The Bachelor of Music is the initial professional degree in music. Its primary emphasis is on development of the skills, concepts and sensitivities essential to the professional life of the musician. At the center of the instructional program for this degree is the music core curriculum, comprising 27 credits of instruction in aspects of musicianship fundamental to all music degree programs. Included are courses in music theory, aural skills, music history and conducting.

Learning outcomes

Upon completing this program, students will know and know how to do the following.

Students will:

  • Demonstrate professional performance skills
  • Demonstrate comprehensive musicianship
  • Acquire supporting competencies
  • Develop artistic/intellectual mission

Degree requirements for Music, Bachelor of (B.M.) with performance/jazz studies concentration

General Education requirements

University Core Education Curriculum
UNIV   111 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry IFocused Inquiry I3
UNIV   112 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry IIFocused Inquiry II3
UNIV   200Inquiry and the Craft of Argument3
Approved humanities/fine arts3
Approved natural/physical sciences3-4
Approved quantitative literacy3-4
Approved social/behavioral sciences3-4
Total Hours21-24
Additional School of the Arts requirements
Select one of the following:3
Survey of European History
Survey of European History
Survey of American History
Survey of American History
General education courses from the College of Humanities and Sciences6
Total Hours9

Major requirements

APPL   311Applied Lessons2
APPL   312Applied Lessons2
APPL   313Applied Lessons2
APPL   314Applied Lessons2
APPL   321Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument2
APPL   322Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument2
APPL   323Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument2
APPL   324Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument2
APPL   415Applied Lessons2
APPL   416Applied Lessons and Junior Recital2
APPL   417Applied Lessons2
APPL   418Applied Lessons and Senior Recital2
APPM   173Keyboard Skills I1
APPM   174Keyboard Skills II1
APPM   199Recital/Convocation Attendance (four semesters)0
APPM   251Jazz Improvisation I3
APPM   252Jazz Improvisation II3
APPM   272Jazz Piano for the Non-keyboard Player0-1
APPM   299Master Class (four semesters classical, four semesters jazz)0
APPM   381Conducting2
APPM   492Senior Project: Portfolio Review (capstone)1
MHIS   120Introduction to World Musical Styles2
MHIS   145Theory and Aural Skills I4
MHIS   146Theory and Aural Skills II4
MHIS   147Jazz Theory and Aural Skills3
MHIS   245Theory and Aural Skills III4
MHIS   246Theory and Aural Skills IV4
MHIS   311Jazz Arranging I3
MHIS   311Jazz Arranging I3
MHIS   322Music History II2
MHIS   324Jazz History3
MHIS   380Survey of the Music Industry3
MHIS   405Jazz Form and Analysis I3
Jazz ensemble requirement:9
Jazz Orchestra (four credits)
Small Jazz Ensemble (five credits)
Ensemble elective (audition may be required): Select three credits from the following:3
Orchestra
Symphonic Wind Ensemble
University Band
Commonwealth Singers
Choral Arts Society
Jazz Orchestra
Small Jazz Ensemble
Flute Choir
Guitar Ensemble
Piano Ensemble
Woodwind Ensemble
Percussion Ensemble
Brass Ensemble
Total Hours85-86

Open electives

Open electives4-5

Total minimum requirement 120 credits

What follows is a sample plan that meets the prescribed requirements within a four-year course of study at VCU. Please contact your adviser before beginning course work toward a degree.

