312 North Shafer Street
P.O. Box 842021
Richmond, Virginia 23284-2021
Phone: (804) 827-1111
Fax: (804) 827-3479
worldstudies.vcu.edu

Mark Wood, Ph.D.
Associate professor and director

Angelina Overvold, Ph.D.
Associate professor and associate director

The School of World Studies explores what it means to be human and prepares students to participate in the work of building a healthy world community. With training in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences, our faculty complete research on the diversity and universality of human existence and creative expression, generating a rich intellectual understanding of the evolving and dynamic nature of human beings. We consider the development, composition and interaction of language, religion, art, film, lierature, poetry and culture. We also consider the relationship between these forms of human life and matters of gender, nationality, race, social justice, human rights and the environment. Our students acquire interdisciplinary knowledge, cross-cultural communication skills and global perspectives on real-world issues, and they graduate from the School of World Studies with the ability to act and live well as global citizens.

 

Languages

The School of World Studies offers students significant opportunities to broaden their knowledge of diverse cultures through language study, including:

Arabic
Biblical Hebrew
Chinese
French (major and minor)
German (major and minor)
Italian (Italian studies minor)
Latin
Russian (Russian studies minor)
Spanish (major and minor)

In cases where the appropriate level of instruction is unavailable, the School of World Studies Advising Office will assist the student in identifying language study options at other U.S. institutions or abroad.

Foreign language courses

Students planning to take a foreign language course at VCU must take the placement test in order to determine proper course selection. Specific information about the placement test is available on the School of World Studies website.

Students who wish to complete a language through the intermediate level or higher are required to consecutively complete 101, 102 and 201 or the equivalent. Students may then choose either 202 or 205 to complete the intermediate level.

Foreign language requirement and native speaker information

All students within the College of Humanities and Sciences are required to meet a foreign language requirement either through the 102 level for the college general education program or through a higher level as specified by the individual program.

The following is the procedure to determine fluency level in respective languages:

  1. For languages currently taught at VCU students take a placement test through School of World Studies media center.

  2. For languages not taught at VCU students submit ACTFL oral proficiency examination results (For more information and to register for the OPI evaluation, please visit languagetesting.com.) or submit a copy of official high school or university transcript documenting completion of formal secondary or postsecondary study in a program taught in a language other than English.

For questions about the procedure or regarding languages not covered through the OPI test, students should contact the School of World Studies Advising Office.

Experiential learning and study abroad

World Passport

As part of the School of World Studies’ commitment to learning through engagement, each student within the school is required to complete a World Passport to introduce him or her to a breadth of experience beyond the core curriculum: cultural opportunities, experiential learning, seminars and conferences, international experiences, and multicultural campus activities. Students are required to obtain information about their personal World Passport from the School of World Studies Advising Office. The passport will be kept in the student advising file throughout the duration of study. It will be reviewed and stamped by an SWS adviser prior to graduation, and then given to the student upon completion.

The passports require four categories of activities to be completed by students before graduation from VCU with a degree from the School of World Studies.

  • Professional preparation prepares students for careers, graduate school and lifelong learning.
  • Crossing boundaries exposes students to international and multicultural interactions and ideas.
  • Community engagement enhances the undergraduate experience by greater involvement in the community.
  • Experiential learning provides students the opportunity to demonstrate success in applying program content beyond a classroom setting.

The School of World Studies is committed to the premise that learning is best facilitated through engagement with the dynamic complexities and challenges of the world outside the classroom. Both majors and minors in the school are required to participate in experiential learning options. All experiential learning opportunities must receive prior approval from the SWS Advising Office and include internships, service-learning courses, certain noncredit options and study abroad.

Study abroad

Summer study-abroad programs provide students with opportunities for short-term immersion in the language, culture and civilization of the countries they visit. A list of current VCU study abroad opportunities can be found at global.vcu.edu/abroad. VCU is a member of the International Student Exchange Program, which offers junior year abroad programs at one of 40 universities worldwide. For more information about study abroad visit the School of World Studies website at worldstudies.vcu.edu.

World Passport completion

The instructions for successful completion of the World Passport requirements, along with a description of each of the four sections, can be found on the World Studies website at worldstudies.vcu.edu or in the World Studies Advising Office. Students are responsible for attending appropriate events, securing documentation of attendance and meeting with their adviser to have the passport stamped as points are earned for each category. The potential events can be determined by utilizing the category descriptions noted in the passport or by visiting the SWS Calendar at worldstudies.vcu.edu and the school’s Facebook page. Evaluation of the passport is on a pass/fail basis. Should a student lose his or her passport, he or she would be required to re-create attendance at events in essay form or complete the requirement in some other way determined by the adviser or program coordinator.

School of World Studies courses

Foreign language courses

School of World Studies courses

Anthropology

ANTH   103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL   103.

ANTH   105. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: INTL   104.

ANTH   200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM   200/INTL   200.

ANTH   210. Biological Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL   103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of biological anthropology. Emphasis on the history and study of humans as biological organisms. Topics include genetic, social and ecological determinants of variation in human growth and biological diversity, as well as human adaptation and adaptability, disease, diet, and nutrition.

ANTH   220. Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL   103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of social and cultural anthropology. Provides an overview of key themes and theories in the subject, as well as the analytical and methodological tools to critically consider cultural difference, social organization and social change, with reference to a representative range of culture areas and the empirical fields studied by cultural anthropologists.

ANTH   230. Anthropological Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL   103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of anthropological linguistics. Emphasis is on the interactions between language and culture from a comparative perspective, as well as the relationship between language and social identities and relationships. Also an introduction to the field's methodology, research techniques, analytical tools and their applications.

ANTH   301. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: BIOL   341.

ANTH   302. Archaeological Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH   105/INTL   104 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the basic theoretical perspectives and tools of archaeology, including analysis and interpretation of archaeological materials. Students will review the intellectual history of archaeology, applying a variety of theoretical approaches to archaeological data sets and sites.

ANTH   303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH   105/INTL   104 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the basic practices of archaeology, including planning, excavation, artifact analysis, documentary research, mapping, dating sites and artifacts, and interpretation and presentation of findings. Students will participate in an active field research program and will apply methods at an active site and lab.

