Charlene D. Crawley
Coordinator

has.vcu.edu/science

The interdisciplinary program in science provides students with a broad, yet fundamental, grounding in the sciences. In addition to the spectrum of required mathematics and science courses, students select a concentration from biology, chemistry, physics or professional science. 

Students completing this curriculum earn a Bachelor of Science in Science.

For information concerning the program and advising, contact the program coordinator. Selected faculty in biology, chemistry, mathematical sciences and physics are the academic advisers for this program.

 

Biology

BIOL   101. Biological Concepts. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A topical approach to basic biological principles. Topics include molecular aspects of cells, bioenergetics, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cellular and organismal reproduction, genetics and evolution, and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the major in biology.

BIOL   103. Environmental Science. 4 Hours.

Hybrid semester course taught mostly online; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Online presentations, assignments, debates and exams require students to understand situations and ideas that involve scientific, social and economic concepts associated with Earth’s environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce major course concepts. Integrates aspects of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and sociology. Topics include ecology, evolution, natural resources, air and water resources, energy and recycling, population biology, and sustainable global societies. Not applicable as a prerequisite for any biology course at the 200 level or above, nor for credit toward the B.S. in Biology. Crosslisted as: ENVS   103.

BIOL   151. Introduction to Biological Sciences I. 3 Hours.

Semester course: 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Pre- or corequisites: MATH   151 and CHEM   101. Introduction to core biological concepts including cell structure, cellular metabolism, cell division, DNA replication, gene expression and genetics. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL   152. Introduction to Biological Sciences II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and CHEM   101, both with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on evolutionary principles, the role of natural selection in the evolution of life forms, taxonomy and phylogenies, biological diversity in the context of form and function of organisms, and and basic principles of ecology. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL   200. Quantitative Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151 with minimum grades of C; and MATH   151, MATH   200, MATH   201 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within a one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Enrollment restricted to biology majors and biology minors. An introduction to the application of the scientific method, experimental design and quantitative aspects of biology.

BIOL   201. Human Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   101, 151, or 152, or BIOL/ENVS   103. Fundamentals of human biology, including the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, human evolution, and the interaction of humans with the environment. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   205. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours, plus online component. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   101 and BIOZ   101, BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151, or BIOL   152 and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. Restricted to communication arts majors; health, physical education and exercise science majors; pre-health majors in clinical laboratory sciences, clinical radiation sciences, dental hygiene and nursing; students enrolled in the health sciences certificate program; and students in the advising tracks for pre-nursing, pre-occupational therapy, pre-pharmacy and pre-physical therapy and pre-nursing acclerated. Human specimens, models and interactive software are used to study human body structures; emphasis is on the skeleto-muscular aspects. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   209. Medical Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   101 and BIOZ   101, BIOL   151 and BIOZ   151, or BIOL   152 and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. General principles of microbiology and immunology to provide a thorough understanding of the host-microbe relationship in disease. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   217. Principles of Nutrition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   101, 151 or 152 with a minimum grade of C, or BIOL/ENVS   103 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic principles of nutrition and their application in promoting growth and maintaining health throughout the life cycle. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL   291. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   300. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and 152; BIOZ   151 or LFSC/BNFO   251; BIOZ   152 or LFSC/BNFO   252; CHEM   101 and CHEZ   101, all with a minimum grade of C; BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102. A study of the molecular biology of the cell as it relates to gene expression, cell signaling, and cell growth and differentiation.

BIOL   303. Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The morphological, biochemical, taxonomic, genetic and evolutionary characteristics of microorganisms with a primary focus on bacteria. Focuses on the structural, mechanical and biochemical adaptations employed by microorganisms in their interactions with host cells and substrates.

BIOL   307. Aquatic Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317, CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102, with minimum grades of C. The physical, chemical and especially the biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems.

BIOL   308. Vertebrate Histology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Microanatomy of vertebrate cells, tissues and organs and the relationship of structure to function. Laboratory work involves an in-depth study of vertebrate microanatomy at the light microscope level as well as an introduction to techniques used for the preparation of materials for histological study.

BIOL   309. Entomology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A field-based course that focuses on insect diversification, identification, natural history and basic biology.

BIOL   310. Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. The basic principles of molecular and applied genetics of plants, animals and microorganisms.

BIOL   312. Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on environmental interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOL   313. Vertebrate Natural History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. The natural history of vertebrates with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOL   314. Animal Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151, BIOL and BIOZ   152, and BIOL   300, each with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to basic reproductive anatomy and physiology. Examination of the basic factors that affect reproductive performance and how these factors are used to regulate the reproductive processes of domestic animals and humans.

BIOL   317. Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. An introduction to the basic principles of ecology, including interactions among organisms and influences of the physical environment.

BIOL   318. Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL   200, MATH   200, MATH   201, STAT   210, STAT   212, STAT   314 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Biology majors must have completed BIOL   200. An exploration of the theoretical and empirical foundations of evolutionary biology with a focus on the processes driving evolutionary change across all of life.

BIOL   320. Biology of the Seed Plant. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151 and BIOL and BIOZ   152, each with a minimum grade of C. The physiology, structure and adaptation of seed plants.

BIOL   321. Plant Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the developmental changes that take place during the life cycle of lower and higher plants. Emphasis is placed on the control factors that are involved in regulating the ordered changes which take place during development.

BIOL   322. Economic Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151 and 152 and BIOZ   151 and 152, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. This class focuses on plant morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, growth and reproduction through an examination of the biology of economically and culturally important plants, including crops used for foods and beverages, medicines and drugs, fibers, and timber.

BIOL   323. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ   151, BIOL and BIOZ   152, and BIOL   300, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to basic plant physiology, including transport processes, energy production and secondary metabolism with emphasis on adaptations to stress.

BIOL   325. Fungal Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The basic biology of fungi, including growth, structure, genetics, diversity, the commercial uses of fungi and their importance as model organisms. Also discusses the interactions between fungi and plants and fungi and humans.

BIOL   332. Environmental Pollution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: eight credits in biology. The study of pollution in the environment with emphasis on the procedures for detection and abatement. Crosslisted as: ENVS   330.

BIOL   333. Evolution of the Angiosperms. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151,152 and BIOZ   151, 152, all with minimum grade of C. Application of evolutionary concepts to flowering plants. Topics include speciation concepts, evolution of vegetative and sexual characteristics and an overview of angiosperm diversity to the level of family.

BIOL   335. Global Change Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151 and BIOZ   152, all with minimum grade of C. Examines how humans influence biological systems and explores what can be done to adapt to or to mitigate future global change, emphasizing anthropogenic climate change.

BIOL   341. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: ANTH   301.

BIOL   351. Introduction to Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduction to the basic concepts, tools and possibilities of bioinformatics, the analysis of large bodies of biological information. The course stresses problem-solving and integrative projects, making extensive use of exercises in class that draw on bioinformatics resources on the Web and on local servers. Graded as pass/fail. Crosslisted as: BNFO   301.

BIOL   380. Introduction to Mathematical Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH   200 and BIOL   151, or permission of instructor. An introduction to mathematical biology. Various mathematical modeling tools will be covered and implemented in a range of biological areas. Additionally, the collaborative research process will be presented and discussed. Crosslisted as: BNFO   380/MATH   380.

BIOL   391. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, 152 and BIOZ   151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   392. Introduction to Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 lecture/demonstration hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: UNIV   200 or HONR   200; STAT   210; BIOL   310; BIOL   317; one of the following laboratory experiences: BIOZ   310, BIOZ   317 or BIOZ   476; all with minimum grades of C. An introduction to the scientific process, including the mechanics of problem definition, information gathering and experimental design. Experimentation is discussed in context with methods of data collection and analysis; some basic research techniques are demonstrated. Aims are to prepare the student for future research experiences, and to have the student write detailed research proposals.

BIOL   395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-2 credits. Maximum of 2 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL   395, BIOL   492, BIOL   495 and/or BIOZ   395). Prerequisites: BIOZ   151 and BIOZ   152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   401. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 300 and 317, each with a minimum grade of C. The biology and chemical activities of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, virus and fungi) of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural importance.

BIOL   402. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution of vertebrate forms as demonstrated by anatomical studies of selected vertebrate types.

BIOL   403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   210 or ANTH   301/BIOL   341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: ANTH   403.

BIOL   411. Animal Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and CHEM   301, each with a minimum grade of C. Physiological principles of animal cells, tissues and organs from the viewpoint of chemical and physical phenomena.

BIOL   413. Parasitology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. The epidemiology and pathological effects of eukaryotic parasites, including parasite life cycles and host-parasite relationships.

BIOL   415. Mangrove Avian Field Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; two weeks abroad in Panama (or other tropical location with mangrove forests) followed by class meetings two days per week throughout most of spring semester. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317. An immersive study of tropical ecology with a focus on bird ecology and conservation of mangrove ecosystems through a unique blend of rigorous science and community engagement. Two weeks of study abroad, including engagement with local conservation organizations and participation in education outreach with local schools, followed by discussion, data analysis and presentation of progress and research in a public symposium on campus.

BIOL   416. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an integrative study of birds, including avian evolution and diversity, general anatomy and physiology, behavior, and ecology.

BIOL   417. Mammalogy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 218 and 317 with minimum grades of C. Study of the characteristics, adaptive radiation and distribution of mammals, with emphasis on North American forms.

BIOL   422. Forest Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the fundamentals of forest ecology, with a particular emphasis on Virginia’s diverse forest ecosystems. Students gain an understanding of the principal controls on forest structure, growth and distribution and relate these principles to sustainable forest management.

BIOL   425. Field Botany. 3 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Field Botany

Semester course; 2 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours.(60 percent online, 40 percent field/laboratory) 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 and BIOL   317, both with minimum grades of C. Online lectures, discussions, reflections and assessments in conjunction with field experience. Explores the effects of environmental conditions on plant morphology and adaptations, with emphasis on plant anatomy, plant physiology and ecology.

BIOL   430. Invasion Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151, BIOZ   152 and BIOL   317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive view of the ecology and impacts of invasive species. Integrates the effects of historical human demography, ecological disturbance, natural history, species interactions, barriers to invasion, invasive species management and impacts on natural communities and ecosystems.

BIOL   431. Introduction to Marine Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   317, CHEM   102 and CHEZ   102, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to physical, chemical and geological oceanography and a more detailed treatment of the organisms and ecological processes involved in the pelagic and benthic environments of the world's oceans and estuaries.

BIOL   435. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution, ecology, structure, taxonomy and behavior of reptiles and amphibians.

BIOL   438. Forensic Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 or equivalent; CHEM   302 and CHEZ   302. Provides an understanding of molecular biology testing methodologies as applied to analysis of forensic samples. Current topics in forensic DNA analysis will include quality assurance, DNA databanking, contemporary research and population genetics. Crosslisted as: FRSC   438.

BIOL   440. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology focused on vertebrate model organisms with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development.

BIOL   445. Neurobiology and Behavior. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. The study of animal behavior stressing ecological, evolutionary and neurobiological approaches.

BIOL   448. Neuroscience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL   310. An examination of the basic structure of the nervous system, nervous system operation on a cellular and molecular level and the formation of the nervous system during development.

BIOL   450. Biology of Cancer I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS   309. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL   451. Biology of Cancer II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   450 and instructor's permission. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL   452. Biology of Drugs. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C. Explores how drugs modulate biological signaling pathways to study, cure, enhance and intoxicate organisms. An introduction to basic pharmacology that largely focuses on human pathways and diseases. Topics include major drug classes (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, etc.) and drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, etc.).

BIOL   455. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS   309. A comprehensive introduction to the immune system of higher animals, emphasizing the molecular and cellular basis for antibody-medicated immunity.

BIOL   459. Infectious Disease Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   151, BIOL   152, BIOZ   151, BIOZ   152 and BIOL   317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the causes and consequences of infectious disease at levels from individual organisms to global scale. Examines the history of infectious disease ecology in human and nonhuman populations. Students learn about the roles of transmission and coevolution in infectious disease ecology and how population models are used to inform management of epidemics and emerging infectious diseases.

BIOL   460. Human Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   318 or BIOL   341 with a minimum grade of C. The origin and genetic history of modern humans, our historic colonization and migration, the utility of the Human Genome Project, our differences from other primates, adaptation to our environment and disease, and the ethical implications of genetic research in our society.

BIOL   475. Biology Capstone Seminar: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL   300, BIOL   310 and BIOL   317 with minimum grades of C; and senior standing. Enrollment restricted to biology majors. Students read assigned topical papers before class, prepare critical analyses, discuss and debate selected positions. See Schedule of Classes for specific topics.

BIOL   477. Biology Capstone Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C and 90 hours of undergraduate course work. The following courses qualify as a capstone experience if taken as a co-requisite with this course: BIOL   492 Independent Study, BIOL   493 Biology Internship, BIOL   495 Research and Thesis, BIOL   497 Ecological Service Learning or other courses, including topics courses, that include the core competencies required for a capstone experience and are approved by the chair of the Department of Biology. Graded as Pass/Fail.

BIOL   480. Animal-Plant Interactions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or BIOL   318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of interactions among animals and plants.

BIOL   489. Communicating Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL   495, senior standing. An opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective communication of their research in writing. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities including preparation of figures for publication and the crafting of a research paper with correct usage of the primary literature. Students will use this as an opportunity to aid the writing of their thesis for BIOL   495.

BIOL   490. Presenting Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL   492 or 495, and senior standing. Opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective oral presentation of their research work. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities such as preparation of visual materials and statistical analysis of data. Students will make several oral presentations directly related to their specific BIOL   492 or 495 projects.

BIOL   491. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisite: BIOL   300. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL   492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses (BIOL   395, BIOL   492, BIOL   495 and/or BIOZ   395). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Prerequisite: minimum grade of C in one of the following courses: BIOZ   310, BIOZ   317 or BIOZ   476; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology. Projects should include data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. A final report must be submitted at the completion of the project.

BIOL   493. Biology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study and internship courses. 1 credit awarded for each 100 hours of work experience in professional biology setting. Prerequisites: BIOL   310 or 317 with minimum grades of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology and of the agency, company or organization in which internship will be held. Internship designed to provide laboratory or field experience in an off-campus professional biology setting. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   495. Research and Thesis. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all undergraduate research in biology (BIOL 292, 492, 495). A minimum of 2 credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. A minimum of 4 credits is required for honors in biology. Prerequisites: LFSC   301, permission of the supervising faculty member and a research proposal acceptable to the departmental chair. Activities include field and/or laboratory research under the direct supervision of a faculty mentor. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Research projects must include experimental design and analysis of data. A written thesis of substantial quality is required upon completion of the research.

BIOL   496. Biology Preceptorship. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 credits. May be repeated with a different course for a maximum of 4 credits. Prerequisites: completion of the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor and departmental chair required prior to registration. Preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not are limited to, attending class, conducting review sessions and preparing course study/review materials. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL   497. Ecological Service Learning. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 with a minimum grade of C. A service-learning course coupled to course content and material taught in BIOL   317. Students will seek out ecologically relevant opportunities with local, state and federal community partners who will provide experiences to enhance academic enrichment and personal growth and will help foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 20 service-learning hours with community partner(s).

BIOL   498. Insects and Plants Service-learning. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL   317 or BIOL   318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. A service-learning course related to insect-plant interactions. Field experience with community partners, including public parks, botanical gardens and organic farms. Designed to expand academic instruction, enhance personal growth and foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 40 service-learning hours with a community partner.

Chemistry

CHEM   100. Introductory Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 problem session hour. 3 credits. Prerequisite: students must be eligible to take MATH   131 or higher. A course in the elementary principles of chemistry for individuals who do not meet the criteria for enrollment in CHEM   101; required for all students without a high school chemistry background who need to take CHEM   101-102. These credits may not be used to satisfy any chemistry course requirements in the College of Humanities and Sciences.

CHEM   101. General Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM   100 with a grade of C or higher, or high school chemistry and a satisfactory combination of Math SAT score and high school GPA. Pre- or corequisite: MATH   151. Prerequisite for CHEM   102: CHEM   101 with a grade of C or higher. Fundamental principles and theories of chemistry, including qualitative analysis.

CHEM   102. General Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM   100 with a grade of C or higher, or high school chemistry and a satisfactory combination of Math SAT score and high school GPA. Pre- or corequisite: MATH   151. Prerequisite for CHEM   102: CHEM   101 with a grade of C or higher. Fundamental principles and theories of chemistry, including qualitative analysis.

CHEM   110. Chemistry and Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The basic principles of chemistry are presented through the use of decision-making activities related to real-world societal issues. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Chemistry.

CHEM   112. Chemistry in the News. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The basic principles of chemistry are used to interpret newspaper and magazine articles of current interest relating to chemistry in manufacturing, the global environment and medicine. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Chemistry.

CHEM   301. Organic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM   102 with a minimum grade of C. Prerequisite for CHEM   302: CHEM   301 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive survey of aliphatic and aromatic compounds with emphasis on their structure, properties, reactions, reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry.

CHEM   302. Organic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM   102 with a minimum grade of C. Prerequisite for CHEM   302: CHEM   301 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive survey of aliphatic and aromatic compounds with emphasis on their structure, properties, reactions, reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry.

CHEM   303. Physical Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   309 or CLSE   201 with minimum grades of C, and PHYS   202 or PHYS   208, and MATH   201 or MATH   301 or MATH   307. Ideal and nonideal gases, thermodynamics, free energy and chemical equilibrium.

CHEM   304. Physical Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   303 with a minimum grade of C. Kinetics, solution thermodynamics, heterogeneous equilibria, electrochemistry and introductory biophysical chemistry.

CHEM   305. Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   301-302 and CHEM   309 with minimum grades of C; and MATH   200. Concepts and principles of physical chemistry as related to the life sciences, forensic science and the B.S in science programs. Major topics include thermodynamics of proteins and nucleic acids, enzyme kinetics and spectroscopic techniques useful in biophysical research such as circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging.

CHEM   306. Industrial Applications of Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   302 and CHEZ   302. Chemical engineering students: EGRC 201 and EGRC 205. A study and analysis of the most important industrial applications of inorganic chemistry, with emphasis on structure/properties correlation, materials and energy balance, availability and logistics of starting materials, economic impact and environmental effects. Crosslisted as: CLSE   306.

CHEM   309. Quantitative Analysis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   102 with a minimum grade of C, and MATH   151. Theory and practice of gravimetric, volumetric and instrumental analysis techniques and treatment of multiple equilibria in aqueous solutions.

CHEM   310. Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM   302. This course is designed to expose undergraduate chemistry, biology and pre-medicine majors to the history, theory and practice of medicinal chemistry. The course will emphasize a combination of fundamentals and applications of drug design. In particular, the molecular aspects of drug action will be discussed. Special emphasis will also be placed on the methods used by medicinal chemists to design new drugs. Crosslisted as: MEDC   310.

CHEM   320. Inorganic Chemistry I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   101-102 with minimum grades of C. A systematic, unified study of the structures, properties, reactions and practical applications of inorganic compounds.

CHEM   350. Guided Inquiry in Chemistry. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1.5 lecture hours. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   101-102 with minimum grades of B. Student facilitators lead recitation sections using guided inquiry, group-based activities. Introduces students to the principles of guided inquiry, active learning and collaborative learning in chemistry through practical, hands-on class work, discussions, readings and a final project.

CHEM   351. Chemistry Preceptorship. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1.5 lecture hours. 1.5 credits. Course may be repeated once for a total of 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of relevant course with minimum grade of C, completion of CHEM   350 with a grade of B and permission of course instructor and departmental chair. Student facilitators lead recitation sections or laboratories in chemistry courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not limited to, attending all classes, holding weekly review sessions or office hours and/or routine grading. A weekly reflection journal and final project are required.

CHEM   391. Topics in Chemistry. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all chemistry topics courses may be applied to the major. Prerequisites: CHEM   101-102 and CHEZ   101, 102. A study of a selected topic in chemistry. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

CHEM   392. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 credits; only 3 credits are applicable to the chemistry major. Prerequisites: CHEM   102 and CHEZ   101 and 102. The independent investigation of chemical problems through readings and experimentation under the supervision of a research adviser. Written interim and final reports are required.

CHEM   398. Professional Practices and Perspectives Seminar. 1 Hour.

Seminar course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: completion of 18 credits in chemistry. Seminar course for students considering careers in chemistry-related fields covering topics such as scientific professionalism and ethics, and using chemical literature.

CHEM   401. Applications of Instrumental Techniques in Organic and Forensic Chemistry. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   302 and CHEZ   302. Theory and laboratory practice of instrumental and chemical methods applied to the analysis of organic compounds with emphasis on applications in forensic chemistry.

CHEM   403. Biochemistry I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   302 with a minimum grade of C. A presentation of structural biochemistry, enzymology, biophysical techniques, bioenergetics and an introduction to intermediary metabolism.

CHEM   404. Biochemistry II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM   403 with a minimum grade of C. A presentation of metabolism and its regulation as integrated catoblism and anoblism of molecules that are essential to life.

CHEM   406. Inorganic Chemistry II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   304 and 320. An advanced study of inorganic chemistry, including inorganic spectroscopy, organometallic compounds and catalysis, and bioinorganic systems.

CHEM   409. Instrumental Analysis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM   303 and 309, and CHEZ   309. Theory and practice of modern spectrophotometric, electroanalytical and chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance methods.

CHEM   491. Topics in Chemistry. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all chemistry topics courses may be applied to the major. Prerequisites: CHEM   102 and CHEZ   101 and 102. A study of a selected topic in chemistry. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

CHEM   492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 credits; only 3 credits are applicable to the chemistry major. Prerequisites: CHEM   102 and CHEZ   101 and 102. The independent investigation of chemical problems through readings and experimentation under the supervision of a research adviser. Written interim and final reports required.

CHEM   493. Chemistry Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits; 1 credit will be given for each 150 hours (approximately one month) of part-time or full-time chemical work experience. Prerequisites: CHEM   102 and CHEZ   101 and 102. Acquisition of chemistry laboratory experience through involvement in a professional chemistry setting. Written progress and final reports will be required.

CHEM   498. Honors Thesis. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisites: completion of 29 credits in chemistry, including CHEM   398 and at least six credits of CHEM   492. Students submit to the Department of Chemistry a thesis based on their independent study research. Students also present their results to the department as a research seminar.

Physics

PHYS   101. Foundations of Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. For non-science majors. Introduction to the fundamental ideas of physics. The course covers selected topics in mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism and modern physics. Not applicable toward the physics major. An optional laboratory may be taken with this course. See PHYZ 101L.

PHYS   103. Elementary Astronomy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A descriptive approach to astronomy dealing with basic features of our solar system, our galaxy and the universe. Not applicable toward physics major. An optional laboratory may be taken with this course. See PHYZ 103L.

PHYS   107. Wonders of Technology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/laboratory/recitation hours. 4 credits. Introduction to physics concepts involved in everyday technological applications. The course covers selected topics in mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, and modern physics by depicting their role in common devices. The laboratory focuses on applications of physics principles to everyday real-life situations. Not applicable toward the physics major.

PHYS   201. General Physics. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH   151. Completion of PHYS   201 to enroll in PHYS   202. Designed primarily for life-science majors. First semester: basic concepts of motion, waves and heat. Second semester: basic concepts of electricity, magnetism, light and modern physics. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS   202. General Physics. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH   151. Completion of PHYS   201 to enroll in PHYS   202. Designed primarily for life-science majors. First semester: basic concepts of motion, waves and heat. Second semester: basic concepts of electricity, magnetism, light and modern physics. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS   207. University Physics I. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture, 1 recitation and 3 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: MATH   200 or permission of instructor. A vector- and calculus-based introduction to the fundamental concepts of mechanics, heat and wave motion.

PHYS   208. University Physics II. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture, 1 recitation and 3 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   207. Corequisite: MATH   201. A vector- and calculus-based introduction to the fundamentals of electricity, magnetism and optics.

PHYS   215. Science, Technology and Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examination of scientific breakthroughs that have led to transformational technologies that are continuing to impact society today. Topics include a historical perspective, an understanding of scientific principles and technologies and an examination of how such discoveries have changed society. Not applicable toward physics major.

PHYS   291. Topics in Physical Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture or laboratory hours. 1-3 credits per semester. A study of a selected topic in physics, astronomy, geology, meteorology or oceanography. Not applicable toward physics major. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS   301. Classical Mechanics I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   208 and MATH   307. Corequisite: MATH   301. Review of vector calculus. Newtonian mechanics: single particle, oscillations, motion under central forces and dynamics of a systems of particles.

PHYS   302. Classical Mechanics II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301 and MATH   301. Motion in noninertial frames, dynamics of rigid bodies, coupled oscillators, continuous systems and wave equations in one dimension.

PHYS   307. The Physics of Sound and Music. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: A 100- or 200-level physics course or equivalent and the ability to read music or sing or play a musical instrument, or permission of instructor. Basics of the physics of waves and sound. Fourier synthesis, tone quality, human ear and voice, musical temperament and pitch, physics of musical instruments, electronic synthesizers, sound recording and reproduction, room and auditorium acoustics. Not applicable toward the physics major. Crosslisted as: MHIS   307.

PHYS   315. Energy and the Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. A study of society's demands for energy, how it is currently being met, the environmental consequences thereof and some discussion of alternatives. Open to non-physics majors; not applicable to the physics major. Crosslisted as: ENVS   315.

PHYS   320. Modern Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   208 and MATH   307. Corequisite: MATH   301. Foundations of modern physics including special relativity, thermal radiation and quantization, wave-particle duality of radiation and matter, Schroedinger equation, atomic, nuclear and particle physics, and molecular structure and spectra. A continuation of PHYS   208.

PHYS   325. Visualization of Physics Using Mathematica. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   320 or permission of instructor. Visualization of various areas of physics using the Mathematica language for performing numerical calculations and producing graphics and animations. Examples will be taken from classical mechanics, classical electromagnetism, modern physics, statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

PHYS   340. Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301 and MATH   301. Microscopic theory of temperature, heat and entropy, kinetic theory, multicomponent systems, and quantum statistics. Mathematical relationships of thermodynamics.

PHYS   351. Guided Inquiry for University Physics I. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   207 and permission of instructor. Student learning assistants aid in recitation sections of PHYS   207 University Physics I using guided inquiry and group-based activities. Further develops the core skills of PHYS   207. Introduces students to the principles of active and collaborative learning in physics through practical, hands-on problem-solving, class discussions and demonstrations.

PHYS   352. Guided Inquiry for University Physics II. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 recitation hour. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   208 and permission of instructor. Student learning assistants aid in recitation sections of PHYS   208 University Physics II using guided inquiry and group-based activities. Further develops the core skills of PHYS   208. Introduces students to the principles of active and collaborative learning in physics through practical, hands-on problem-solving, class discussions and demonstrations.

PHYS   376. Electromagnetism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301 and MATH   301. Electrostatics, magnetism and electromagnetic properties of matter, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic waves, boundary conditions, and polarization.

PHYS   380. Quantum Physics I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301, PHYS   320 and MATH   301, or permission of instructor. Brief introduction to the correspondence between classical and quantum mechanics, Schroedinger wave equation, operator methods in quantum mechanics, angular momentum and conservation laws, solution to harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, magnetic dipole momentum and spin.

PHYS   391. Topics in Physics. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum total of 6 credits. In-depth study of a selected topic in physics or physics-related technology, usually at a level requiring only elementary algebra. Not applicable toward physics major. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS   397. Directed Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 4 credits. Open to nonmajors. Determination of amount of credit and permission of instructor must be obtained before registration of course. Intended to allow nonmajors and majors to examine in detail an area of physics or physics-related technology not otherwise available in upper-level courses. May involve either directed readings or directed laboratory work.

PHYS   420. Quantum Physics II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   380 or permission of instructor. Transition rates, addition of angular momentum, multi-electron atoms-ground state, X-ray and optical excitations, time independent perturbation theory, relativistic hydrogen atom and the structure of atoms, collision theory, nuclear structure, elementary particles and their symmetries.

PHYS   422. Optics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS   376 or permission of instructor. Comprehensive study of propagation of light, including geometrical optics, polarization, interference, diffraction, Fourier optics and quantum optics.

PHYS   440. Introduction to Condensed Matter Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   340 and 380. Corequisite: PHYS   376. Structure and bonding in solids, phonons, free electron Fermi gas, energy bands, semiconductors, Fermi surface, optical properties and magnetism.

PHYS   450. Senior Physics Laboratory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   301 and 320, and PHYZ   320. Experiments in condensed matter physics with an introduction to the instrumentation and data analysis used in the research laboratory.

PHYS   483. Introduction to Astrophysics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS   320 and PHYS   340. Pre- or corequisites: PHYS   376 and PHYS   380. Basic concepts of star formation and evolution, galactic structures, and cosmology. Includes stellar atmospheres and interiors, the sun, the Milky Way and other galaxies, and black holes.

PHYS   490. Seminar in Conceptual Physics. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: PHYS   340, PHYS   376, PHYS   380 and PHYZ   320. Restricted to seniors in physics with at least 85 credit hours taken toward the degree. A senior capstone course in physics designed to help students formulate physics-related questions in such a way that they can obtain quantitative answers. Students will describe their results in a senior paper and in an oral presentation.

PHYS   491. Topics in Physics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a selected topic in physics. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

PHYS   492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits per semester. Maximum of 3 credits applicable toward physics major requirement; maximum total of 8 credits. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course. Independent projects in experimental or theoretical physics.