Freshman year
Fall semesterHours
APPL   311 Applied Lessons (principal instrument) 2
APPL   321 Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument 2
APPM   173 Keyboard Skills I 1
APPM   199 Recital/Convocation Attendance 0
APPM   299 Master Class (secondary instrument) 0
APPM   361 Small Jazz Ensemble 1
APPM 3XX ensemble elective 1
MHIS   145 Theory and Aural Skills I 4
UNIV   111 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry I Focused Inquiry I 3
Quantitative literacy course (University Core) 3
 Term Hours: 17
Spring semester
APPL   312 Applied Lessons (principal instrument) 2
APPL   322 Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument 2
APPM   174 Keyboard Skills II 1
APPM   199 Recital/Convocation Attendance 0
APPM   299 Master Class (secondary instrument) 0
APPM 3XX ensemble elective 1
MHIS   146 Theory and Aural Skills II 4
MHIS   147 Jazz Theory and Aural Skills 3
UNIV   112 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry II Focused Inquiry II 3
 Term Hours: 16
Sophomore year
Fall semester
APPL   313 Applied Lessons (principal instrument) 2
APPL   323 Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument 2
APPM   199 Recital/Convocation Attendance 0
APPM   251 Jazz Improvisation I 3
APPM   272 Jazz Piano for the Non-keyboard Player 0-1
APPM   299 Master Class (secondary instrument) 0
APPM   360 Jazz Orchestra 1
APPM   361 Small Jazz Ensemble 1
MHIS   245 Theory and Aural Skills III 4
Humanities/fine arts course (University Core) 3
 Term Hours: 16-17
Spring semester
APPL   314 Applied Lessons (principal instrument) 2
APPL   324 Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument 2
APPM   199 Recital/Convocation Attendance 0
APPM   252 Jazz Improvisation II 3
APPM   299 Master Class (secondary instrument) 0
APPM   360 Jazz Orchestra 1
APPM   361 Small Jazz Ensemble 1
MHIS   246 Theory and Aural Skills IV 4
UNIV   200 Inquiry and the Craft of Argument 3
 Term Hours: 16
Junior year
Fall semester
APPL   415 Applied Lessons (principal instrument) 2
APPM   299 Master Class (jazz master class) 0
APPM   360 Jazz Orchestra 1
APPM   361 Small Jazz Ensemble 1
HIST   101
Survey of European History
or Survey of European History
or Survey of American History
or Survey of American History
3
MHIS   120 Introduction to World Musical Styles 2
MHIS   311 Jazz Arranging I 3
Natural/physical sciences course (University Core) 3
 Term Hours: 15
Spring semester
APPL   416 Applied Lessons and Junior Recital (principal instrument) 2
APPM   299 Master Class (jazz master class) 0
APPM   360 Jazz Orchestra 1
APPM   381 Conducting 2
MHIS   312 Jazz Arranging II 3
MHIS   322 Music History II 2
MHIS   324 Jazz History 3
 Term Hours: 13
Senior year
Fall semester
APPL   417 Applied Lessons (principal instrument) 2
APPM   299 Master Class (jazz master class) 0
APPM   361 Small Jazz Ensemble 1
MHIS   380 Survey of the Music Industry 3
MHIS   405 Jazz Form and Analysis I 3
Social/behavioral sciences course (University Core) 3
 Term Hours: 12
Spring semester
APPL   418 Applied Lessons and Senior Recital (principal instrument) 2
APPM   299 Master Class (jazz master class) 0
APPM 3XX Ensemble elective 1
APPM   492 Senior Project: Portfolio Review (University Core capstone) 1
General education course 6
Open elective 5
 Term Hours: 15
 Total Hours: 120-121

Applied lessons

APPL   200. Applied Lessons. 1 Hour.

Semester course; half-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Previous experience and ability to read music required. Additional fee for course required. Private applied lessons for musical instruments. Consult the music department for appropriate section.

APPL   310. Applied Lessons. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. For music majors only. Permission of chair required. Applied lessons for principal performing medium. Consult the music department for appropriate section.

APPL   311. Applied Lessons. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. For music majors only. Corequisite: APPM   299 (excpet jazz studies majors). Applied lessons for principal performing medium proficiency Level I. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   312. Applied Lessons. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. For music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   311 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299 (except jazz studies majors). Applied lessons for principal performing medium proficiency Level II. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   313. Applied Lessons. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. For music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   312 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299 (except jazz studies majors). Applied lessons for principal performing medium proficiency Level III. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   314. Applied Lessons. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. For music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   313 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299 (except jazz studies majors). Applied lessons for principal performing medium proficiency Level IV. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   320. Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument. 1 Hour.

Semester course; half-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 4 credits. Open to music majors only. Private applied lessons for secondary instrument requirement. Consult music department for appropriate section.

APPL   321. Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. Open to music majors only. Corequisite: APPM   299. Applied lessons for secondary performing medium proficiency Level I. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   322. Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. Open to music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   321 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299. Applied lessons for secondary performing medium proficiency Level II. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   323. Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. Open to music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   322 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299. Applied lessons for secondary performing medium proficiency Level III. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   324. Applied Lessons Secondary Instrument. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. Open to music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   323 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299. Applied lessons for secondary performing medium proficiency Level IV. Jury required. Must earn a minimum grade of C. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   415. Applied Lessons. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. For music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   314 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299. Applied lessons for principal performing medium proficiency Level V. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   416. Applied Lessons and Junior Recital. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. For music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   415 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299. Applied lessons for principal performing medium proficiency Level VI. Recital required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   417. Applied Lessons. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. For music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   416 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299. Applied lessons for principal performing medium proficiency Level VII. Jury required. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

APPL   418. Applied Lessons and Senior Recital. 2 Hours.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson plus daily practice. 2 credits. For music majors only. Prerequisite: APPL   417 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: APPM   299. Applied lessons for principal performing medium proficiency Level VIII. Recital required. Must earn a minimum grade of C. Consult adviser for appropriate course and section.

Applied music

APPM   126. Keyboard Skills Applied Lesson. 1 Hour.

Semester course; half-hour lesson per week. 1 credit. Repeatable for a maximum total of 3 credits. Open only to music majors. Acquisition of keyboard performance skills with emphasis on sight reading, keyboard harmony and improvisation.

APPM   161. Lyric Diction. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of APPM   161 to enroll in APPM   162. A study of English, Italian, ecclesiastical Latin, French and German stage diction with practical experience in singing and phonetic transcription using the International Phonetic Alphabet.

APPM   162. Lyric Diction. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of APPM   161 to enroll in APPM   162. A study of English, Italian, ecclesiastical Latin, French and German stage diction with practical experience in singing and phonetic transcription using the International Phonetic Alphabet.

APPM   173. Keyboard Skills I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Open only to music majors. Initial placement in course sequence determined by proficiency audition. Acquisition of keyboard performance skills with emphasis on sight reading, keyboard harmony and improvisation.

APPM   174. Keyboard Skills II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: APPM   173. Open only to music majors. Initial placement in course sequence determined by proficiency audition. Acquisition of keyboard performance skills with emphasis on sight reading, keyboard harmony and improvisation.

APPM   199. Recital/Convocation Attendance. 0 Hours.

Semester course; no credit. Course may be repeated without limit. Music majors only. Attendance at weekly departmental convocations and a minimum of 10 additional concerts or recitals each semester.

APPM   251. Jazz Improvisation I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   147. A study of basic compositional techniques that can be used in creating a musically effective improvised solo in the jazz medium.

APPM   252. Jazz Improvisation II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: APPM   251. Advanced melodic, harmonic and rhythmic improvisational techniques as applied to contemporary jazz compositions.

APPM   272. Jazz Piano for the Non-keyboard Player. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: APPM   174 and MHIS   147. Acquisition of jazz keyboard performance skills with emphasis on reading, harmonization and improvisation.

APPM   273. Keyboard Skills III. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1credit. Prerequisite: APPM   174. Open only to music majors. Initial placement in course sequence determined by proficiency audition. Acquisition of keyboard performance skills with emphasis on sight reading, keyboard harmony and improvisation.

APPM   299. Master Class. 0 Hours.

Semester course; no credit. Course may be repeated without limit. Participation in weekly master classes in student's applied major area.

APPM   309. Applied Composition. 1 Hour.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 4 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   245. For music majors only. A structured approach to composing music from exercises and studies to complex large forms.

APPM   310. Applied Jazz Composition. 1 Hour.

Semester course; one-hour weekly private lesson. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 4 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   245. For music majors only. A structured approach to composing music in the jazz idiom, including small and large ensemble formats.

APPM   350. Vocal Coaching. 1,2 Hour.

Semester course; one-half- or one-hour weekly private lessons plus daily practice. 1 or 2 credits. May be repeated for a total of 12 credits. Restricted to music majors. Corequisite: applied voice. Detailed exploration of historical musical style; diction skills for Italian, French, German, Spanish and English; audition techniques; and dramatic interpretation.

APPM   355. Orchestra. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Provides an opportunity to rehearse and perform works from the symphonic repertoire while improving ensemble skills.

APPM   356. Symphonic Wind Ensemble. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Ensemble performs a variety of contemporary wind ensemble repertoire as well as standards. Ensemble performs multiple times throughout the semester and at off-campus events. In addition to rehearsals, weekly one-hour sectionals are required.

APPM   357. University Band. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to all students who play wind or percussion instruments. The class does not require an audition for participation. Ensemble preparation intended for a single performance each semester.

APPM   358. Commonwealth Singers. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Rehearsals focus on the development of individual and group vocal technique, musicianship and communication relevant to repertoire prepared.

APPM   359. Choral Arts Society. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. A large, nonauditioned chorale open to all university students with choral experience. Ensemble will prepare and perform a variety of choral literature each semester.

APPM   360. Jazz Orchestra. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Ensemble performs a range of contemporary and historical styles and performs multiple times throughout the semester. In addition to rehearsals, weekly one-hour sectionals are required.

APPM   361. Small Jazz Ensemble. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Jazz ensembles of typically five to nine players rehearse and prepare existing repertoire and student compositions. Independent problem-solving and ensemble-playing skills developed through weekly rehearsals and coaching.

APPM   362. Accompanying: Piano. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 2 credits. For piano majors only. The development of skills in piano accompaniment of vocal and instrumental performance. Coaching and guidance will include harmonic voicing, sound coloring, balance issues, pedaling and score reduction.

APPM   363. Flute Choir. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission. Conducted ensemble rehearses and prepares repertoire.

APPM   364. Guitar Ensemble. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2.5 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to guitar music majors or by permission; audition required. Biweekly rehearsals prepare this ensemble of 20-25 guitarists for performances of repertoire from the Renaissance to newly composed and arranged works.

APPM   365. Aural Skills V. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: MHIS   246. Open to music majors only. Advanced development of skills in melodic and rhythmic dictation, harmonic identification and sight singing.

APPM   366. Aural Skills VI. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1credit. Prerequisites: MHIS   246. Open to music majors only. Advanced development of skills in melodic and rhythmic dictation, harmonic identification and sight singing.

APPM   367. Piano Ensemble. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Small chamber ensemble in which piano shares leading or equal role rehearses and prepares repertoire. Groups will rehearse weekly and receive at least three or four coaching sessions per semester.

APPM   368. Woodwind Ensemble. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Chamber ensembles of two to 13 players, involving woodwinds and often other instruments. Coached by various music faculty on a weekly basis.

APPM   369. Percussion Ensemble. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Small ensembles of three to six players rehearse primarily non-conducted repertoire for semester performances. Weekly rehearsals with coaching from instructor designed to address musicianship, chamber ensemble skills, rehearsal technique and familiarity with contemporary performance practices.

APPM   370. Large Ensembles. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Each section may be repeated up to eight times for credit. An audition is prerequisite for sections 1, 3 and 4. Sections: (1) orchestra, (2) University Band, (3) symphonic wind ensemble, 4) Commonwealth Singers, (5) Choral Arts Society.

APPM   371. String Chamber Music. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. String chamber involving two to five players rehearse and prepare repertoire. Independent problem-solving and ensemble-playing skills are developed through weekly rehearsals and coaching.

APPM   372. Brass Ensemble. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 8 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Chamber ensembles of three to five players, involving various combinations of brass instruments. Coached by various music faculty on a weekly basis.

APPM   373. Advanced Keyboard Skills I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. For piano majors only. Emphasis is on harmonization with correct style and voice-leading, reading figured bass and lead sheets, improvisation and reducing scores at the keyboard.

APPM   374. Advanced Keyboard Skills II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: APPM   373. For piano majors only. Emphasis is on harmonization with correct style and voice-leading, reading figured bass and lead sheets, improvisation and reducing scores at the keyboard.

APPM   375. Score Reading. 1 Hour.

Continuous courses; 2 laboratory hours. 1-1 credit. Prerequisites: APPM 274; completion of APPM   375 to enroll in APPM   376. Acquisition of skill in reducing scores at the keyboard, beginning with simple three-part works and progressing to full instrumentation.

APPM   376. Score Reading. 1 Hour.

Continuous courses; 2 laboratory hours. 1-1 credit. Prerequisites: APPM 274; completion of APPM   375 to enroll in APPM   376. Acquisition of skill in reducing scores at the keyboard, beginning with simple three-part works and progressing to full instrumentation.

APPM   377. Vocal Chamber Ensemble. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. May be repeated for a total of 3 credits. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Variable sized non-conducted ensembles receive weekly coaching in preparation for performances. Ensembles will seek to build proficiency in musicianship skills, reading ability, performance practices and interpretative technique in a variety of styles.

APPM   378. Women’s Choir. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Repeatable to fulfill degree requirements. Open to music majors or by permission; audition required. Ensemble rehearses and prepares repertoire for performance. Women’s choir is open to female university students with previous choral experience.

APPM   381. Conducting. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   246. Development of fundamental gestural skills for conducting instrumental and choral ensembles including simple and compound meters, multimetric music and aleatoric music. Introduces basic score reading, aural analysis skills and terminology.

APPM   385. Opera Theatre. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 4 studio hours. 2 credits. May be repeated for a total of 16 credits. Permission of instructor required. Explores aspects of opera through study, written research and fully staged public performances of operatic scenes and/or one-act operas.

APPM   390. Small Ensembles. 0.5,1 Hours.

Semester course; 2 or 3 laboratory hours. 0.5 or 1 credit. Each section may be repeated up to eight times for credit. Auditions required for all sections. Sections: (1) ensemble for new music, (2) the madrigalists, (3) collegium musicum, (4) women's chorus, (5) vocal ensembles, (6) piano ensembles, (7) accompanying, (8) percussion ensemble, (9) percussion lab ensemble, (10) woodwind ensembles, (11) brass ensembles, (12) chamber orchestra, (13) string ensembles, (14) guitar ensembles, (15) small jazz ensembles, (16) jazz orchestra I, (17) jazz orchestra II, (18) jazz orchestra III, (19) basketball pep band.

APPM   463. Pedagogy. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. A study of the musical, physiological and psychological aspects of teaching instruments or voice.

APPM   464. Piano Pedagogy Practicum. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 laboratory hour. 2 credits. Prerequisites: MHIS   304 and APPM   463 (piano). An advanced study of piano pedagogy with a supervised teaching component.

APPM   492. Senior Project: Portfolio Review. 1 Hour.

Semester course. 1 credit. Prerequisites: APPL   416 for performance majors or APPL   314 for B.A. degree students, senior standing and a minimum of 18 credits in 300- or 400-level courses. A capstone experience integrating resume preparation and professional development within the field of music. Documentation of creative activities and achievements accumulated during music studies is compiled for a portfolio review.

APPM   493. Music Internship. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; Variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 4 credits. Prerequisites: open to music majors with junior standing, 3.0 GPA in major course work and minimum of 2.5 overall GPA, plus consent of coordinator and department chair. Provides full- or part-time professional field experience with approved organizations/individuals. Areas for the internship include (but are not limited to) music publication and production, arts administration and promotion, arts management, entertainment law, presentations and research, instrument repair, recording techniques, composition and arranging, and/or performance opportunities. Graded as S/U.

Music composition

MUSC   201. Class Composition I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   146. Open to all music majors and required of potential composition majors; the emphasis of this class will be on simple rhythmic and melodic studies.

MUSC   315. Counterpoint I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   246. This class concentrates on two-part writing, canons, species, exercises, short two-voiced pieces and inventions.

MUSC   316. Counterpoint II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   246. Availability contingent upon student demand and faculty resources. Three- and four-part writing forms based on the chorale; contrapuntal variation forms and fugue will be studied.

MUSC   406. Orchestration. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. No degree credit for graduate composition majors. Prerequisite: MHIS   246. Application of idiomatic scoring devices for orchestral instruments and voices in both large and small combinations.

Music education

MUED   301. Methods and Techniques: Guitar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. For music education majors only. Achievement of basic performance competencies and teaching knowledge on the guitar including chording, single-string technique, plectrum and finger styles.

MUED   302. Methods and Techniques: Voice. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. For music education majors only. Achievement of performance competencies in voice including vocal production, diction and solo and group performance.

MUED   303. Methods and Techniques: Woodwinds. 1 Hour.

Continuous courses; 2 laboratory hours. 1-1 credit. Prerequisite: completion of MUED   303 to enroll in MUED   304. For music education majors only. Achievement of performance competencies and teaching knowledge on flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon and saxophone.

MUED   304. Methods and Techniques: Woodwinds. 1 Hour.

Continuous courses; 2 laboratory hours. 1-1 credit. Prerequisite: completion of MUED   303 to enroll in MUED   304. For music education majors only. Achievement of performance competencies and teaching knowledge on flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon and saxophone.

MUED   305. Methods and Techniques: Brass. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. For music education majors only. Achievement of performance competencies and teaching knowledge on trumpet, baritone, tuba, trombone and French horn.

MUED   306. Methods and Techniques: Strings. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. For music education majors only. Achievement of performance competencies and teaching knowledge on violin, viola, cello or bass.

MUED   307. Methods and Techniques: Percussion. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. For music education majors only. Achievement of performance competencies and teaching knowledge on snare drum. Introduction to basic techniques of other percussion instruments.

MUED   380. Introduction to Music Education. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: passing score on Praxis I or the Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment or threshold SAT/ACT scores. An introduction to the profession of music education. Emphasis on the study of the historical development of music education in the U.S. along with current thinking, trends, practices and approaches in the profession, and the formation of a personal philosophy of music education. Substantial practicum experience is a fundamental aspect of this course.

MUED   381. Methods and Practicum in Elementary Music Education. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MUED   380. Study of current methods and materials of music education at the elementary level. Orff, Dalcroze, Kodaly, Gordon and other current music education approaches for the young child will be discussed, observed and demonstrated. An intensive directed practicum is a fundamental aspect of this course.

MUED   382. Secondary Methods/Practicum and Rehearsal Techniques. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: APPM   381, MUED   381 and passing score on the Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment. Development of the varied skills required to successfully administer a secondary music education program. Emphasis on understanding program structure, development and methodologies; development of conducting technique, rehearsal strategies and selecting/arranging literature appropriate for musical growth of students.

MUED   384. Marching Band Techniques. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 laboratory hour. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MUED   380. Discussion of marching band techniques that address the different components of preparation, rehearsal and presentation of events. The application of topics and discussions are presented with marching band choreography using computer software simulation.

MUED   385. Music Education Technology and Arranging. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 laboratory hour. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MUED   380. Basic understanding of current technology in the field of music education. Specific skills developed for arranging school-aged ensembles with CAI, sequencing, productivity software and basic sound reinforcement will be the primary focus.

MUED   483. Special Workshop in Music Education. 0.5-3 Hours.

Semester course; 0.5-3 credits. Flexible semester courses on selected aspects of music education. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

MUED   485. Music Education Student Teaching I: Elementary. 6 Hours.

6 credits. Prerequisites: MUED   382, APPL   416, passing score on the Praxis II Music Content Knowledge and 2.8 overall GPA. Corequisite: MUED   486. The culminating field experience for music education students. An eight-week directed internship at the elementary general music education level. MUED   485 and 486 provide sequential experience and responsibilities for planning and instruction of music education for children in the P-12 setting.

MUED   486. Music Education Student Teaching II: Secondary. 6 Hours.

6 credits. Prerequisites: MUED   382, APPL   416, passing score on the Praxis II Music Content Knowledge and 2.8 overall GPA. Corequisite: MUED   485. The culminating field experience for music education students. An eight-week directed internship at the secondary instrumental or choral music education level. MUED   485 and 486 provide sequential experience and responsibilities for planning and instruction of music education for children in the P-12 setting.

History, literature and theory

MHIS   105. Introduction to Writing Music. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of MHIS   105 to enroll in MHIS   106. For non-music majors only. Creating and harmonizing melodies, principles of notation and elementary music theory. Second semester emphasis is on creative aspects.

MHIS   106. Introduction to Writing Music. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of MHIS   105 to enroll in MHIS   106. For non-music majors only. Creating and harmonizing melodies, principles of notation and elementary music theory. Second semester emphasis is on creative aspects.

MHIS   110. Elements of Music. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. No degree credit for music majors. A study of music notation, scale and triad forms. Aural skill development will parallel the theoretical studies. Intended to prepare music majors for core curriculum study.

MHIS   120. Introduction to World Musical Styles. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Enrollment restricted to music majors. A study of non-European musical cultures and practices. Attention will be given to various aspects of music within those cultures. An emphasis will be placed on the development of active cognitive listening skills through guided listening to selected recorded music from non-European societies.

MHIS   145. Theory and Aural Skills I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Open to music majors and minors only. The application of music theory, aural skills and keyboard knowledge are combined in the study of harmonic and melodic structure. Activity begins with rudiments and progresses to diatonic harmony. Emphasis is placed upon the development of aural skills as applied to the presented material.

MHIS   146. Theory and Aural Skills II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   145. Open to music majors and minors only. The application of music theory, aural skills and keyboard knowledge are combined in the study of harmonic and melodic structure. Activity begins with harmonic voicing and progresses to secondary harmony as applied to phrase structure in music. Emphasis is placed upon the development of aural skills as applied to the presented material.

MHIS   147. Jazz Theory and Aural Skills. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   145. Theoretical and aural recognition of established melodic, harmonic and rhythmic traditions within jazz so as to apply successfully to creative performance-practice and composition-arranging pursuits.

MHIS   201. Acoustics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Recommended prerequisite: MATH 101. Physical properties of sound and wave mechanics applied to the study and analysis of music and musical instruments. Topics will include instrumental and vocal sound production and perception, timbrel characteristics and pitch theory.

MHIS   243. Music Appreciation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Not open to music majors. Designed to encourage understanding of music from selected periods. Development of active cognitive listening skills through guided listening to selected recorded music.

MHIS   244. Experiencing Music. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Designed for the purpose of developing familiarity with the elements of music that are part of a successful performance and listening experience. Weekly attendance at both VCU and external events is part of the criteria to develop students' awareness of the creative process in shaping a musical performance.

MHIS   245. Theory and Aural Skills III. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MHIS   146. Open to music majors. The application of music theory, aural skills and keyboard knowledge are combined in the study of harmonic and melodic structure. Second year studies continue with chromatic harmony and modulations. Emphasis is placed upon the development of aural skills as applied to the presented material.

MHIS   246. Theory and Aural Skills IV. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MHIS   245. Open to music majors. The application of music theory, aural skills and keyboard knowledge are combined in the study of harmonic and melodic structure. Final semester of study continues with chromatic harmony and concludes with modern techniques as applied to form in music. Elements of popular styles and jazz are incorporated as appropriate. Emphasis is placed upon the development of aural skills as applied to the presented material.

MHIS   250. Introduction to African-American Music. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introductory survey of black involvement with the development of music in America from 1607 to the present. African-American musical styles will be studied from many aspects, including their African roots and contemporary popular expression. Performance practices will be analyzed and active cognitive listening skills developed through guided listening to selected recordings. Crosslisted as: AFAM   250.

MHIS   291. Topics in Music. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Flexible semester courses in selected aspects of music performance, theory, literature or history. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered.

MHIS   303. Piano Literature. 2 Hours.

Semester courses; 2 lecture hours. 2, 2 credits. Prerequisite: open to music majors; all others must obtain permission of instructor. A survey of stringed keyboard literature. Historical, formal and stylistic considerations of the various periods and composers of keyboard music. Listening and reading assignments included. Fall semester: Baroque and Classical periods (1600-1828); spring semester: Romantic, Modern and Contemporary periods (1828-present).

MHIS   304. Piano Literature. 2 Hours.

Semester courses; 2 lecture hours. 2, 2 credits. Prerequisite: open to music majors; all others must obtain permission of instructor. A survey of stringed keyboard literature. Historical, formal and stylistic considerations of the various periods and composers of keyboard music. Listening and reading assignments included. Fall semester: Baroque and Classical periods (1600-1828); spring semester: Romantic, Modern and Contemporary periods (1828-present).

MHIS   305. Form and Analysis I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   246. An analytical study of musical forms and salient features of melody, harmony, rhythm and timbre of late Baroque, Classical, early and late Romantic compositions.

MHIS   306. Form and Analysis II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   246. Study of traditional and new approaches to form in the music of the 20th century. Examination of post-tonal harmony as a determinant of form, formal aspects of motivicism, contour, rhythm, register, timbre and texture.

MHIS   307. The Physics of Sound and Music. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: A 100- or 200-level physics course or equivalent and the ability to read music or sing or play a musical instrument, or permission of instructor. Basics of the physics of waves and sound. Fourier synthesis, tone quality, human ear and voice, musical temperament and pitch, physics of musical instruments, electronic synthesizers, sound recording and reproduction, room and auditorium acoustics. Not applicable toward the physics major. Crosslisted as: PHYS   307.

MHIS   311. Jazz Arranging I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MHIS   246 and APPM   272, or permission of instructor. A study of the basic harmonic, melodic, notational and orchestrational techniques needed to draft a successful jazz arrangement. The final project will be to write an arrangement for a 12-piece jazz ensemble.

MHIS   312. Jazz Arranging II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   311. Advanced harmonic, melodic and orchestrational techniques applied to writing for the small jazz ensemble, vocal group and large jazz orchestra.

MHIS   321. Music History I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Enrollment restricted to music majors. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Study of Western music in a historical context from antiquity through the Classical era.

MHIS   322. Music History II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Enrollment restricted to music majors. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Study of Western music in a historical context from the Romantic era to the 21st century.

MHIS   324. Jazz History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   120. Study of jazz in a historical context from pre-jazz roots to contemporary styles.

MHIS   350. Studies in the Music of the African Continent and Diaspora. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   243 or MHIS/AFAM   250. An in-depth examination of selected topics and issues in African-derived musical and cultural traditions. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: AFAM   350/INTL   370.

MHIS   373. Beethoven and Brahms Symphonies. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   305. An overview of all symphonies will be the basis for an in-depth analysis of selected movements.

MHIS   380. Survey of the Music Industry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Topics include copyright, business organization, music production, management, recording, freelancing, grants, taxation and careers allied with music.

MHIS   382. Computers and Digital Recording. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 1 studio hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of chair. Open to arts majors. Lectures, and presentations on electronics, digital technology and acoustics as they relate to studio recording. Course covers the necessary knowledge and skills to work with software and other related audio-production equipment. Taught off campus at a nearby studio. Additional fee required.

MHIS   392. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Semester courses; variable hours. 1-6 credits per semester. Maximum total of 6 credits. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and department chair must be obtained prior to registration for the course. Open generally only to students of junior and senior standing who have individual interests in areas not otherwise available to the student.

MHIS   405. Jazz Form and Analysis I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   312. Arranging and performance-practice techniques across selected jazz styles.

MHIS   406. Jazz Form and Analysis II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   405 or 411. Continuing study of arranging and performance-practice techniques across selected jazz styles.

MHIS   411. Jazz Arranging III. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Availability contingent upon student demand and faculty resources. Techniques of arranging for the contemporary pop medium.

MHIS   412. Jazz Arranging IV. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   411. A study of the techniques used in modal, blues and other forms of contemporary jazz composition.

MHIS   420. Chamber Music Literature Through 1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   321 or 322. Historical and analytical study of selected chamber music works from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

MHIS   421. Chamber Music Literature Since 1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   321 or 322. Historical and analytical study of selected chamber music works from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.

MHIS   422. The History of the Symphony. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   321 or 322. Historical and analytical study of selected symphonies from the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.

MHIS   423. Tone Poems and Concert Overtures. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   321 or 322. Historical and analytical study of selected tone poems and concert overtures from the 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.

MHIS   424. History of American Musical Theatre. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   321 or 322. Historical and analytical study of selected musical theatre productions from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.

MHIS   425. Opera History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   321 or 322. Historical and analytical study of selected operas from the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.

MHIS   465. Song Literature. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. A survey of the vocal literature of Germany, France, England and other countries.

MHIS   474. Bach: Goldberg Variations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   246 or permission of instructor. A study in performance aspects and theoretical analysis of the Goldberg Variations by Johann Sebastian Bach. Writings on the topic, a printed score of the work and selected recordings will serve as the content for this study.

MHIS   476. Duke Ellington. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. An overview of the music of Duke Ellington. Lectures and presentations on Ellington recordings, writings and sources of his influences will serve as content for overview.

MHIS   491. Topics in Music. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. Flexible semester courses in selected aspects of music performance, theory, literature or history. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

MHIS   492. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Semester courses; variable hours. 1-6 credits per semester. Maximum total of 6 credits. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and department chair must be obtained prior to registration for the course. Open generally only to students of junior and senior standing who have individual interests in areas not otherwise available to the student.