ANTH   304. Sociology of Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY   101 or ANTH   103/INTL   103. The family in its social and cultural context. Analysis of child rearing, marriage, kinship, family crises and family change in various societies around the world. Crosslisted as: SOCY   304/GSWS   304.

ANTH   307. Human Osteology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   210. Corequisite: ANTZ   307. Emphasizes human skeletal development and the identification of specific bones and their anatomical landmarks, including the determination of side for paired bones. Also discussed are methods of estimating age, sex and stature from human skeletal remains and application of human skeletal data to broader anthropological questions.

ANTH   309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM   309/INTL   309/GSWS   309.

ANTH   310. Forensic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   210. A comprehensive overview of forensic anthropology including its development and the theory and methodology on which it is based. Crosslisted as: FRSC   310.

ANTH   312. History of Human Settlement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A cultural and historical geography of human migration and settlement over the earth. Topics may include agricultural and urban systems, exploration, colonization and imperialism, and changing relationships with the environment, during and since the Middle Ages. Crosslisted as: URSP   312.

ANTH   315. Field Methods and Research Design in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103, and ANTH   220 or ANTH   230. Overview of quantitative and qualitative anthropological field techniques as well as the ethical dimension of anthropological fieldwork. Basics of research design, effective methodology and writing grant proposals.

ANTH   328. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: FRLG   328/ENGL   392/LING   392.

ANTH   331. Public Culture: Anthropology Through Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103; WRLD   230. Explores how anthropology can contribute to a critical analysis of films as cultural representations. Class discussion will relate particular films both to the cultural context they depict and to the cultural context in which they were produced. Will also examine films as images that produce cultural meanings with the potential to affect the viewer's understanding of the world and comprehension of self.

ANTH   348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: INTL   348.

ANTH   349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL   349.

ANTH   350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL   350.

ANTH   355. Death and Burial. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   103 or ANTH   105. Explores beliefs about the dead across time and space, the transformations physical bodies undergo after death and how archaeologists investigate human remains to interpret the beliefs and social practices of past cultures.

ANTH   364. Mythology and Folklore. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL   201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of one or more forms of folklore, such as folktales, fairy tales, legends, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads and/or games, with some attention to literary, social or historical significance and contexts. This course may also include approaches to collecting material or to examining later literary forms and texts inspired by folklore. Crosslisted as: ENGL   364.

ANTH   375. Field Archaeology. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 8 field and laboratory hours. 6 credits. Introduction to archaeological field and basic laboratory techniques. Archaeological data collection (excavation or survey) forms the core of the course.

ANTH   380. Medical Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   210 or 220. An introduction to the biological and cultural anthropological study of global health and well-being, including healing processes, the biosocial relations of healing management and relationships between biomedicine and pluralistic medical systems.

ANTH   381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: INTL   381.

ANTH   389. World Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   103 or ANTH   105. Examines the diversity and evolution of human cultures through archaeological practices and techniques.

ANTH   390. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL   201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An introduction to methods of language analysis, emphasizing the study of sounds and sound patterns, and units of meaning and their arrangements Crosslisted as: ENGL   390/LING   390.

ANTH   391. Topics in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses that may be applied to the major. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL   103. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

ANTH   394. Historical Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 or ANTH   105/INTL   104, and any history course. A review of historical archaeology, recognizing its contemporary emphasis on the spread of European cultures across the globe beginning in the 15th century. Methods and findings of archaeological research from the United States, Europe and Africa will be covered with special emphasis on the study of documents and artifacts related to the emergence and present state of the modern world. Students will participate in field research. Crosslisted as: HIST   390.

ANTH   398. Field Investigations in Anthropology. 1-8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-8 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. Permission of instructor required. A course involving travel and/or study in an off-campus context. Intended primarily for students participating in directed study abroad programs, the course meets the experiential learning requirement for the anthropology major.

ANTH   399. Junior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: ANTH   210, 220 or 230; and junior standing. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation, and lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the anthropology program.

ANTH   403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   210 or ANTH   301/BIOL   341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: BIOL   403.

ANTH   415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: INTL   415.

ANTH   416. The Origin and Evolution of the Idea of Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL   103 or AFAM 103 or permission of instructor. This course is an exploration of the origins and social history of the "idea" of race from the Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. Using both historical and anthropological scholarship, the course presents an analytical framework for race as a sociocultural phenomenon. Crosslisted as: AFAM   416.

ANTH   420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL   103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African Societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM   420/INTL   420.

ANTH   425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS   425/INTL   425.

ANTH   448. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: three credits in a 200-level literature course (or equivalent). Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: FRLG   448/ENGL   455/LING   455.

ANTH   450. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL   201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL   454/INTL   454.

ANTH   454. Theory in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH   220 or ANTH   230, and at least one 3-credit 300-level ANTH course . A study of the connections between theoretical work that addresses understandings of culture and methodological practice centered on creating ethnography.

ANTH   455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL   101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: INTL   455.

ANTH   457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: INTL   457.

ANTH   490. Anthropology Senior Capstone. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 15 credits in anthropology at the 300 and 400 level or the equivalent; senior standing. Open only to anthropology majors. Explores current research that transects more than one subfield of anthropology. Research foci will be at the discretion of the instructor, but students will explore how the anthropological subfields influence and speak to each other in new translational research, and will assess the emerging literature and scientific questions with a critical and scientific perspective.

ANTH   491. Advanced Topics in Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester with different topics.Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103; ANTH   210, 220, or 230; and UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. A maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses (including ANTH   391 and 491) may be applied to the major.

ANTH   492. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 12 credits for all independent study and internship courses. Prerequisites: determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and the group coordinator must be procured prior to enrollment in the course; a minimum GPA of 3.0 in the major. Generally open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the anthropology program.

ANTH   493. Anthropology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits for majors and 3 credits for minors. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits in anthropology courses at the 300 level or above, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international business or agency offering opportunities in anthropological field methods or research.

ANTH   497. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH   497 is a prerequisite for ANTH   498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

ANTH   498. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH   497 is a prerequisite for ANTH   498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

Anthropology Lab

ANTZ   301. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH   301/BIOL   341. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH   301/BIOL   341. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: BIOZ   341.

ANTZ   303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH   303. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH   303. Exercises emphasize practical applications of describing, cataloging and analyzing artifacts and faunal and floral remains from archaeological excavations.

ANTZ   307. Human Osteology Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH   307. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH   307. Exercises will emphasize practical description and identification of human bones and bony morphology, as well as associated soft tissue structures.

ANTZ   403. Primatology Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH   403/BIOL   403. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH   403/BIOL   403. Exercises will emphasize comparative studies of morphology, behavior and social systems between and among primate groups, as well as the evolution of these characteristics in extant species and populations.

Foreign Literature in English Translation

FLET   321. Early German Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Changing perspectives in German literature from its pagan beginnings, through the Medieval Golden Age, Baroque extremism, the Enlightenment and Storm and Stress up to Classicism and Goethe's Faust. Treatment of The Nibelungenlied, the courtly epic, Simplicissimus, and selections by Lessing, Schiller and Goethe. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of German is required. All work is done in English.

FLET   322. Modern German Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Growing psychological awareness and alienation of the individual in German literature of the 19th and 20th centuries. Representative works chosen from among writers of the past century and such modern writers as Thomas Mann, Kafka, Hesse, Brecht, Kafka, Hesse, Brecht, Boll and Grass. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of German is required. All work is done in English.

FLET   391. Topics in Foreign Literature in English Translation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. An in-depth study of selected topics in foreign literature. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of a foreign language is required. All work is done in English. Crosslisted as: INTL   391.

FLET   492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1, 2 or 3 credits. Maximum of 3 credits per semester, maximum total of 6 credits for all FLET independent study courses. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 hours in any literature course. Determination of course content and permission of the instructor and department chair must be obtained prior to registration of the course. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest and for which they have the necessary background.

International Studies

INTL   101. Human Societies and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary inquiry into how societies around the world are organized and how they are interrelated on social, economic, political and cultural dimensions. The course is organized around themes that are important to prominent globalization processes -- topics such as human rights, global inequalities, cultural globalization, global crime, globalization and religion, the global mass media, and environmental issues. Students also explore the implications of rapid social change for international issues and interpersonal interaction.

INTL   102. Introduction to Political Economy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Seminar on the development of critical thought and economic analysis of policy issues. Focus is on how policy choices affect society and the individual, the economic methodology that guides policy choices, and the institutional and political environments within which policy is derived. Issues cover a broad range of topics including environmental issues, tax policy, inflation expectations, unemployment, foreign trade and the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policies. Crosslisted as: ECON   101.

INTL   103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH   103.

INTL   104. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: ANTH   105.

INTL   105. International Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introductory analysis of interstate relations and world affairs. Attention focuses on theories of international politics, military capabilities and their application, international organizations, global economic trends, domestic sources of state behavior and other selected issues as appropriate. Crosslisted as: POLI   105.

INTL   151. Global Communications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores how communication media and globalization drive each other and how they both impact the nation-state as well as international institutions. Examines how technology, the global economy and international media corporations influence culture, politics, business, law and other institutions in countries around the world. Explores the relationship between media systems and governments and how both are affected by technology and globalization. Crosslisted as: MASC   151.

INTL   200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM   200/ANTH   200.

INTL   201. Introduction to the Middle East and North Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary introduction to the region of the Middle East and North Africa, its peoples and cultures. Covers the geography, climate, economy, language, religious and social systems, as well as other social systems and cultural features that are traditional to the peoples of the region.

INTL   202. Indentities in a Global Community. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to intercultural communication. Designed to help students develop an understanding of cultures, to appreciate the opportunities and challenges that each culture presents to people and to learn how individuals have dealt with those opportunities and challenges.

INTL   203. Cultural Texts and Contexts: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Through the analysis and interpretation of literary, cinematic and other cultural texts, this course explores the ways cultural and national identities have been shaped, imagined and contested in various regions of the world. While responding to the readings and films as artistic manifestations or social documents, students will also become familiar with the aesthetic, political and social contexts in which the works were and are produced. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: WRLD   203.

INTL   204. Language and Groups in the United States. 3,4 Hours.

Semester course; 3-4 lecture hours. 3-4 credits. Taught in English. This course introduces students to the sociocultural experience and formation of identity of non-English-speaking peoples in the United States. Students explore the dynamic between English and a specific heritage language and its interaction with artistic, cultural and social issues through fiction and nonfiction texts, films and multimedia pertaining to specific language groups, such as: Latinos, Italian-Americans, German-Americans or Native Americans. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: FRLG   204.

INTL   211. Contemporary World Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   112 or both ENGL   295 and HONR   200. A study of selected literature published in the past 25 years and chosen from a number of different nations and cultures. Crosslisted as: ENGL   211.

INTL   303. World Regions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the various regions of the earth, including land forms, climate, resources, peoples, agriculture and urban conditions. Regions to be selected each semester from Anglo-America, Latin America, western Europe, Eastern Europe, the former USSR, Middle East and North Africa, Africa (south of the Sahara), Indian subcontinent, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. May be taken only once for credit. Crosslisted as: URSP   303.

INTL   306. Introduction to Judaism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of the dynamics and characteristic patterns of Jewish civilization encompassing history, practices and beliefs. Crosslisted as: RELS   306.

INTL   307. Black Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the role of religion in the lives of blacks with an emphasis on African religions and philosophies, the black church in America, and the roles of the various faiths, sects and cults. Crosslisted as: AFAM   307/RELS   307.

INTL   309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM   309/ANTH   309/GSWS   309.

INTL   311. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto. Crosslisted as: RELS   311.

INTL   312. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Crosslisted as: RELS   312.

INTL   314. Man and Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course. 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative study of the ecology and natural history of human populations, including the environments as determining factors in the evolution of human institutions and technology, resources management, and population crises; cultural traditions as mechanisms of population control; basic theory of population biology. Crosslisted as: ENVS   314.

INTL   315. Economic Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ECON   203 with a minimum grade of B and ECON   211; or ECON   210 and ECON   211. Introduction to the process of economic development. Surveys development theory and experiences of underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and of developed countries. Explores obstacles to development and policies and tools for stimulating economic development. Crosslisted as: AFAM   315/ECON   315.

INTL   317. Islam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the emergence of Islam in Arabia in the seventh century and its subsequent developments, including a look at the Qur'an (the holy book), the Prophetic traditions, the concept of God, as well as mysticism (sufism) and law (shari'ah) and an overview of ritual practices, fundamental beliefs, theological principles and current issues in Islam and international relationship. Crosslisted as: RELS   317.

INTL   320. International Marketing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MKTG   301. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Designed to help students develop an understanding of international marketing policies and the differences among foreign marketing environments. Students compare and contrast domestic and international marketing and examine recent changes in the international marketing environment. Crosslisted as: MKTG   320.

INTL   327. Introduction to Intercultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the basic concepts, principles and skills for improving verbal and nonverbal communication with persons from different cultures. Using a cultural general approach, topics discussed include the concept of culture, barriers to intercultural communication, verbal communication process and nonverbal communication aspects. Appropriate for business and non-business majors. Crosslisted as: MGMT 329.

INTL   328. Russian Society in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY   101 or permission of the instructor. An analysis of Russian culture and social institutions as they are today and in historical perspective. Throughout the course interrelationships among politics, the economy and social life are examined, with particular emphasis on the ideological implications of Russian/Soviet architecture, art and mass media; on environmental issues and health; on social problems and the legal systems; and on gender, the work world and family interaction. Crosslisted as: SOCY 328.

INTL   329. International Economics. 3 Hours.

3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ECON   203 with a minimum grade of B and ECON   211; or ECON   210 and ECON   211. An analysis of economic and political influences on exports and imports, balance of payments, foreign investment, exchange rates and international monetary systems. Crosslisted as: ECON   329.

INTL   330. Global Societies: Trends and Issues. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/POLI   105 or POLI 201 or SOCY   101. An analysis of factors that are promoting the globalization of social, economic and political relations, and an inquiry into implications of these developments for individuals, localities, nations and the world community. The course will highlight the impact of culture and ethnicity, historical and emerging patterns of international business activity and their societal significance, divergent strategies for economic and social development in the world's regions, and the effects of population growth and environmental problems on public life within and among nations. Crosslisted as: SOCY   330.

INTL   331. Survey of Latin American Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   300; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN   301. Conducted in Spanish. An introduction to major authors and trends up to the present. Crosslisted as: SPAN   331.

INTL   333. Geography of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the land forms, climate, peoples, livelihoods, settlement patterns and cultural groupings of sub-Saharan Africa. Crosslisted as: AFAM   333/URSP   333.

INTL   334. Regional Geography of ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the land forms, climate, resources, peoples, agricultural and urban conditions in a specific region such as North America, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and India, the USSR and Eastern Europe. See the Schedule of Classes for specific region to be studied each semester. Crosslisted as: URSP   334.

INTL   340. World Cities Outside of North America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of urban habitats in a variety of geographical regions with emphasis on their differences and their common experiences. Crosslisted as: URSP   340.

INTL   341. Global Ethics and the World's Religions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical survey of ethical concepts and issues in the thought and practice of major religious traditions. Comparison of ethical perspectives on selected themes and attention to cooperative efforts toward a global ethic. Crosslisted as: RELS   340.

INTL   345. Great Cities of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course may be repeated under different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or permission of instructor. An interdisciplinary course with a focus on the origin, expansion and significance of one or more cities, the specifics of its/their culture and the role of language. Particular emphasis will be placed on relating the physical, social and economic aspects of the city's growth and development to the cultural expression of urbanism. Crosslisted as: FRLG   345/URSP   350.

INTL   348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: ANTH   348.

INTL   349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH   349.

INTL   350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH   350.

INTL   351. Governments and Politics of the Middle East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative analysis of political systems in the Middle East including the study of contemporary aspects in the Middle Eastern states. The course will explore the primary bases of cleavage and conflict and the political forces that shape the policies and political dynamics of the region. Crosslisted as: POLI   351.

INTL   352. European Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative study of the political systems of selected western and eastern European countries. Crosslisted as: POLI   352.

INTL   353. Latin American Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of politics characteristic of Latin American systems, including democratic reformism, military authoritarianism and revolutionary socialism. The course also examines the contemporary problems of fledgling democracies as they cope with economic and debt crises and various opposition challenges. Crosslisted as: POLI   353.

INTL   354. Russian and Post-Soviet Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the origins, institutions, processes and disintegration of the Soviet political system, and of the ongoing reform efforts during the post-Soviet period. Special emphasis is placed on the politics of the transition to a democratic political system and a market economy. Other topics include nationality issues, social problems and foreign policy. Crosslisted as: POLI   354.

INTL   355. Asian Government and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative analysis of the politics and governments of major Asian states, with a focus on Japan, China and India. Crosslisted as: POLI   355.

INTL   356. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will introduce the student to the basic outlines of government and politics in Africa. The course will consider such topics as colonialism, elitism and nationalism and modernization strategies. Using the comparative approach, the course will primarily focus on West, East and Central Africa. Crosslisted as: POLI   356/AFAM   356.

INTL   357. Politics of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of racial and political developments in the southern tip of Africa. While South Africa will be the primary focus of analysis, other countries in the region such as Zimbabwe, Angola and Mozambique will be studied. Crosslisted as: POLI   357/AFAM   357.

INTL   358. Concepts of Comparative Government. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Comparative study of politics and governments. Introduces concepts and theories used in the study of political systems. Topics include democratization and democratic governance, the role of the state, one-party and military regimes, revolution, and economic and political development. Crosslisted as: POLI   358.

INTL   360. World Classics of Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical reading of selected works from among the spiritual classics of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism and other religious traditions. Crosslisted as: RELS   350.

INTL   361. Issues in World Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of several significant issues in world politics. Topics may include peacekeeping and collectiveness, global environmental politics as well as selected others. Topics will vary with current events and trends in the international arena. Crosslisted as: POLI   361.

INTL   362. International Organizations and Institutions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the background development structure and operations of organizations and institutions such as the United Nations, the European Community and the Organization of American States. Crosslisted as: POLI   362.

INTL   363. U.S. Foreign Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A analytical survey of processes and practices in the formulation of U.S. foreign policy, including an introduction to the goals, problems of implementation and current challenges faced by policy makers. Crosslisted as: POLI   363.

INTL   364. Vietnam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the complete record of the conflict in Vietnam. The primary focus will be on the period of U.S. involvement. The course will examine closely how and why the United States became involved in Vietnam and what impact the Vietnam War has had on political institutions and behavior. In particular, the course will examine what impact the period of U.S. involvement has had upon U.S. foreign policy. The course also will consider additional topics including: public opinion and the war, the relationship between the president and Congress in light of the war and contemporary U.S. politics as a backlash against the political movements of the 1960s. Crosslisted as: POLI   364.

INTL   365. International Political Economy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of both theoretical and current policy issues in international political economy. Theories to be covered include liberalism, mercantilism, Marxism, regionalism, world systems theory and others. Policy issues include differing styles of capitalism in the industrialized world, the political economy of development, the politics of international corporate alliances and others. Crosslisted as: POLI   365.

INTL   366. African Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL   201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of the literature of Africa with particular emphases on fiction and on West Africa. Some attention also will be given to orature. Crosslisted as: AFAM   363/ENGL   363.

INTL   367. Caribbean Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENGL   201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of West Indian writings. Attention will be given to African, European and Amerindian influences, as well as to the emergence of a West Indian literary tradition. Crosslisted as: AFAM   365/ENGL   365.

INTL   368. Women and Global Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of women and global politics, providing both a feminist re-examination of traditional international-relations theories and a comparative analysis of the political, legal and economic status of the world's women. The impact of women on global political institutions such as the United Nations will be addressed as well as other feminist and grass roots means of taking political action. Crosslisted as: GSWS   366/POLI   366.

INTL   370. Studies in the Music of the African Continent and Diaspora. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS   243 or MHIS/AFAM   250. An in-depth examination of selected topics and issues in African-derived musical and cultural traditions. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: AFAM   350/MHIS   350.

INTL   372. Global Women's Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the spiritual writings of women in various cultures and religious traditions. Crosslisted as: GSWS   372/RELS   372.

INTL   381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: ANTH   381.

INTL   390. Historic and Ethnic Textiles. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FASH   290 or IDES 446 or permission of instructor. An examination of the history of textile design and production around the world. Crosslisted as: FASH   390.

INTL   391. Topics in Foreign Literature in English Translation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. An in-depth study of selected topics in foreign literature. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of a foreign language is required. All work is done in English. Crosslisted as: FLET   391.

INTL   398. Directed Study Abroad. 8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0-8 credits per semester. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits with approval of student's major department. Permission of academic adviser required. A course involving travel and/or residence in a foreign country as features of the student's work on a pre-arranged project. Intended primarily for students participating in student exchange programs.

INTL   409. Modern Islamic Thought and Global Trends. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS   312 or INTL/RELS   317; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Introduces students to the integral relationship of Islam to major events of global concern and contextualizes these events into the wider modern and postmodern developments of Islamic thought and its intellectual and ideological self-interrogation. This course will provide students with the opportunity to study both the background of modern Islamic thought and selected contemporary events. Crosslisted as: RELS   409.

INTL   410. The Chinese Tradition in Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the development of Confucianism, of alternative ways of thought prior to the fall of the Han Dynasty and of neo-Confucianism. The systems of thought are examined in the light of their social, political and religious impact on China, Korea and Japan. Crosslisted as: PHIL   410/RELS   410.

INTL   412. Zen Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. A study of Zen Buddhism, including backgrounds in Indian philosophy and practice, development in China and Korea, and present-day Zen theory and practice in Japan and in Western countries. Crosslisted as: PHIL   412/RELS   412.

INTL   413. Comparative Financial Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FIRE   311. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). An analysis of the structure and functioning of financial systems in different parts of the world. Emphasis is on the evolution of such systems in relation to the U.S. financial system. Different regions of the world may be studied in different semesters. Crosslisted as: FIRE   413.

INTL   415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: ANTH   415.

INTL   416. International Financial Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FIRE   311. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Financial management of business in an international environment. Emphasis on tools and techniques to prepare financial managers of multinational firms to effectively respond to the challenges of the international environment. Crosslisted as: FIRE   316.

INTL   418. International Management. 3 Hours.

3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing. The study of the environment of international business, ethics and social responsibility in international settings, culture and its effect on behavior and management practice, and the strategies and management practices of firms engaged in international activities. Aims to provide students with the knowledge, skills and sensitivities needed to be effective managers in the international business environment. Crosslisted as: MGMT   418.

INTL   419. Doing Business in Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing and permission of instructor. Designed primarily as a core integrative course for students enrolled in the Certificate in International Management Studies, but other students are welcome. The course has three goals: a) integration of foreign languages, European studies and international management; b) infusion of other business areas relevant to doing business in Europe (such as international marketing, finance law and economics); and c) the development of cultural sensitivity and social responsibility. The course will be organized as a series of seminars with faculty and other speakers from the above disciplines. Crosslisted as: MGMT   419.

INTL   420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL   103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM   420/ANTH   420.

INTL   421. Civilization of Latin America II. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN   300 or 301. This course explores the cultural diversity of Latin America and the social and political forces behind cultural change. Topics will focus on a specific interdisciplinary theme, such as urban life, the politics of identity and on a specific area of Latin America. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: SPAN   421.

INTL   425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS   425/ANTH   425.

INTL   441. Islamic Mysticism: the Sufis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS   312 or INTL/RELS   317; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Introduces students to the major Sufi masters and their works. It covers ideological and practical development of Islamic mysticism as compared to the developments within Islam itself. Crosslisted as: RELS   441.

INTL   446. International Human Resource Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MGMT   331, INTL/MGMT   418 or ECON/INTL   329. Covers the application of human resource management activities in an international environment. Similarities and differences in domestic methods are highlighted to aid understanding. Contemporary practices in the selection, development, compensation and maintenance of expatriates, impatriates, repatriates, host country nationals and third-country nationals are studied. Regulatory and cultural dimensions of countries are examined. Crosslisted as: MGMT   446.

INTL   448. Digital Marketing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MKTG   301 and MKTG   330. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Examines Internet marketing as a necessary ingredient to successful worldwide marketing strategy. Students analyze markets using Web-based techniques for market evaluation, competitive analysis, market comparison and selection. Discussion includes comparison of e-business versus traditional business perspectives on marketing strategies and tactics. Crosslisted as: MKTG   448.

INTL   449. Religion, Globalization and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS   340/INTL   341, WLRD 210 or WRLD   220; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Explores the role religions are playing in the work of building a socially just and environmentally sustainable world community. Crosslisted as: RELS   450.

INTL   450. Francophone Literatures and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Introduces students to the literatures and cultures of the Francophone world. Provides an overview of the Francophone world and an in-depth study of literary works written in French from Africa, the Caribbean, North America, Asia and Europe. Also explores the impact of Colonial history on Francophone literatures and cultures. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: FREN   450.

INTL   451. Religion, Racism and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS   340/INTL   341, WLRD 210 or WRLD   220; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Explores the complex history and contemporary relationships between religion, racism and social justice. Crosslisted as: RELS   451/AFAM   451.

INTL   452. The Politics of Developing Areas. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Analysis of the processes of political and economic development. Includes a study of various challenges facing developing countries, such as economic inequalities, environmental degradation, mass political participation, military coups, revolution and civil war. Crosslisted as: POLI   359.

INTL   453. Western Religions, Women and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV   200 or HONR   200; and RELS   108, GSWS   201 or WRLD   210. Explores the experience and portrayal of women in the three Abrahamic traditions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Study focuses on how these religions and their texts bear upon the social, economic, political and spiritual lives of women. Special attention is given to the impact of globalization and religious fundamentalism on women. Crosslisted as: RELS   453/GSWS   453.

INTL   454. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL   201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication which applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL   454/ANTH   450.

INTL   455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL   101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: ANTH   455.

INTL   456. Catholic Ethics and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS   280 or 380, or RELS/INTL   312, or RELS   340/INTL   341; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. An exploration of the Catholic church's major theological, ethical, constitutional and strategic concerns, and an analysis of Catholic social teaching and its relation to current social issues such as abortion, peace and conflict, poverty, and human rights. Crosslisted as: RELS   455.

INTL   457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL   103; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: ANTH   457.

INTL   468. Comparative National Security Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of national security policies and policy-making in a diverse set of nation-states. Emphasis is placed on comparing how threat perception, historical context, ideology, political structure and leadership impact national security policies of both powerful and weak nation-states. Crosslisted as: POLI   368.

INTL   480. China in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Traces how China is making the transition from a planned to market economy, and what implications this transition has on the political, social and urban landscape. Class discussions are grounded on a basic understanding of China's modern history and regional geography. Crosslisted as: POLI   360.

INTL   490. Seminar in International Issues. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in international studies major with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. An individualized research project focusing on international issues and undertaken in a seminar setting.

INTL   491. Topics in International Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a particular topic in international studies. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

INTL   492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum total of 4 credits in all independent study courses. Generally open to students of junior and senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in international studies courses. Determination of amount of credit and permission of instructor and director must be obtained before registration of the course.

INTL   493. International Studies Internship. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; 50 clock hours in a local, national or international internship placement per credit. Variable credit. 1-6 credits with a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: junior or senior standing, and approval of selection committee or program director. The internship is designed to present opportunities for qualified students to acquire exposure to internationally oriented public and private organizations and agencies. The course includes a rigorous evaluation of the internship experience based on learning objectives stipulated in a contract between the student, faculty adviser and a field supervisor.

INTL   499. Senior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: completion of 18 INTL credits at the 300- or 400-level; senior standing. Pre- or corequisite: INTL   490, 492, or 493. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation and on the lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the international and area studies program.

Religious Studies

RELS   101. Introduction to Religious Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course examines the phenomenon of religion and religious experience. Through a phenomenological approach definitions and descriptions of the major features of the religious experience and of religious establishments, including concepts of the sacred, the numinous, religious language, texts, symbols, rituals and myths are reviewed. In addition, the social, political and spiritual dimensions of religion in human culture will be investigated.

RELS   108. Human Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the manifestations of one or more of the themes of religious studies in a diverse group of religious communities. The themes may include such wide-ranging topics as the sacred and profane, the epistemology of faith and knowledge, creation stories, human identity, the nature of the divine, the possibility of liberation or salvation, mythology, ritual, ethics, religion and art, religion and law, and religion and politics.

RELS   201. Biblical Hebrew. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Vocabulary, elementary grammar, introduction to lexica and reading of biblical texts.

RELS   202. Biblical Hebrew. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RELS   201. Vocabulary, elementary grammar, introduction to lexica and reading of biblical texts.

RELS   250. Death: Myth and Reality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of intellectual and emotional responses to death and dying with emphasis upon their role in the development of religious thought and practice. Special attention will be paid to the death theme in literature, funeral practices and beliefs concerning the afterlife in selected world religions.

RELS   280. Introduction to Catholic Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course provides an introduction to Catholicism's major doctrines, figures, historical events, philosophy and ethics from its beginnings in the first centuries of the Common Era through contemporary debates over such issues as abortion, sexuality and war. Students will learn about scripture, doctrine, theology, the sacraments, art and architectures, saints, social justice and gender, and the history and role of the Church.

RELS   282. Introduction to Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces Buddhism from its origins in India and addresses its major schools of thought, practice, ritual and philosophy, in Asia and beyond, particularly the United States.

RELS   291. Topics in Religious Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of six credits. Focused study of selected ideas, institutions, movements, time periods and/or thinkers. See Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

RELS   301. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the Hebrew Bible from its beginning through the post-Exile period. Emphasis given to the literary and historical development of the text.

RELS   302. Introduction to the New Testament. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the New Testament with particular emphasis given to the historical development of the Canon.

RELS   303. Intertestamental Literature and Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The period between the Old and New Testaments as seen through the literature of the era, with emphasis on the writings of the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and Josephus.

RELS   305. Hebrew Prophets. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the literature and history of Israel as seen through the work of the writing prophets. Emphasis will be placed on the second part of the Hebrew Canon and the Book of Daniel.

RELS   306. Introduction to Judaism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of the dynamics and characteristic patterns of Jewish civilization encompassing history, practices and beliefs. Crosslisted as: INTL   306.

RELS   307. Black Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the role of religion in the lives of blacks with an emphasis on African religions and philosophies, the black church in America, and the roles of the various faiths, sects and cults. Crosslisted as: AFAM   307/INTL   307.

RELS   308. High and Later Middle Ages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A detailed historical overview of developments in Western Europe from the end of the first millennium through the end of the 15th century. Crosslisted as: HIST   311.

RELS   310. Mediterranean Religions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the earliest evidence of religious practice and belief in the Mediterranean region and probes the ways that the ancient traditions shaped the religions that still endure today. Also investigates the effect of religion in the Mediterranean region on related issues of intercultural relations, peace and conflict, and migration.

RELS   311. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto. Crosslisted as: INTL   311.

RELS   312. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Crosslisted as: INTL   312.

RELS   313. Life and Literature of Paul. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the life and literature of Paul as given in Acts and the Epistles, involving special consideration of Paul's contribution to the expansion of Christianity.

RELS   314. Jesus in the New Testament. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the Christ of faith and the Jesus of history as presented in New Testament literature and as interpreted in the works of selected scholars from the church fathers to the present.

RELS   315. The Ancient Near East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the ancient Near Eastern civilizations from the preliterary period to the end of Kassite rule in Babylonia (c. 1160 B.C.). Crosslisted as: HIST   301.

RELS   317. Islam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the emergence of Islam in Arabia in the seventh century and its subsequent developments, including a look at the Qur'an (the holy book), the Prophetic traditions, the concept of God, and mysticism (sufism) and law (shari'ah) and an overview of ritual practices, fundamental beliefs, theological principles and current issues in Islam and international relationship. Crosslisted as: INTL   317.

RELS   318. History of the Jewish People I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the Jewish people from the biblical period to the early modern period, including the Israelite conquest of Canaan, Judea in Hellenistic and Roman times, the Diaspora in Islam and in Europe, social and cultural trends, and Jewish settlement in the Ottoman Empire. Crosslisted as: HIST   333.

RELS   319. History of the Jewish People II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the Jewish people from the early modern to the present, including the impact of the Emancipation, the rise of the American Jewish community, the impact of modernism and growth of Reform, the beginnings and growth of Zionism, restoration in Palestine, the Holocaust, the creation of Israel, and the relations of Israel and world Jewry. Crosslisted as: HIST   334.

RELS   320. Taoism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of one of the most fundamental and influential philosophies of life in Chinese culture, focusing on the theory and practice of the basic principles of Taoism as formulated by the legendary Lao Tzu and further developed by Chuang Tzu.

RELS   322. Tibetan Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A basic introduction to the history, development and mythology of the Buddhism of Tibet focusing on the Indian heritage and shared basis of all Buddhist practices, a clear identification of the three vehicles found in Buddhism, and a careful consideration of the path of the Bodhisattva, the hero of Great Vehicle Buddhism. Crosslisted as: PHIL   322.

RELS   326. Existentialism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 3 credits in philosophy (exclusive of logic) or permission of instructor. An examination of the nature of truth, freedom, responsibility, individuality and interpersonal relations as found in some principal writings of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Sartre, Heidegger, Camus, Buber and Marcel. Crosslisted as: PHIL   326.

RELS   327. History of Christianity I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A historical and theological examination of Christianity from its origin to the early modern period, or the age of the Reformations. Emphasis is placed upon an understanding of leading events, ideas, movements and persons in their historical settings. Crosslisted as: HIST   335.

RELS   333. Psychology and Religious Experience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC   101. Religious belief and experience as viewed by major psychological theorists. How psychological methodology has been used to study religious experience. Topics include personality factors and development, conversion experiences, religious experiences and mental health and human values. Crosslisted as: PSYC   333.

RELS   334. Religion in Contemporary America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course studies the history, literature, belief patterns and unique traits of religion in the United States. The evolution of religion and religious sentiment in a modern pluralistic, democratic society, including the varieties of religious experiences in contemporary America will be reviewed.

RELS   335. The American Jewish Experience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The religious, social and cultural structure of American Jewry from the Colonial era to the present.

RELS   336. Religions in Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary survey of the major religious groups of Latin America, with a focus on the development of Catholicism, Protestantism and the traditions of the African diaspora, such as Santeria and Voduo, during the 20th century.

RELS   337. Contemporary Cults and New Religious Movements. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An overview of contemporary religious movements. Focuses on new groups that have emerged in the context of globalization. Involves understanding of what gives rise to these movements, how they are distinctive and how they develop.

RELS   340. Global Ethics and the World's Religions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical survey of ethical concepts and issues in the thought and practice of major religious traditions. Comparison of ethical perspectives on selected themes and attention to cooperative efforts toward a global ethic. Crosslisted as: INTL   341.

RELS   350. World Classics of Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical reading of selected works from among the spiritual classics of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism and other religious traditions. Crosslisted as: INTL   360.

RELS   360. Sociology of Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A systematic review and assessment of major sociological theories of and empirical research on religious behavior and groups. Topics include the structure of religious organizations; social correlates and functions of religion; denominationalism; religion and social class, social change and population. Crosslisted as: SOCY   360.

RELS   361. The Bible as Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Literary aspects of the Bible will be considered. Also, attention will be given to the history of the English Bible. Crosslisted as: ENGL   361.

RELS   362. Shakespeare and Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the religious ideas in selected plays by William Shakespeare and their relevance to contemporary religious thought and experience. Topics include the nature of God, the meaning of life, the problem of evil, moral authority and the question of immortality as found in Shakespeare's plays.

RELS   363. Archaeology and Sacred Texts. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lectures hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Explores past and present archaeological research as it relates to events, persons, and places described in ancient sacred texts of the Mediterranean.

RELS   371. Women in Islam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200, RELS   108, GSWS   201 or ENGL   215. Critical study of the roles and rights of women in Islam. Crosslisted as: GSWS   371.

RELS   372. Global Women's Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the spiritual writings of women in various cultures and religious traditions. Crosslisted as: GSWS   372/INTL   372.

RELS   373. Gender and the Bible. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS   108 or GSWS   201 or RELS   301 or RELS   302; and ENGL   215 or UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Studies the Hebrew and Christian scriptures with emphasis on gender. Attention to traditional, feminist, womanist and postcolonial interpretation. Crosslisted as: GSWS   373.

RELS   380. Contemporary Catholic Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RELS   280. A study of the contemporary Catholic Christian response to the questions, "Who is God?" and "Where/how do we experience the Sacred?" Methods of Catholic theology will be explicated and applied to the teachings of the Second Vatican Council and current responses to those teachings in such areas as sacramental worship and liturgy, and moral/ethical teachings of the Church.

RELS   391. Topics in Religious Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. A study of a selected ideas or concepts, religious thinkers or significant movements in the field of religion. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

RELS   401. Faith and Life Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Open to students of any school or program. Explores the complex relationships between faith traditions and the life sciences. Topics include epistemology, impact of life sciences on ideas of fate and responsibility, limits of science and technology, and scientific and religious perspectives on human origins, consciousness, aggression, forgiveness, health, illness and death. Crosslisted as: LFSC   401.

RELS   407. Modern Jewish Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. A study of the writings of the leading Jewish thinkers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Special reference will be made to the issues arising from the encounter of Judaism with the modern world: the nature of revelation and the authority of the Torah, the nature of God, the impact of the Holocaust, the meaning of redemption and the significance of the state of Israel.

RELS   408. Indian Tradition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: at least six credits from philosophy or religious studies courses. A systematic analysis of the major theories of Indian religious and philosophical thought: Vedas, Upanishads, Gita, Charvaka, Jainism, Buddhism, the six systems of Hinduism and contemporary developments. Crosslisted as: PHIL   408.

RELS   409. Modern Islamic Thought and Global Trends. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS   312 or INTL/RELS   317; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Introduces students to the integral relationship of Islam to major events of global concern and contextualizes these events into the wider modern and postmodern developments of Islamic thought and its intellectual and ideological self-interrogation. This course will provide students with the opportunity to study both the background of modern Islamic thought and selected contemporary events. Crosslisted as: INTL   409.

RELS   410. The Chinese Tradition in Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the development of Confucianism, of alternative ways of thought prior to the fall of the Han Dynasty and of neo-Confucianism. The systems of thought are examined in the light of their social, political and religious impact on China, Korea and Japan. Crosslisted as: PHIL   410/INTL   410.

RELS   412. Zen Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. A study of Zen Buddhism, including backgrounds in Indian philosophy and practice, development in China and Korea, and present-day Zen theory and practice in Japan and in Western countries. Crosslisted as: PHIL   412/INTL   412.

RELS   422. Religion and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different themes for a total of six credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Explores central themes present in all global religious traditions, such as ritual, faith, myth, suffering, redemption, the religious quest/pilgrimage, the nature of good and evil and perceptions of the sacred. Using readings from sacred texts and contemporary film critiques, the course juxtaposes ancient story and wisdom with contemporary narratives in film. Possible themes would include women and religion in world cinema, Christology in world cinema, and violence and redemption in film.

RELS   425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL   103 and UNIV   200 or HONR   200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: ANTH   425/INTL   425.

RELS   430. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 3 credits in philosophy (exclusive of PHIL   211 and PHIL   212) or permission of instructor. An introduction to the major problems and questions of religion and reason. Special reference will be made to the nature of God, the nature of man, the problem of evil, the source of good, immortality and the basis of authority. Crosslisted as: PHIL   430.

RELS   440. Mysticism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV   200 or HONR   200. A critical analysis of the varieties of mysticism in world religions. Arguments for and against mysticism will be emphasized. Mysticism will be related to art, psychology, science, philosophy, theology and magic. Crosslisted as: PHIL   440.

RELS   441. Islamic Mysticism: the Sufis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS   312 or INTL/RELS   317; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Introduces students to the major Sufi masters and their works. It covers ideological and practical development of Islamic mysticism as compared to the developments within Islam itself. Crosslisted as: INTL   441.

RELS   442. Seminar in Hinduism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of Hinduism, taking up the earliest origins of Hinduism, the Hindu creation myth, the various conceptions of the divine, the speculation regarding human nature, the stages of life, development of family and monastic codes, the great epics of Hinduism including the Bhagavad-Gita, the six schools of Hindu philosophy and modern Hinduism as it has developed in response to Western influences.

RELS   450. Religion, Globalization and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS   340/INTL   341, WLRD 210 or WRLD   220; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Explores the role religions are playing in the work of building a socially just and environmentally sustainable world community. Crosslisted as: INTL   449.

RELS   451. Religion, Racism and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS   340/INTL   341, WLRD 210 or WRLD   220; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. Explores the complex history and contemporary relationships between religion, racism and social justice. Crosslisted as: AFAM   451/INTL   451.

RELS   453. Western Religions, Women and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV   200 or HONR   200; and RELS   108, GSWS   201 or WRLD   210. Explores the experience and portrayal of women in the three Abrahamic traditions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Study focuses on how these religions and their texts bear upon the social, economic, political and spiritual lives of women. Special attention is given to the impact of globalization and religious fundamentalism on women. Crosslisted as: GSWS   453/INTL   453.

RELS   455. Catholic Ethics and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS   280 or 380, or RELS/INTL   312, or RELS   340/INTL   341; UNIV   200 or HONR   200. An exploration of the Catholic church's major theological, ethical, constitutional and strategic concerns, and an analysis of Catholic social teaching and its relation to current social issues such as abortion, peace and conflict, poverty, and human rights. Crosslisted as: INTL   456.

RELS   490. Senior Capstone Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS   340/INTL   341; senior standing in religious studies major with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. Senior research project; written thesis and oral presentations using established concepts, theories and research methods in religious studies. Students will select the religious groups/traditions as the focus of their research, writing and oral presentations in consultation with the course instructor.

RELS   491. Topics in Religious Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: written permission of instructor. An in-depth study of selected ideas or concepts, religious thinkers or significant movements in the field of religion. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

RELS   492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course. An independent study course to allow interested students in religious studies to do research in an area of major interest under the direction of a professor qualified in that field.

RELS   493. Religious Studies Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits, however only 3 credits can count toward the major. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of upper-level (300- or above) course work in religious studies, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international organization offering opportunities in religious studies.

RELS   499. Senior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: RELS   340/INTL   341; senior standing in religious studies major with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. Pre- or corequisite: RELS   490. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation, and on the lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the religious studies program.

World Studies

WRLD   203. