application of public relations and research methods.

MASC 450. Style. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 392 and 394, both with a minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. An advanced, intensive study of advertising style, forming one's own sense of style and the creative process. Emphasizing strategic and creative development of advertising campaigns. Students will conceptualize advertising campaigns, execute digitally produced, comprehensive advertisements and campaign materials, and assemble a final portfolio. Culminates in a formal portfolio review with professionals from the advertising industry.

MASC 451. Invention. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 450 with a minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. An advanced, intensive study of inventiveness in the creative process. Emphasis on strategic and creative development of advertising campaigns that builds on what students learned about advertising style in MASC 450. Prepares students for post-graduate work or study. Students will conceptualize and produce advertising campaigns and assemble a final portfolio. Culminates in a formal portfolio review with professionals from the advertising industry.

MASC 459. Judgment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 398 and 399 and 6 additional credits of MASC electives, all with minimum grades of C). For mass communications majors only. Application and demonstration of inspiration, innovation, advertising knowledge and skills. Designed to help students in the strategic concentration compile a strong, comprehensive body of work used in brand communications. Students will develop competence in evaluating communication concepts, market situations and client and agency concerns.

MASC 460. Advanced Television Newsgathering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 363 and 367, both with minimum grade of C. Corequisite: MASC 415. Television news practicum. Using the university and the city of Richmond as their classroom, students will report, write and produce television and multimedia news stories. Electronic newsgathering and editing equipment will be utilized to create professional-caliber projects.

MASC 461. The Documentary. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 303, 415 and 460, each with minimum grade of C. An examination of documentary concepts through analysis of radio, television and film documentaries. The course will center on the development, writing and production of a documentary in the medium (audio or video) of the student's choice.

MASC 462. Photojournalism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 363 minimum grade of C and 367 minimum grade of C. Examination of theoretical, technical and practical use of photography in communications and reporting, along with theories and legal guidelines of photojournalism. Training in news photography (both still and video) and its application in converged media. Students must have their own manually operable 35 mm film or digital (minimum 3.2 megapixels) single lens reflex cameras with at least a 50 mm lens or a zoom lens capable of 50 mm shooting. Students will use departmental video cameras.

MASC 463. Advanced Radio Newsgathering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 363 minimum grade of C and 367 minimum grade of C. Radio practicum. Using the university and city of Richmond as their classroom, students will report, write and produce radio news stories. Studio and remote equipment will be utilized to create professional-caliber projects.

MASC 465. Newscasting. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 303, 415 and 460, each with minimum grade of C. Concentrates on developing on-air skills in radio and television studio and field situations. Emphasizes journalistic principles in delivery of news, public affairs, editorial and interviews. Stresses grammar, diction and broadcast writing.

MASC 466. Television Studio Production. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 or 204 with minimum grade of C. Instruction and practice in basic television and studio production. Supports the production of television broadcast journalism programming by broadcast journalism students and explores standards, contemporary technologies and best-practices techniques for modern studio video production.

MASC 467. Nonprofit Project Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 210 with a minimum grade of C or MASC 380 with a minimum grade of C. Students will be selected to work with area nonprofit clients to create and produce a wide variety of advertising and promotional materials. Students will develop strategy, write creative briefs, recruit teams to work with them during CreateAthon onCampus (a 24-hour creative event held during Spring Break), present work to clients and follow any deliverables through production. Strong emphasis on leadership and a commitment to working with nonprofits.

MASC 474. Diversity in the Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 101 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to mass communications majors and media studies minors. Examines historical and contemporary issues associated with the presence and portrayal of selected groups in/by the media in the United States. Examines groups based on race, ethnicity, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, disability, religion and other characteristics. Issues related to diversity and diversity awareness in advertising, journalism and public relations are also explored.

MASC 475. Capital News Service. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 303 minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. Capstone course for journalism/print-online concentration. Advanced journalism students cover state government and politics, including the Virginia General Assembly, the governor, regulatory agencies and elections. Students produce content for publication by newspapers and other news outlets and for social media. Strong emphasis on fast-paced deadlines. This course may not be taken simultaneously with MASC 403, MASC 404 or MASC 496 without permission from the instructor.

MASC 480. Touch. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 398 minimum grade of C and 399 minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. Designing advertising strategies that touch the target audience and engage them in the brand. Students learn to understand the research, the consumer, the competition and the client's brand so that they can develop a strong communication strategy. This is an advanced study of the strategic side of advertising.

MASC 481. Completeness. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: creative advertising concentration: MASC 392 and 394, both with minimum grade of C; strategic advertising concentration: MASC 398 and 399, both with minimum grade of C. For mass communications majors only. Intensive study in the planning and preparation of advertising campaigns. Students develop complete advertising plans including research, media and creative strategies, sales promotion plans and merchandising plans.

MASC 485. Web Site Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 300, 301 or 334 with a minimum grade of C. Students will receive an introduction to the processes, principles and tools of website design, development and production. The course will focus on the development of strong interactive interfaces, animation, graphic images, text, and functional site design and organization. In this hands-on, computer-based course, students will design and develop a comprehensive site and launch it to the Internet. Increasing the students' knowledge of design principles and technical skills with Web development tools will be emphasized.

MASC 488. Strategic Communication of Health and Medical Issues. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 425 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to public relations students only. Students will discuss the role of media and strategic communication in publics’ information-seeking behaviors and formation of attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about health and medical issues. Closes the gap of health information disparity and enhances the communication practice of health-related organizations. Topics examined include thorough case analyses, primary and secondary research and strategic health communication design projects. The principles of strategic communication are applied to areas such as health care public relations, health audience segmentation and messaging tailored for different media forms.

MASC 491. Topics in Communications. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1, 2 or 3 credits per semester. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 203 or 204, either with a minimum grade of C. An intensive study of a specialized field of mass communications.

MASC 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses. Prerequisite: MASC 203 or 204 with a minimum grade of C. The course is designed for students who wish to study subject matter not offered elsewhere in the mass communications' curriculum.

MASC 493. Fieldwork/Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1, 2 or 3 credits per semester. May be repeated with different topics; maximum total of 6 credits may be applied toward graduation. Prerequisites: MASC 203 or 204, either with a minimum grade of C, and permission of internship coordinator. Selected students will receive on-the-job training under the supervision of an instructor and the employer. Internships are available in newspapers, magazines, public relations, advertising, radio and television.

MASC 496. Mobile and Social Media Journalism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MASC 303, 363 and 367, each with minimum grade of C. Capstone course for print-online journalism students. Integrates journalism skills and concepts from previous writing and reporting classes and adapts them to mobile and social media. Students work in a newsroom environment to utilize mobile devices and social media platforms to identify compelling story ideas, effectively break news and report on important news events and issues while applying theories and concepts of online social networking to journalism. Students develop their own professional social media portfolios and build online communities. This course may not be taken simultaneously with MASC 403, MASC 404 or MASC 475 without permission from the instructor.

Mathematics (MATH)

MATH 001. Elementary Algebra. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture or 3 laboratory/tutorial hours. No credit. Prerequisite: permission of the department chair. The purpose of this course is to provide laboratory and tutorial instruction for those seeking remediation or review of high school algebra. Topics include basic properties of real numbers, operations with algebraic expressions, solution of equations and inequalities, exponents and radicals, introduction to functions and graphing.

MATH 121. Perspective Geometry. 1 Hour.

Short course (5 weeks); 3 lecture hours. 1 credit. Students will examine ways in which Renaissance artists who developed linear perspective in geometry in order to paint scenes realistically infuenced the development of mathematics and geometry. Topics covered will include the foundations of projective geometry. Pascal's mystic hexagram, Brianchon"s Theorem and duality. A need for higher mathematics will also be introduced and explained. MATH 121-122-123 fulfills the math requirement for art students. The sequence can be taken in any order.

MATH 122. Tessellations. 1 Hour.

Short course (5 weeks); 3 lecture hours. 1 credit. Students will examine ways in which mathematics is rooted in both natural philosophy and art by examining tiling theory. Course topics include Penrose tilings, symmetries and various other tessellations. MATH 121-122-123 fulfills the math requirement for art students. The sequence can be taken in any order.

MATH 123. Visualization. 1 Hour.

Short course (5 weeks); 3 lecture hours. 1 credit. Students will examine ways in which mathematics has been visualized artistically and will develop their own way to express a mathematical idea. Topics covered will include fractals, knots, minimal surfaces, non-Euclidean geometry and the fourth dimension. MATH 121-122-123 fulfills the math requirement for art students. The sequence can be taken in any order.

MATH 131. Introduction to Contemporary Mathematics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. An exception to this policy is made in the case where the stated alternative prerequisite course has been completed at VCU. Topics include optimization problems, data handling, growth and symmetry, and mathematics with applications in areas of social choice. Major emphasis is on the process of taking a real-world situation, converting the situation to an abstract modeling problem, solving the problem and applying what is learned to the original situation. Does not serve as a prerequisite for MATH 151 or other advanced mathematical sciences courses.

MATH 141. Algebra with Applications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: one year of high school algebra and satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. An exception to this policy is made in the case where the stated alternative prerequisite course has been completed at VCU. Topics include sets, functions, exponents, logarithms, matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, inequalities, binomial theorems, sequences, series, complex numbers and linear programming.

MATH 151. Precalculus Mathematics. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 mathematics laboratory/recitation hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 141 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. An exception to this policy is made in the case where the stated alternative prerequisite course has been completed at VCU. Concepts and applications of algebra and trigonometry. Topics include graphics, transformations and inverses of functions; linear, exponential, logarithmic, power, polynomial, rational and trigonometric functions.

MATH 191. Topics in Mathematics. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. May be repeated for credit. A study of selected topics in mathematics. For a course to meet the general education requirements it must be stated in the Schedule of Classes. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

MATH 200. Calculus with Analytic Geometry. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 4 lecture hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite for MATH 200: MATH 151 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Prerequisite for MATH 201: completion of MATH 200. Limits, continuity, derivatives, differentials, antiderivatives and definite integrals. Applications of differentiation and integration. Selected topics in analytic geometry. Infinite series.

MATH 201. Calculus with Analytic Geometry. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 4 lecture hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite for MATH 200: MATH 151 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Prerequisite for MATH 201: completion of MATH 200. Limits, continuity, derivatives, differentials, antiderivatives and definite integrals. Applications of differentiation and integration. Selected topics in analytic geometry. Infinite series.

MATH 211. Mathematical Structures. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: calculus-level placement on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding enrollment in the course or MATH 151, MATH 200, MATH 201 or MGMT 212. An alternative prerequisite course may be approved at the discretion of the academic adviser. An introduction to mathematical logic and set theory, including applications in Boolean algebras and graph theory.

MATH 230. Mathematics in Civilization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. For Honors College students only. The growth, development and far-reaching applications of trigonometry, navigation, cartography, logarithms and algebra through ancient, medieval, post-Renaissance and modern times are explored. Will include methods to solve mathematical problems using various historical procedures and will involve collaboration through group projects.

MATH 255. Introduction to Computational Mathematics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201. (A core course for mathematics/applied mathematics majors.) An introduction to computer algebra systems (CAS) and their use in mathematical, scientific and engineering investigations/computations. Introductory mathematical computer programming using a CAS, including implementation of problem-specific algorithms.

MATH 291. Topics in Mathematics. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. May be repeated for credit. A study of selected topics in mathematics. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

MATH 300. Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201. (A core course for mathematics/applied mathematics majors.) An introduction to basic concepts of mathematical reasoning and the writing of proofs in an elementary setting. Direct, indirect and induction proofs. Illustrations of the concepts include basic proofs from mathematical logic, elementary set theory, elementary number theory, number systems, foundations of calculus, relations, equivalence relations, functions and counting with emphasis on combinatorial proofs.

MATH 301. Differential Equations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201. Solutions of ordinary differential equations of first order. Solutions of higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients and variable coefficients by the methods of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters, solutions by Laplace transforms and applications.

MATH 302. Numerical Calculus. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 255 (or knowledge of a programming language/mathematical software package) and MATH 201, or permission of the instructor. An introduction to numerical algorithms for solving systems of linear equations, finding zeroes, numerical differentiation and definite integration, optimization.

MATH 303. Investigations in Geometry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 361. Restricted to students majoring in the liberal studies for early and elementary education in the Bachelor of Interdisciplinary Studies program. A study of topics in Euclidean geometry to include congruence, similarity, measurement, coordinate geometry, symmetry and transformation in both two and three dimensions. These topics will be investigated using manipulatives and computer software.

MATH 305. Elementary Number Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 300. Divisibility, congruences, Euler phi-function, Fermat's Theorem, primitive roots, Diophantine equations.

MATH 307. Multivariate Calculus. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201. The calculus of vector-valued functions and of functions of more than one variable. Partial derivatives, multiple integrals, line integrals, surface integrals and curvilinear coordinates. Lagrange multipliers; theorems of Green, Gauss and Stokes. Applications.

MATH 310. Linear Algebra. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201. Systems of linear equations, vector spaces, linear dependence, bases, dimensions, linear mappings, matrices, determinants, quadratic forms, orthogonal reduction to diagonal form, eigenvalues and geometric applications.

MATH 350. Introductory Combinatorics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic combinatorial concepts such as combinations, permutations, binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers and Pascal’s triangle; basic theorems such as the pigeonhole principle and Newton’s binomial theorem; algorithms such as bubble sort and quicksort; and discussion of basic applications such as chessboard problems, combinatorial games, magic squares and Latin squares.

MATH 351. Applied Abstract Algebra. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 300. A survey of several areas in applied abstract algebra which have applications in computer science such as groups, codes, matrix algebra, finite fields and advanced graph theory.

MATH 353. Experimental Mathematics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to a mathematical computing package, computer manipulation of lists and sets, and symbolic computing. Numerical computation will be used to investigate mathematical objects, such as integers, prime numbers, graphs, matrices and to identify properties and patterns among these objects. Random methods will be used to explore properties and patterns in long sequences and large collections.

MATH 356. Graphs and Algorithms. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic graph theoretic concepts such as trees, colorings and matchings; basic theorems such as the handshaking lemma and the Gallai identities; algorithms such as Dijkstra’s and Kruskal’s; and discussion of famous open problems such as finding shortest tours for a traveling salesman.

MATH 361. Numbers and Operations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: TEDU 101 and either MATH 131 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Ways of representing numbers, relationships between numbers, number systems, the meanings of operations and how they relate to one another, and computation within the number systems as a foundation for algebra. Structured observations and tutoring of elementary-level students. Restricted to students majoring in the liberal studies concentration for early and elementary education in the Bachelor of Interdisciplinary Studies program.

MATH 362. Algebra and Functions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 361. Topics include algebraic concepts, linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric functions including graphical modeling of physical phenomena. Attention will be given to the use of graphing technology, the transition from arithmetic to algebra, working with quantitative change, and the description and prediction of change. Structured observations and tutoring of elementary-level students. Restricted to B.I.S. students in the liberal studies for early and elementary education concentration.

MATH 380. Introduction to Mathematical Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 200 and BIOL 151, or permission of instructor. An introduction to mathematical biology. Various mathematical modeling tools will be covered and implemented in a range of biological areas. Additionally, the collaborative research process will be presented and discussed. Crosslisted as: BNFO 380/BIOL 380.

MATH 391. Topics in Mathematics. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 credits. May be repeated for credit. A study of selected topics in mathematics. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

MATH 401. Introduction to Abstract Algebra. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 300 and MATH 310, each with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to groups, rings and fields from an axiomatic point of view. Coset decomposition and basic morphisms.

MATH 404. Algebraic Structures and Functions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 300 and MATH 310, each with a minimum grade of C; one additional mathematical sciences course; and permission of instructor. Semigroups, groups, rings, integral domains and fields. Exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Graphing in parametric and polar coordinates. Arithmetic and geometric sequences and series.

MATH 407. Advanced Calculus. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 300. Theoretical aspects of calculus. Topics include properties of real numbers, countable and uncountable sets, sequences and series, limits, continuity, derivatives, and Riemann integration.

MATH 409. General Topology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 407 with a minimum grade of C. Foundations and fundamental concepts of point-set topology. Topological spaces, continuity, convergence, connected sets, compactness, product spaces, quotient spaces, function spaces, separation properties.

MATH 415. Numerical Methods. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 255, MATH 301 and MATH 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Numerical methods for interpolation, solving systems of linear equations and initial value problems (ordinary differential equations) and the exploration of computational error.

MATH 427. Excursions in Analysis: Real. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 307, MATH 310 and MATH 407. May be repeated once for credit with a different emphasis and permission of the instructor. Intensive study of ideas and applications from real analysis.

MATH 428. Excursions in Analysis: Complex. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 307, MATH 310 and MATH 407. May be repeated once for credit with a different emphasis and permission of the instructor. Intensive study of ideas and applications from complex analysis.

MATH 429. Excursions in Analysis: Applied. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301, MATH 307, MATH 310 and MATH 407. May be repeated once for credit with a different emphasis and permission of the instructor. Intensive study of ideas and applications from applied analysis.

MATH 430. The History of Mathematics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 300, MATH 307, MATH 310, and either MATH 301 or OPER 327, all with a minimum grade of C. Surveys major trends in the development of mathematics from ancient times through the 19th century and considers the cultural and social contexts of mathematical activity.

MATH 431. Expositions in Modern Mathematics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 300, MATH 307, MATH 310, and either MATH 301 or OPER 327, all with a minimum grade of C. Descriptively studies several major ideas relevant to present-day mathematics, such as the advent of pure abstraction, difficulties in the logical foundations of mathematics, the impact of mathematics and statistics in the 20th century and the computer revolution.

MATH 432. Ordinary Differential Equations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 300, MATH 301, MATH 307 and MATH 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Existence and uniqueness of solutions, linearization and stability analysis, Lyapunov stability theory, periodic solutions, and bifurcations. Applications and simulations are emphasized.

MATH 433. Partial Differential Equations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 300, MATH 301, MATH 307 and MATH 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Parabolic (heat), hyperbolic (wave) and elliptic (steady-state) partial differential equations are studied. Solution techniques such as separation of variables, reflection methods, integral transform methods and numerical methods are demonstrated. Practical problems and applications are emphasized.

MATH 434. Discrete Dynamical Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 300, MATH 301, MATH 307 and MATH 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Theory and applications of difference equations including existence and uniqueness of solutions, linearization and stability, periodic solutions, and bifurcations.

MATH 454. Using Technology in the Teaching of Mathematics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 200 and STAT 212, each with a minimum grade of C; six additional credits in the mathematical sciences; and permission of the instructor. Using graphing calculators, calculator-based labs and computer software packages in teaching topics in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, statistics, finance and calculus.

MATH 480. Methods of Applied Mathematics for the Life Sciences: Discrete. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301, MATH 307, MATH 310 and MATH 380, each with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on the use of discrete dynamical system models to describe phenomena in biology and medicine. Students will explore the theoretical mathematics necessary to analyze these models. Computational solutions to these models will be developed and implemented to validate the models and to further explore the biological phenomena.

MATH 481. Methods of Applied Mathematics for the Life Sciences: ODE. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301, MATH 307, MATH 310 and MATH 380, each with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on the use of ordinary differential equation models to describe phenomena in biology and medicine. Students will explore the theoretical mathematics necessary to analyze these models. Computational solutions to these models will be developed and implemented to validate the models and to further explore the biological phenomena.

MATH 482. Methods of Applied Mathematics for the Life Sciences: PDE. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301, MATH 307, MATH 310 and MATH 380, each with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on the use of partial differential equation models to describe phenomena in biology and medicine. Students will explore the theoretical mathematics necessary to analyze these models. Computational solutions to these models will be developed and implemented to validate the model and to further explore the biological phenomena.

MATH 490. Mathematical Expositions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Restricted to seniors in mathematical sciences with at least 85 credit hours taken toward the degree. Required for all majors in the Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. A senior capstone course in the major designed to help students attain proficiency in expository mathematical writing and oral presentation, which require the efficient and effective use of mathematics and the English language. Students will learn a variety of topics in mathematics, write reviews of selected award-winning mathematics papers and write a senior paper.

MATH 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. Maximum 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits. Generally open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration for the course. The student must submit a proposal for investigating some area or problem not contained in the regular curriculum. The results of the student's study will be presented in a report.

MATH 493. Mathematical Sciences Internship. 3 Hours.

Semester course; the equivalent of at least 15 work hours per week for a 15-week semester. 3 credits. Mathematical sciences majors only with junior or senior standing. Admission by permission from the department chair. Through placement in a position in business, industry, government or the university, the student will serve as an intern in order to obtain a broader knowledge of the mathematical sciences and their applications.

Military Sciences (MILS)

MILS 101. Military Science and Leadership: Foundations of Officership. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 laboratory hour. 1 credit. Introduces students to fundamental components of service as an officer in the U.S. Army. Forms building blocks of progressive lessons in values, fitness, leadership and officership. Also addresses "life skills" including communications theory and practice (written and oral) and interpersonal relationships.

MILS 102. Military Science and Leadership: Introduction to Leadership. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 laboratory hour. 1 credit. Introduces students to "life skills" of problem-solving, decision-making and leadership. Designed to help students be more effective as leaders, both immediately on campus and in the long term in either military or civilian life. Introduces students to fundamental officer skills such as map reading, land navigation, tactics and leadership values/actions. Using these basic skills, students will build a rudimentary understanding of the core competencies necessary to become an Army officer and leader.

MILS 201. Military Science and Leadership: Innovative Team Leadership. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: MILS 101 and 102 or permission of department chair. Explores the dimensions of creative and innovative tactical leadership strategies and styles by examining team dynamics and two historical leadership theories that form the basis of the Army leadership framework. Aspects of personal motivation and team building are practiced by planning, executing and assessing team exercises, and by participating in leadership labs. The course continues to develop knowledge of leadership values and attributes through understanding Army rank, structure and duties as well as broadening knowledge of land navigation and squad tactics. Case studies provide a tangible context for learning the Soldiers Creed and Warrior Ethos as they apply in the contemporary operating environment.

MILS 202. Military Science and Leadership: Foundations of Tactical Leadership. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MILS 201 or permission of department chair. Examines the challenges of leading tactical teams in the complex contemporary operating environment (COE). Highlights dimensions of terrain analysis, patrolling and operation orders. Continued study of the theoretical basis of the Army leadership framework explores the dynamics of adaptive leadership in the context of military operations. Cadets develop greater self-awareness as they assess their own leadership styles and practice communication and team-building skills. COE case studies give insight into the importance and practice of teamwork and tactics in real-world scenarios.

MILS 203. Military Science and Leadership: Leader's Training Course. 6 Hours.

0-6 credits. Prerequisites: enrollment in the ROTC program, military service obligation and permission of department chair. Five-week summer course consisting of leadership training at Fort Knox, Ky. Completion of this course equates to completion of MILS 101, 102, 201 and 202, and enables students to enroll in the advanced military leadership courses. Amount of academic credit awarded depends upon amount of basic military science credit previously earned. Travel pay and salary provided through Department of Military Science and Leadership. Graded pass/fail.

MILS 301. Military Science and Leadership: Adaptive Team Leadership. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MILS 101, 102, 201 and 202 (or MILS 203), permission of department chair and military service obligation. Challenges cadets to study, practice and evaluate adaptive team leadership skills as they are presented with the demands of the ROTC Leader Development and Assessment Course. Challenging scenarios related to small unit tactical operations are used to develop self-awareness and critical thinking skills. Cadets receive systematic and specific feedback on leadership abilities.

MILS 302. Military Science and Leadership: Leadership in Changing Environments. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MILS 301 or permission of department chair. Provides instruction and case studies that build upon leadership competencies and military skills attained in MILS 301 in preparation for future responsibilities as Army officers. Specific instruction is given in individual leader development, planning and execution of small unit operations, individual and team development, and the Army as a career choice.

MILS 306. Military Science. 0 Hours.

0 credit. Prerequisite: MILS 302 and successful completion of four basic military science courses or MILS 203 Basic Military Science for six credits. ROTC National Advanced Leadership Camp. The ROTC camp summer practicum is six weeks long. Individual and group experience for application of leadership training. Exposure to leadership situations that require decisions made under physical and mental stress conditions.

MILS 401. Military Science and Leadership: Developing Adaptive Leaders. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MILS 302 or permission of department chair. Develops student proficiency in planning, executing and assessing complex operations, functioning as a member of a staff, and providing performance feedback to subordinates. Cadets are given situational opportunities to assess risk, make ethical decisions and lead fellow ROTC cadets. Lessons on military justice and personnel processes prepare cadets to make the transition to becoming Army officers. MS IV (senior) cadets lead lower-level cadets. Both classroom and battalion leadership experiences are designed to prepare MS IV cadets for their first unit of assignment. Cadets identify responsibilities of key staff, coordinate staff roles and use battalion operations situations to teach, train and develop subordinates.

MILS 402. Military Science and Leadership: Leadership in a Complex World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MILS 301, 302 and 401, or permission of department chair. Explores the dynamics of leading in the complex situations of current military operations in the contemporary operating environment. Cadets examine differences in customs and courtesies, military law, principles of war, and rules of engagement in the face of international terrorism. Cadets also explore aspects of interacting with non-government organizations, civilians on the battlefield and host nation support. Course places significant emphasis on preparing cadets for Basic Officer Leadership courses and their first unit of assignment. Utilizes case studies, scenarios and "What now, Lieutenant?" exercises to prepare cadets to face the complex ethical and practical demands of leading as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Army.

Operations Research (OPER)

OPER 327. Mathematical Modeling. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 200. Fundamental concepts of mathematical modeling. Topics may include differential equation models, optimization models and probabilistic models. Practical problems will be discussed throughout.

OPER 391. Topics in Operations Research. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. A study of selected topics in operations research. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites. Because of the changing subject matter to be treated in this course, enrollment requires permission of the instructor.

OPER 427. Deterministic Operations Research. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 245 or CMSC 255, MATH 310 and OPER 327. Introduction to topics in optimization including linear programming, network models and integer programming. Focuses on constructing sound models and on solving them using appropriate software. Algorithms and model properties are also discussed. Students may not receive degree credit for both OPER 427 and OPER 527.

OPER 428. Stochastic Operations Research. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 245 or CMSC 255, MATH 310 and STAT 309. Introduction to topics in discrete-event and Monte Carlo simulation including the application of probabilistic models in real-world situations, random number generation, random variate generation and Monte Carlo integration. Students may not receive degree credit for both OPER 428 and OPER 528.

Philosophy (PHIL)

PHIL 101. Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to some of the main branches of philosophy. Some of the issues that might be addressed are: What is knowledge? Is reason or experience the basis for all knowledge? Can we have knowledge of the past or of the future? What is truth? Does God exist? Is there a mental realm separate from the material realm? Are the laws of nature deterministic? Do we have free will? What makes an action morally permissible? What is the proper role of the state in regulating our lives? This course is directed primarily at first- and second-year students.

PHIL 103. Ancient Greek and Medieval Western Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of Western philosophy from the ancient Greeks (e.g., Socrates, Plato and Aristotle) through the medieval period (e.g., Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas).

PHIL 104. Modern Western Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of Western philosophy from the Renaissance to the 19th century ( e.g., Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel and Marx).

PHIL 201. Critical Thinking About Moral Problems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. Focuses on the development of sound critical-thinking skills and their application to a range of topics in moral philosophy, including questions about the nature of morality and whether we have reason to be moral, and also to various topics in applied ethics such as the morality of abortion, animal rights, world hunger, pornography, capital punishment, sexual behavior, environmental ethics and reverse discrimination. Credit toward graduation may be received for only one of PHIL 201, 212, 213 or 214.

PHIL 211. History of Ethics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. A philosophical investigation of the main concepts and theories of ethics and their application to fundamental moral questions, as illustrated by the ethical systems of such historically important Western philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Hume, Mill and Kant.

PHIL 212. Ethics and Applications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. A philosophical investigation of the main concepts and theories of ethics, with applications to fundamental moral questions as they arise in different areas. Such problems as abortion, the welfare of animals, world hunger, pornography, capital punishment, nuclear defense, sexual behavior, environmental ethics and reverse discrimination may be used as illustrations. Credit toward graduation may be received for only one of PHIL 201, 212, 213 or 214.

PHIL 213. Ethics and Health Care. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. A philosophical investigation of the main concepts and theories of ethics, with applications to fundamental moral questions as they arise in health care. The following issues may be used as illustrations: abortion, euthanasia and the right to die, human experimentation, treating mental illness, genetic technologies, the concepts of health and disease, and the funding of health care. Credit toward graduation may be received for only one of PHIL 201, 212, 213 or 214.

PHIL 214. Ethics and Business. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. A philosophical investigation of the main concepts and theories of ethics, with applications to fundamental moral questions as they arise in business. The following issues may be used as illustration: affirmative action, investment in unethical companies or countries, product safety, whistle blowing and advertising. Credit toward graduation may be received for only one of PHIL 201, 212, 213 or 214.

PHIL 221. Critical Thinking. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to inductive and deductive reasoning, with emphasis on common errors and fallacies.

PHIL 222. Logic. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An evaluation of deductive arguments utilizing the methods of symbolic logic.

PHIL 230. Reason, Science and the Self. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open to Honors College students only. The reasonableness of a belief often depends on the arguments that support it. One primary goal of this course is to sharpen the abilities to identify, analyze and assess arguments. Another primary goal is to show how to apply critical reasoning skills to philosophical explorations of the nature of science, knowledge and personal identity.

PHIL 250. Thinking About Thinking. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An interdisciplinary course about thinking. Covers the development of the principles of reasoning, such questions as how thinking relates to behavior and brain activity and how to think about specific areas of our lives, such as science, morality, religion, the arts and the law.

PHIL 291. Topics in Philosophy. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. Prerequisite: as specified in the Schedule of Classes or written permission of instructor. An introductory study of an individual philosopher, a particular philosophical problem or a narrowly defined period or school. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

PHIL 301. Mind and Reality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 9 credits in philosophy including PHIL 221 or PHIL 222, and one of PHIL 101, PHIL 103 or PHIL 104, or permission of instructor. An examination of central metaphysical issues, for example, the mind-body problem, free will, causality, action, realism and the problems of universals.

PHIL 302. Reason and Knowledge. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 9 credits in philosophy including PHIL 221 or PHIL 222, and one of PHIL 101, PHIL 103 or PHIL 104, or permission of instructor. An examination of central epistemological issues, for example, the problem of justification, empirical knowledge, perception, rationality and truth.

PHIL 303. Philosophy of Language. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 9 credits in philosophy including PHIL 222 and 6 additional credits, at least 3 of which must be from PHIL 101, PHIL 103 or PHIL 104, or permission of the instructor. An examination of central issues in the philosophy of language; for example, the nature of meaning and reference, reductionism, properties of languages and the character of artificial symbols systems.

PHIL 320. Philosophy of Law. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 9 credits in philosophy, which must include PHIL 221 or PHIL 222, and one of PHIL 201, PHIL 211, PHIL 212, PHIL 213, or PHIL 214, or permission of instructor. A critical examination of the nature of law and criminal justice in the light of important human values. The following topics will be considered: the nature of law and legal reasoning, the legal enforcement of morality, and such controversies as punishment versus rehabilitation and the right to due process versus the need for public safety.

PHIL 322. Tibetan Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A basic introduction to the history, development and mythology of the Buddhism of Tibet focusing on the Indian heritage and shared basis of all Buddhist practices, a clear identification of the three vehicles found in Buddhism, and a careful consideration of the path of the Bodhisattva, the hero of Great Vehicle Buddhism. Crosslisted as: RELS 322.

PHIL 326. Existentialism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: three credits in philosophy (exclusive of PHIL 221 and PHIL 222) or permission of instructor. An examination of the nature of truth, freedom, responsibility, individuality and interpersonal relations as found in some principal writings of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Sartre, Heidegger, Camus, Buber and Marcel. Crosslisted as: RELS 326.

PHIL 327. Normative Ethics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHIL 221 or PHIL 222; PHIL 201, PHIL 211, PHIL 212, PHIL 213 or PHIL 214; and 3 additional credits of philosophy; or permission of instructor. A study of issues in systematic normative ethics, including such topics as egoism, consequentialism, utilitarianism, deontology and the theory of the virtues.

PHIL 328. Metaethics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHIL 221 or PHIL 222; PHIL 201, PHIL 211, PHIL 212, PHIL 213 or PHIL 214; and 3 additional credits of philosophy; or permission of instructor. A study of issues in the semantics and metaphysics of ethics. Such topics as the following will be discussed: the objectivity of ethical judgements, the semantic value of ethical judgements and the possibility of ethical knowledge.

PHIL 331. Philosophy of Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 3 credits of philosophy and 6 credits of natural sciences courses. An examination of the bases of scientific inquiry in both the natural and social sciences; including a study of such topics as hypothesis formation and testing, and the nature of scientific laws, theories and explanations.

PHIL 335. Social and Political Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 9 credits in philosophy, which must include PHIL 221 or PHIL 222, and one of PHIL 201, PHIL 211, PHIL 212, PHIL 213, or PHIL 214, or permission of instructor. A critical examination of political power and of the relationship between the individual and society. Possible topics include: anarchism and the justification of having a state at all; political views about what sort of state is justified (e.g., conservatism, liberalism, communitarianism, feminism, Marxism); private vs. collective property; market vs. planned economies; democracy vs. totalitarianism; and civil disobedience and revolution.

PHIL 340. Philosophy for Children. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: two philosophy courses, which must include at least one of PHIL 101, 103 or 104. A service-learning course requiring at least 15 hours of service in which students will be required to lead philosophical discussions with primary/secondary schoolchildren. An analysis of perennial philosophical questions and problems with the aim of introducing them to children. Some of the questions that might be addressed include: What is happiness? What is justice? What is a mind? Can a mind exist apart from a body? Can machines think? What is time? What is knowledge? What are the limits of human knowledge?.

PHIL 342. Buddhist Reasoning and Debate. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: RELS/INTL 311. A basic introduction to perception, logic and epistemology in Buddhist thought. The course is designed to convey basic reasoning skills including formation of arguments, checking arguments for validity, and developing techniques and strategies for rational discourse. Crosslisted as: RELS 342.

PHIL 391. Topics in Philosophy. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. Prerequisite: as specified in the Schedule of Classes or permission of instructor. A study of an individual philosopher, a particular philosophical problem or a narrowly defined period or school. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

PHIL 408. Indian Tradition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: at least six credits from philosophy or religious studies courses. A systematic analysis of the major theories of Indian religious and philosophical thought: Vedas, Upanishads, Gita, Charvaka, Jainism, Buddhism, the six systems of Hinduism and contemporary developments. Crosslisted as: RELS 408.

PHIL 410. The Chinese Tradition in Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the development of Confucianism, of alternative ways of thought prior to the fall of the Han Dynasty and of neo-Confucianism. The systems of thought are examined in the light of their social, political and religious impact on China, Korea and Japan. Crosslisted as: RELS 410/INTL 410.

PHIL 412. Zen Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. A study of Zen Buddhism, including backgrounds in Indian philosophy and practice, development in China and Korea, and present-day Zen theory and practice in Japan and in Western countries. Crosslisted as: RELS 412/INTL 412.

PHIL 421. Aesthetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 3 credits in philosophy (exclusive of PHIL 221 and PHIL 222) or permission of instructor. A critical survey of philosophies of art from antiquity to the 20th century. Topics include: the nature of art, creativity, aesthetic experience and aesthetic judgments.

PHIL 430. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: three credits in philosophy (exclusive of PHIL 211 and PHIL 212) or permission of instructor. An introduction to the major problems and questions of religion and reason. Special reference will be made to the nature of God, the nature of man, the problem of evil, the source of good, immortality and the basis of authority. Crosslisted as: RELS 430.

PHIL 440. Mysticism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. A critical analysis of the varieties of mysticism in world religions. Arguments for and against mysticism will be emphasized. Mysticism will be related to art, psychology, science, philosophy, theology and magic. Crosslisted as: RELS 440.

PHIL 490. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: one of PHIL 301, 302, 303, 320, 327, 335 or permission of instructor in exceptional cases. Research and analysis of selected philosophical topic in a seminar setting. Must be taken at least once as a senior (i.e., after the completion of at least 85 credit hours toward the degree) to satisfy the capstone requirement.

PHIL 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 12 credits for all independent study courses. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course. An independent study course to allow interested majors in philosophy to do research, under the direction of a professor qualified in that field, in an area of major interest.

PHIL 496. Senior Research Project. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 credits. Prerequisites: Senior status; two courses from PHIL 301, 302, 303, 320, 327, 335, 391; and written approval by faculty supervisor. An individual research project to develop a polished journal-length research paper. This course is intended primarily for students who wish to develop a dossier paper for submission to a philosophy graduate program.

Physics (PHYS)

PHYS 101. Foundations of Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. For non-science majors. Introduction to the fundamental ideas of physics. The course covers selected topics in mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism and modern physics. Not applicable toward the physics major. An optional laboratory may be taken with this course. See PHYZ 101L.

PHYS 103. Elementary Astronomy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A descriptive approach to astronomy dealing with basic features of our solar system, our galaxy and the universe. Not applicable toward physics major. An optional laboratory may be taken with this course. See PHYZ 103L.

PHYS 107. Wonders of Technology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/laboratory/recitation hours. 4 credits. Introduction to physics concepts involved in everyday technological applications. The course covers selected topics in mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, and modern physics by depicting their role in common devices. The laboratory focuses on applications of physics principles to everyday real-life situations. Not applicable toward the physics major.

PHYS 201. General Physics. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 151. Completion of PHYS 201 to enroll in PHYS 202. Designed primarily for life-science majors. First semester: basic concepts of motion, waves and heat. Second semester: basic concepts of electricity, magnetism, light and modern physics. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS 202. General Physics. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 151. Completion of PHYS 201 to enroll in PHYS 202. Designed primarily for life-science majors. First semester: basic concepts of motion, waves and heat. Second semester: basic concepts of electricity, magnetism, light and modern physics. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS 207. University Physics I. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture, 1 recitation and 3 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 200 or permission of instructor. A vector- and calculus-based introduction to the fundamental concepts of mechanics, heat and wave motion.

PHYS 208. University Physics II. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture, 1 recitation and 3 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 207. Corequisite: MATH 201. A vector- and calculus-based introduction to the fundamentals of electricity, magnetism and optics.

PHYS 215. Science, Technology and Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examination of scientific breakthroughs that have led to transformational technologies that are continuing to impact society today. Topics include a historical perspective, an understanding of scientific principles and technologies and an examination of how such discoveries have changed society. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS 291. Topics in Physical Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture or laboratory hours. 1-3 credits per semester. A study of a selected topic in physics, astronomy, geology, meteorology or oceanography. Not applicable toward physics major. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS 301. Classical Mechanics I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 208 and MATH 307. Corequisite: MATH 301. Review of vector calculus. Newtonian mechanics: single particle, oscillations, motion under central forces and dynamics of a systems of particles.

PHYS 302. Classical Mechanics II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 301 and MATH 301. Motion in noninertial frames, dynamics of rigid bodies, coupled oscillators, continuous systems and wave equations in one dimension.

PHYS 307. The Physics of Sound and Music. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: A 100- or 200-level physics course or equivalent and the ability to read music or sing or play a musical instrument, or permission of instructor. Basics of the physics of waves and sound. Fourier synthesis, tone quality, human ear and voice, musical temperament and pitch, physics of musical instruments, electronic synthesizers, sound recording and reproduction, room and auditorium acoustics. Not applicable toward the physics major. Crosslisted as: MHIS 307.

PHYS 315. Energy and the Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to non-physics majors with junior or senior standing; not applicable to the physics major. A study of society's demands for energy, how it is currently being met, the environmental consequences thereof and some discussion of alternatives. Crosslisted as: ENVS 315.

PHYS 320. Modern Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 208 and MATH 307. Corequisite: MATH 301. Foundations of modern physics including special relativity, thermal radiation and quantization, wave-particle duality of radiation and matter, Schroedinger equation, atomic, nuclear and particle physics, and molecular structure and spectra. A continuation of PHYS 208.

PHYS 325. Visualization of Physics Using Mathematica. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 301, PHYS 320 or permission of instructor. Visualization of various areas of physics using the Mathematica language for performing numerical calculations and producing graphics and animations. Examples will be taken from classical mechanics, classical electromagnetism, modern physics, statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

PHYS 340. Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 301 and MATH 301. Microscopic theory of temperature, heat and entropy, kinetic theory, multicomponent systems, and quantum statistics. Mathematical relationships of thermodynamics.

PHYS 351. Guided Inquiry for University Physics I. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 207 and permission of instructor. Student learning assistants aid in recitation sections of PHYS 207 University Physics I using guided inquiry and group-based activities. Further develops the core skills of PHYS 207. Introduces students to the principles of active and collaborative learning in physics through practical, hands-on problem-solving, class discussions and demonstrations.

PHYS 352. Guided Inquiry for University Physics II. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 208 and permission of instructor. Student learning assistants aid in recitation sections of PHYS 208 University Physics II using guided inquiry and group-based activities. Further develops the core skills of PHYS 208. Introduces students to the principles of active and collaborative learning in physics through practical, hands-on problem-solving, class discussions and demonstrations.

PHYS 376. Electromagnetism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 301 and MATH 301. Electrostatics, magnetism and electromagnetic properties of matter, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic waves, boundary conditions, and polarization.

PHYS 380. Quantum Physics I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 301, PHYS 320 and MATH 301, or permission of instructor. Brief introduction to the correspondence between classical and quantum mechanics, Schroedinger wave equation, operator methods in quantum mechanics, angular momentum and conservation laws, solution to harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, magnetic dipole momentum and spin.

PHYS 391. Topics in Physics. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum total of 6 credits. In-depth study of a selected topic in physics or physics-related technology, usually at a level requiring only elementary algebra. Not applicable toward physics major. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS 397. Directed Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 4 credits. Open to nonmajors. Determination of amount of credit and permission of instructor must be obtained before registration of course. Intended to allow nonmajors and majors to examine in detail an area of physics or physics-related technology not otherwise available in upper-level courses. May involve either directed readings or directed laboratory work.

PHYS 420. Quantum Physics II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 380 or permission of instructor. Transition rates, addition of angular momentum, multi-electron atoms-ground state, X-ray and optical excitations, time independent perturbation theory, relativistic hydrogen atom and the structure of atoms, collision theory, nuclear structure, elementary particles and their symmetries.

PHYS 422. Optics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 376 or permission of instructor. Comprehensive study of propagation of light, including geometrical optics, polarization, interference, diffraction, Fourier optics and quantum optics.

PHYS 440. Introduction to Condensed Matter Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 340 and 380. Corequisite: PHYS 376. Structure and bonding in solids, phonons, free electron Fermi gas, energy bands, semiconductors, Fermi surface, optical properties and magnetism.

PHYS 450. Senior Physics Laboratory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 301 and 320, and PHYZ 320. Experiments in condensed matter physics with an introduction to the instrumentation and data analysis used in the research laboratory.

PHYS 480. Particle Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 340, PHYS 376 and PHYS 420. Basic concepts of particle physics, including the Dirac equation, lowest-order quantum electrodynamics calculations, scattering amplitudes and cross sections, the weak interaction, processes involving quarks and their symmetries, and quantum chromodynamics.

PHYS 483. Introduction to Astrophysics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 320 and PHYS 340. Pre- or corequisites: PHYS 376 and PHYS 380. Basic concepts of star formation and evolution, galactic structures, and cosmology. Includes stellar atmospheres and interiors, the sun, the Milky Way and other galaxies, and black holes.

PHYS 490. Seminar in Conceptual Physics. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: PHYS 340, PHYS 376, PHYS 380 and PHYZ 320. Restricted to seniors in physics with at least 85 credit hours taken toward the degree. A senior capstone course in physics designed to help students formulate physics-related questions in such a way that they can obtain quantitative answers. Students will describe their results in a senior paper and in an oral presentation.

PHYS 491. Topics in Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a selected topic in physics. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 8 credits. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course. Independent projects in experimental or theoretical physics.

Physics Lab (PHYZ)

PHYZ 101. Foundations of Physics Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: PHYS 101. An optional laboratory consisting of experiments and activities correlated with PHYS 101.

PHYZ 103. Elementary Astronomy Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: PHYS 103. An optional laboratory course consisting of experiments and activities related to PHYS 103.

PHYZ 320. Modern Physics Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: PHYS 320. Experimental work correlated with PHYS 320.

Political Science (POLI)

POLI 103. U.S. Government. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of American national government focusing on its underlying political ideas, constitutional basis, major institutions and their interaction in the determination of public policy.

POLI 105. International Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introductory analysis of interstate relations and world affairs. Attention focuses on theories of international politics, military capabilities and their application, international organizations, global economic trends, domestic sources of state behavior and other selected issues as appropriate. Crosslisted as: INTL 105.

POLI 107. Political Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces students to the great thinkers and ideas of political theory. Provides an analysis of the relationship between ethics and politics in contemporary democracy and current challenges to traditional democratic theory. Topics discussed may include the nature of human existence and civilization; political obligations between the state and the citizen and among citizens; attempts to justify authority; the content and uses of power; and the right to disobedience and resistance, freedom, social justice, and equality.

POLI 109. Comparative Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces students to the ways in which societies around the world govern themselves. Covers such topics as the historical evolution of the political system, political processes and institutions, and key issues in contemporary public policy for a globally representative group of 10 to 15 countries.

POLI 301. U.S. Parties and Elections. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An overview of U.S. political parties and elections. Topics will include the history, organization and methods of U.S. political parties, presidential nominations and elections; Congressional elections.

POLI 302. Politics of the Civil Rights Movement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The main objectives of the course are to introduce and examine the personalities and activities of the modern Civil Rights Movement. The course provides the historical background leading up to the peak years of the struggle for racial equality in America. It has special focus on the events of the 1960s and particularly their implication for the current state of U.S. Civil Rights. Crosslisted as: AFAM 302.

POLI 303. Public Opinion, Polling and the Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Study of the interplay among the mass media, political campaigns and public opinion. Topics include public opinion and its measurement, how campaigns use public opinion polling and the impact of the media on public opinion.

POLI 304. Political Campaigns and Communication: New Hampshire Primary. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment requires permission of instructor. Introduces students to the historical and political contexts of presidential primary campaigning. Investigates candidate strategy and ways candidates seek out money, media coverage and grassroots organization. Includes a week-long trip to New Hampshire during the first-in-the-nation primary to provide students with hands-on experience. Offered as an intersession class during presidential election years.

POLI 305. Political Campaigns and Communication: Theory and Process. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of political campaigns focusing on presidential elections. Analysis includes the study of electoral contexts, political mobilization, campaign organizational structures and strategies, campaign rhetoric, and the evolution of campaign-related technology such as polling and social media.

POLI 306. The Congress. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the behavior of legislators and the structures and processes of legislative decision making in the U.S. Congress. Analysis will include both the internal and external environment of congressional policy making, and an assessment of the impact of congressional policy.

POLI 308. U.S. Presidency. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A political and institutional study of the chief executive, focusing especially on the presidential personality and relations with Congress, the bureaucracy, the courts and the shaping of domestic and foreign policy.

POLI 309. Bureaucratic Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the nature of bureaucracy and bureaucratic phenomena in American governments; the role and involvement of the bureaucracy in politics and the policy-making process. Primary focus on theories and approaches to understanding the central role of bureaucracy in modern society and its use and abuse of power.

POLI 310. Public Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analytical survey of policy formulation and implementation in the United States, together with an examination of the impact of policy upon individuals and groups in American society.

POLI 311. Politics of the Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of the current controversy about environmental politics and the issues and crises it centers on. Special attention will be given to the constitutional, political and geographical factors in the development of environmental policy and the organized effort to deal with governmental actions and inaction and its impact on policy outcomes. Crosslisted as: ENVS 311.

POLI 313. U.S. Constitutional Law: Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the major provisions of the U.S. Constitution concerning civil rights and civil liberties as interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court. Topics to be covered include how the federal courts enforce individual rights found in the Constitution, limitations on governmental actions and the use of the Constitution as a starting point for discussions of the nation’s need to balance competing interests of individuals, government and societal values.

POLI 315. Courts and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of theories and models of judicial decision-making in the Supreme Court, focusing on judicial structure and procedures, policy-making analysis, political ideology, and judicial activism.

POLI 316. Women and the Law. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will introduce students to the history, politics and status of women under the American legal system. Topics to be covered may include equal protection, sexual violence, the particular rights of women of color and lesbians, reproductive rights of women of color and lesbians, reproductive rights, women criminals and women in the legal profession. Crosslisted as: GSWS 316.

POLI 318. Politics of Race, Class and Gender. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the racial, class and gender influences on the history and development of political values, conflicts, processes, structures and public policy in the United States. Crosslisted as: AFAM 318/GSWS 318.

POLI 319. Women and American Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course analyzes the participation of women in American politics. Attention is given to both women's historical and contemporary roles in politics, their participation as voters and citizens, and their behavior as candidates and office holders. Additional topics may include workplace, family and education issues and reproductive rights. Crosslisted as: GSWS 319.

POLI 320. Research Methods in the Social Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Current methods of research in the social sciences. Includes a brief introduction to the use of SPSS for storage, retrieval and exploration of social science data. Crosslisted as: SOCY 320.

POLI 321. City Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of urban political power and influence, governance, and public policy. Topics include: power and influence, governmental structures and the political process, public policy, and service delivery.

POLI 322. State and Local Government and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the politics and governance of states and localities. Attention is devoted to political culture, interest groups, political parties, the legislative, executive and judicial components of state government, along with the structure and political processes of local governments.

POLI 323. Virginia Government and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of Virginia state government and politics, with appropriate attention given to political culture, interest groups, political parties, the media and the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government.

POLI 329. Intergovernmental Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of vertical and horizontal intergovernmental relations. Attention will be given to the major variants of federalism. The role of categorical and block grants in programmatic federalism will be assessed. Trends in intergovernmental relations will be advanced.

POLI 331. Public Administration. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the concepts and practices of public administration in the United States. Particular attention will be given to the administrative procedures and practices of the national government and of the government in Virginia.

POLI 341. History of Political Theory: Classical to Modern. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of leading political ideas of the ancient and medieval periods.

POLI 342. History of Political Theory: Modern to Contemporary. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of leading political ideas of modern and contemporary thought.

POLI 343. Black Political Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An historical and sociological perspective on the political and social ideas of black thinkers from David Walker to the present. Crosslisted as: AFAM 343.

POLI 344. Contemporary Political Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course provides a survey of recent trends in political theory. It examines updates of the major ideological traditions, arguments about the nature of modernity and recent developments in environment, feminist and non-Western thought.

POLI 345. African-American Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. In this course, students will discuss and analyze the dynamics of the black experience in the American political system. The status of African-Americans in the United States and the struggle for racial equality will be examined, as will the manner in which American institutions have responded to these phenomena. Students will examine the race/class metric in African-American politics, particularly policies of Affirmative Action as a black progress strategy. Crosslisted as: AFAM 345.

POLI 351. Governments and Politics of the Middle East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative analysis of political systems in the Middle East including the study of contemporary aspects of traditionalism, the political nature of transition, the instruments of political modernization, and evolution and revolution in the political process of Middle Eastern states. The course will explore the primary bases of cleavage and conflict and the principal forces that shape the policies and political dynamics of the region. Crosslisted as: INTL 351.

POLI 352. European Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative study of the political systems of selected western and eastern European countries. Crosslisted as: INTL 352.

POLI 353. Latin American Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of politics characteristic of Latin American systems, including democratic reformism, military authoritarianism and revolutionary socialism. The course also examines the contemporary problems of fledgling democracies as they cope with economic and debt crises and various opposition challenges. Crosslisted as: INTL 353.

POLI 354. Russian and Post-Soviet Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the origins, institutions, processes and disintegration of the Soviet political system and the ongoing reform efforts during the post-Soviet period. Special emphasis is placed on the politics of the transition to a democratic political system and a market economy. Other topics include nationality issues, social problems and foreign policy. Crosslisted as: INTL 354.

POLI 355. Asian Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative analysis of the politics and governments of major Asian states, with a focus on Japan, China and India. Crosslisted as: INTL 355.

POLI 356. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will introduce students to the basic outlines of government and politics in Africa. The course will consider such topics as colonialism, elitism, and nationalism and modernization strategies. Using the comparative approach, the course will primarily focus on West, East and Central Africa. Crosslisted as: AFAM 356/INTL 356.

POLI 357. Politics of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of racial and political developments in the southern tip of Africa. While South Africa will be the primary focus of analysis, other countries in the region such as Zimbabwe, Angola and Mozambique will be studied. Crosslisted as: AFAM 357/INTL 357.

POLI 358. Concepts of Comparative Government. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Comparative study of politics and governments. Introduces concepts and theories used in the study of political systems. Topics include democratization and democratic governance, the role of the state, one-party and military regimes, revolution, and economic and political development. Crosslisted as: INTL 358.

POLI 359. The Politics of Developing Areas. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Analysis of the processes of political and economic development. Includes a study of various challenges facing developing countries, such as economic inequalities, environmental degradation, mass political participation, military coups, revolution and civil war. Crosslisted as: INTL 452.

POLI 360. China in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Traces how China is making the transition from a planned to market economy, and what implications this transition has on the political, social and urban landscape. Class discussions are grounded on a basic understanding of China's modern history and regional geography. Crosslisted as: INTL 480.

POLI 361. Issues in World Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of several significant issues in world politics. Topics may include peacekeeping and collective security, international economic competitiveness, global environmental politics as well as selected others. Topics will vary with current events and trends in the international arena. Crosslisted as: INTL 361.

POLI 362. International Organizations and Institutions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the background development structure and operations of organizations and institutions such as the United Nations, the European Community and the Organization of American States. Crosslisted as: INTL 362.

POLI 363. U.S. Foreign Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analytical survey of processes and practices in the formulation of U.S. foreign policy, including an introduction to the goals, problems of implementation and current challenges faced by policy makers. Crosslisted as: INTL 363.

POLI 364. Vietnam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the complete record of the conflict in Vietnam. The primary focus will be on the period of U.S. involvement. The course will examine closely how and why the U.S. became involved in Vietnam and what impact the Vietnam War has had on political institutions and behavior. In particular, the course will examine what impact the period of U.S. involvement has had upon U.S. foreign policy. The course also will consider additional topics including public opinion and the war, the relationship between the president and Congress in light of the war, and contemporary U.S. politics as a backlash against the political movements of the 1960s. Crosslisted as: INTL 364.

POLI 365. International Political Economy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of both theoretical and current policy issues in international political economy. Theories to be covered include liberalism, mercantilism, Marxism, regionalism, world systems theory and others. Policy issues include differing styles of capitalism in the industrialized world, the political economy of development, the politics of international corporate alliances and others. Crosslisted as: INTL 365.

POLI 366. Women and Global Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of women and global politics, providing both a feminist re-examination of traditional international-relations theories and a comparative analysis of the political, legal and economic status of the world's women. The impact of women on global political institutions such as the United Nations will be addressed as well as other feminist and grass roots means of taking political action. Crosslisted as: GSWS 366/INTL 368.

POLI 367. Terrorism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: HSEP 101, POLI 103 and INTL 105/POLI 105, or permission of instructor. A survey of the modern problem of terrorism with an emphasis on the political nature of terrorist acts. Examines the history of terrorism, domestically within the U.S. and internationally, the role of religion, the structures and operations of terrorist organizations, as well as counterterrorism policies and policy-making. Crosslisted as: HSEP 301.

POLI 368. Comparative National Security Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of national security policies and policy-making in a diverse set of nation-states. Emphasis is placed on comparing how threat perception, historical context, ideology, political structure and leadership impact national security policies of both powerful and weak nation-states. Crosslisted as: INTL 468.

POLI 369. U.S. National Security. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of key issues in U.S. national security including national security decision-making, the use of force, military intervention, nuclear strategy and strategic arms control, ballistic missile defense, the transformation of war due to technology and globalization, defense policy, planning and budgeting, the impact of technology on strategy from airpower to cyberspace and robotics, and critical regional issues.

POLI 370. Nonprofit Organizations and Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the history and foundations of the nonprofit agency in the U.S. and abroad. Compares and contrasts relationships between business, government and the nonprofit sector. Discusses requirements for formalizing and managing nonprofit organizations from the perspectives of the volunteer board and employees. Examines issues of accountability, policy, research and resource development.

POLI 372. Ethics, Law and Governance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines how legal, legislative and public policy issues affect the development and growth of nonprofit organizations. Examines ethical principals and legal issues related to personnel and employment, as well as the goals of advocacy and its importance to nonprofit practitioners.

POLI 374. Financial Management for Nonprofits. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines how nonprofit organizations are influenced by prices, distribution of goods and services and the distribution of income and wealth. Topics include financial-statement analysis, time-value of money, budgeting concepts and techniques, securities valuation, long- and short-term financial planning issues and working capital management. Designed to develop skills in decision-making in financial management of the nonprofit organization.

POLI 380. Human Security. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the key elements of human security: the positive and negative impacts of globalization, the rise and impact of civil violence within many nations, the dilemmas of the aid industry, the impact of non-state actors, and issues related to chronic poverty, food security and water security.

POLI 381. The Politics of Genocide and Human Rights. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the history and causes of genocide and large-scale human rights violations of the 20th century and more recent examples. Using case studies, and focusing on the Holocaust as the paradigmatic genocide, the course studies historical events and theoretical explanations to understand why people have been so willing, in every historical era, to kill each other in large numbers.

POLI 382. International Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the basic principles of international and comparative health, as well as the national and international institutional structures in place to address health challenges. Focuses on the political, economic, social and individual burdens of inadequate health to societies and the international community. The implementation of global health programs and methods used to evaluate them are studied in detail.

POLI 383. The Middle East and North Africa in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the political, social and economic aspects of the “new” Middle East and North Africa after what has come to be known as “The Arab Spring.” Topics addressed include a historical and geographical overview of the Arab world prior to the mass uprisings, an examination of the political and economic motivations for popular unrest in several Arab countries, the role of women and youth movements as well as social media in mass demonstrations that happened in several Arab countries, the wider regional and global impact of the uprisings, and an assessment of the Arab world today.

POLI 391. Topics in Political Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum total of 9 credits in all departmental topics courses may be applied to the major. An intensive survey of a specialized field of political interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

POLI 448. Scope and Method of Political Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: POLI 103 or permission of instructor. A comprehensive and systematic study of the philosophy of political science, various theories seeking to explain political phenomena and some of the techniques of political analysis.

POLI 490. Senior Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 24 credits in political science courses or permission of instructor. A capstone course examining the major ideas and debates in each of the four sub-fields of the discipline of political science: American government, political theory, comparative politics and international relations. Students are required to produce a research project on a critical issue in one of the sub-fields.

POLI 491. Topics in Political Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum total of 9 credits in all departmental topics courses may be applied to the major. An intensive survey of a specialized field of political interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

POLI 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in political science. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and department chair must be obtained prior to registration of the course. An independent study course that allows a political science major or other student who meets the requirement to do research, under the direction of an instructor qualified in that area, in a subject or field of major interest.

POLI 493. Political Science Internship. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-6 credits. (50 hours per credit.) May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Permission of internship coordinator required. Restricted to political science majors, nonprofit management and administration minors and public management minors. Provides an opportunity to relate theory to practice through observation and actual experience within the field of political science. Graded as pass/fail.

POLI 494. Political Science Mentorship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: 24 credits in political science courses including POLI 103, 105, 107 and 109, permission of instructor, and 3.3 GPA in POLI courses. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A mentorship course that allows students to develop advanced research skills, to experience managing a classroom and to present the results of their research in a classroom setting. Different sections of the course specialize in different subfields of political science: U.S. government, comparative politics, international relations and political theory.

Portuguese (PORT)

PORT 101. Elementary Portuguese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4, 4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of PORT 101 to enroll in PORT 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

PORT 102. Elementary Portuguese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4, 4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of PORT 101 to enroll in PORT 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

PORT 201. Intermediate Portuguese. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Continuation of the essentials of grammar, with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

PORT 202. Intermediate Portuguese Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PORT 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

PORT 391. Topics in Portuguese. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. Prerequisite: PORT 202. An in-depth study of selected topics in Portuguese. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

Psychology (PSYC)

PSYC 101. Introduction to Psychology. 4 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Introduction to Psychology

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 computer-assisted instructional hours. 4 credits. A survey of the basic principles, methods of investigation and fields of study and application. Includes individualized application of principles and methods in computerized learning activities. This course is a prerequisite for upper-level work in the field of psychology.

PSYC 201. Career Development in Psychology. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Introduction to the discipline of psychology and the career alternatives available in various specialties. Self-assessment, career decision-making skills, educational program planning methods will be covered. Special topics will include graduate/professional school options, opportunities for minority students and job search strategies for the B.A. or B.S. psychology major.

PSYC 214. Applications of Statistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PSYC 101 and STAT 210 both with a minimum grade of C. Frequency distributions, measures of central tendency and variability; sampling, probability, correlation and significance tests as applied in psychological data.

PSYC 301. Child Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. A study is made of the growth and development of the child until puberty. Childlike is viewed in terms of physical, mental, social, emotional and educational factors. PSYC 304 Life Span Developmental Psychology also may not be taken for credit.

PSYC 302. Psychology of Adolescence. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PSYC 101. A study of mental, moral, social and physical development from puberty to maturity viewed as in child psychology. Designed for secondary school teachers, youth leaders and professional psychologists.

PSYC 303. Personal Adjustment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Surveys major theories of personality as a basis for studying theory, research and intervention into areas that require personal adjustment. Such areas include sense of self, stress and coping, work and career and several varieties of interpersonal relationships. Positive adjustment and growth as well as problems are discussed.

PSYC 304. Life Span Developmental Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Reviews the basic concepts and principles of physical, cognitive and social development at each major stage of life-prenatal, infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, middle childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Consideration is given to the study of development at each stage of life and to different theoretical explanations for development. PSYC 301 Child Psychology may not also be taken for credit.

PSYC 305. Educational Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. The application of psychological principles to the teaching-learning process, with special emphasis on theories of learning and development. Crosslisted as: EDUS 305.

PSYC 306. Psychology of Adult Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. The life stages and transitions of the young adult, middle age and young-old phases of the life cycle are considered, following a review of methods of research within life-span development psychology. Topics include the impact of events such as birth of the first child, job relocation, mid-life re-evaluation and anticipated retirement.

PSYC 307. Community Solutions: Multiple Perspectives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Explores possibilities for addressing social concerns of the Richmond community by understanding the complex nature of social issues as essential to their successful amelioration via perspectives of life and social sciences. Toward this end, expertise from the social sciences, the life sciences and the community are integrated. Includes a service-learning experience (a 20-hour volunteer requirement). Crosslisted as: LFSC 307.

PSYC 308. Stress and its Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Physiological and psychological aspects of stressors and the stress response. Review of principles, research and methods of stress management, such as relaxation, self-suggestions, meditation and biofeedback.

PSYC 309. Personality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. The study of the various approaches to understanding human behavior in terms of personality theory. Various theories will be examined for commonality and uniqueness in assumptions, dynamics and development of personality.

PSYC 310. Industrial Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Application of psychological principles and techniques to problems in personnel management and human engineering; recruitment, selection, training and placement in industry; criteria in testing and test development; morale evaluation and improvement, employee counseling; work-management communications; human engineering in equipment design, quality control, working conditions and safety.

PSYC 317. Experimental Methods. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 214 with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to experimental procedures and laboratory techniques in psychology. Demonstrations and experiments in sensation, perception, learning, emotion and motivation.

PSYC 318. Principles of Psychological Tests and Measurements. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: minimum grade of C in PSYC 101 and minimum grade of C in STAT 210. Concepts in psychological measurement and a survey of commonly used tests; testing procedures and rationale underlying these tests; tests of intelligence, aptitude, achievement, interest and personality critically examined, procedures described for selecting and evaluating specific group tests in these areas.

PSYC 321. Social Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Survey theory and research in social psychology. Topics include interpersonal and social influence processes, attitudes and social cognition, the impact of personality on social behavior, conformity, leadership and small group behavior.

PSYC 322. Personality and Behavior of the African American. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. A study of personality factors such as motivation, ego-functioning and the socialization processes, with special emphasis on living conditions of African-Americans. Crosslisted as: AFAM 322.

PSYC 323. Interpersonal Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Analyzes human relations from various theoretical perspectives. Typical topics include the effects of attraction, friendship, love and dependency on relationships; the evolution of relationships from initiation through termination. Strategies for increasing effectiveness of communication between individuals also are addressed.

PSYC 333. Psychology and Religious Experience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Religious belief and experience as viewed by major psychological theorists. How psychological methodology has been used to study religious experience. Topics include personality factors and development, conversion experiences, religious experiences and mental health and human values. Crosslisted as: RELS 333.

PSYC 335. Psychology of Women. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Overview of issues in psychology relevant to women. Topics include: research methods of women's issues; sex-role socialization; women and hormones; psychological androgyny; personality theory and counseling strategies for women; women and language; women and violence; and rape and abuse. Crosslisted as: GSWS 335.

PSYC 340. Introduction to the Helping Relationship. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Overview to the dynamics of communication in a helping relationship. Didactic material includes the principles of empathy, nonverbal behavior, problem-solving, crisis intervention and interview techniques. Basic paraprofessional counselor skills will be demonstrated and practiced through structured exercises.

PSYC 341. Group Dynamics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Social and psychological principles and research related to the individual in groups. Specific topics include motivation for individuals forming and joining groups, performance and productivity of group members, group leadership and majority and minority influence. The group will be examined in relation to the larger society and as a subculture in itself. Crosslisted as: SOCY 341.

PSYC 401. Physiological Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Data from the fields of anatomy and physiology are presented, and their implications for psychology are discussed. The central nervous system, internal environment, vision, audition, reflexes, emotion, learning behavior disorders and their physiological components. Behavior of the human organisms is studied from the biopsychological point of view.

PSYC 404. Social Psychology of Emotions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PSYC 101, SOCY 101. An examination of the social shaping of emotion as well as its function in maintaining the social process. Cross-cultural uniformities and diversity in basic emotions and their expression are addressed as well as selected social psychological theories of emotions.

PSYC 406. Perception. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Perception of information from sensory systems with concentration on vision and hearing. Research and theories on how we learn and judge color, form, movement, depth and how individuals integrate these in object identification.

PSYC 407. Psychology of the Abnormal. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Development of personality is discussed, with emphasis on factors leading to maladjustment. Lectures and reading cover the symptom groups of emotional disorders of both psychological and organic origin. Methods of assessing and treating these disorders are surveyed.

PSYC 410. Principles of Learning and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Comprehensive treatment of learning and cognition with emphasis on humans, from behavioral, cognitive, biological and developmental viewpoints. Topics include conditioning, information processing, memory, sociobiology and cognitive and moral development.

PSYC 412. Health Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Application of the principles and techniques of psychology to the field of medicine, to health maintenance and to illness. The integration of theoretical, research and applied issues is emphasized in the analysis of such topics as psychological/behavioral factors contributing to and protecting against physical illness (stress, smoking, exercise), factors relating to treatment and recovery (coping, treatment compliance), psychological problems resulting from illness and injury, and specific techniques and problem areas in health psychology (such as biofeedback, pain management, pediatric psychology, geropsychology, rehabilitation psychology and lifestyle change.).

PSYC 414. Psychology of Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Overviews the psychological research on women's health. Topics include health behavior change, personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, disease-specific behaviors and interventions. Crosslisted as: GSWS 414.

PSYC 426. Child Psychopathology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PSYC 101. Principal childhood behavioral abnormalities. A review of causes, assessment and diagnostic methods, and treatment, intervention and prevention approaches.

PSYC 451. History of Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PSYC 101 and senior standing. Traces the history of ideas about mind and behavior as they relate to the theory and practice of psychology.

PSYC 491. Topics in Psychology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum total of 6 credits in topics courses. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. An in-depth study of selected topics and issues in psychology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered.

PSYC 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1, 2 or 3 credits per semester. Maximum of 6 credits for all independent study courses. PSYC 492, PSYC 493 or PSYC 494 may be repeated for a total of 6 credits but a maximum of 12 credits total for all three courses. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course. Independent study is defined as student-conceived and initiated readings or research project which is supervised by a psychology faculty member. An oral examination or written, comprehensive paper is required at the end of the semester.

PSYC 493. Fieldwork: Human Services. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. PSYC 492, PSYC 493 and PSYC 494 may be repeated for a total of 6 credits but a maximum of 12 credits total for all three courses is allowed. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Students are placed in an agency, which will provide supervised work experience in various aspects of helping other people. The setting might be a government or private community agency, or a corporation, depending on the student's goals. The student works eight hours per week at the placement site, attends several group discussion sessions during the semester and completes written assignments. This course is designed to enhance the psychology major's career pursuits for either graduate-level training or post-baccalaureate employment.

PSYC 494. Research Internship in Psychology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1, 2 or 3 credits per semester. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits with adviser's approval. PSYC 492, PSYC 493 or PSYC 494 may be repeated for a total of 6 credits but a maximum of 12 credits total for all three courses. Prerequisites: PSYC 101 and permission of faculty research supervisor must be obtained prior to registration. PSYC 214 and PSYC 317, or permission of supervisor. Students will work on various phases of a research project (design, data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing) under a psychology faculty member's close supervision. This course is designed to enhance the psychology major's career pursuits for either graduate-level training or post-baccalaureate employment.

PSYC 497. Honors in Psychology I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PSYC 317 (co-requisite with permission) and admission to the honors in psychology program. First in a three course sequence to develop, execute and defend an empirically based thesis in psychology. Students will work with a mentor to develop ideas into a tangible research project, working toward a proposal.

PSYC 498. Honors in Psychology II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 497 with a grade of A. Students will refine research ideas developed in PSYC 497 into a formal proposal document with introduction, method and proposed results. Students are expected to propose the thesis to their committee members no later than the second week of this course and begin data collection thereafter.

PSYC 499. Honors in Psychology III. 3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 498 with a grade of A. Students will complete the research project developed in PSYC 497 and 498 and generate the final thesis, including introduction, method, results and discussion. Students must orally defend the thesis to their committee members by the end of this course with time for revisions to be submitted within the semester’s defined grading period.

Religious Studies (RELS)

RELS 101. Introduction to Religious Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course examines the phenomenon of religion and religious experience. Through a phenomenological approach definitions and descriptions of the major features of the religious experience and of religious establishments, including concepts of the sacred, the numinous, religious language, texts, symbols, rituals and myths are reviewed. In addition, the social, political and spiritual dimensions of religion in human culture will be investigated.

RELS 108. Human Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the manifestations of one or more of the themes of religious studies in a diverse group of religious communities. The themes may include such wide-ranging topics as the sacred and profane, the epistemology of faith and knowledge, creation stories, human identity, the nature of the divine, the possibility of liberation or salvation, mythology, ritual, ethics, religion and art, religion and law, and religion and politics.

RELS 201. Biblical Hebrew. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Vocabulary, elementary grammar, introduction to lexica and reading of biblical texts.

RELS 202. Biblical Hebrew. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RELS 201. Vocabulary, elementary grammar, introduction to lexica and reading of biblical texts.

RELS 250. Death: Myth and Reality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of intellectual and emotional responses to death and dying with emphasis upon their role in the development of religious thought and practice. Special attention will be paid to the death theme in literature, funeral practices and beliefs concerning the afterlife in selected world religions.

RELS 280. Introduction to Catholic Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course provides an introduction to Catholicism's major doctrines, figures, historical events, philosophy and ethics from its beginnings in the first centuries of the Common Era through contemporary debates over such issues as abortion, sexuality and war. Students will learn about scripture, doctrine, theology, the sacraments, art and architectures, saints, social justice and gender, and the history and role of the Church.

RELS 282. Introduction to Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces Buddhism from its origins in India and addresses its major schools of thought, practice, ritual and philosophy, in Asia and beyond, particularly the United States.

RELS 291. Topics in Religious Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of six credits. Focused study of selected ideas, institutions, movements, time periods and/or thinkers. See Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

RELS 301. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the Hebrew Bible from its beginning through the post-Exile period. Emphasis given to the literary and historical development of the text.

RELS 302. Introduction to the New Testament. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the New Testament with particular emphasis given to the historical development of the Canon.

RELS 303. Intertestamental Literature and Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The period between the Old and New Testaments as seen through the literature of the era, with emphasis on the writings of the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and Josephus.

RELS 305. Hebrew Prophets. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the literature and history of Israel as seen through the work of the writing prophets. Emphasis will be placed on the second part of the Hebrew Canon and the Book of Daniel.

RELS 306. Introduction to Judaism. 3 Hours.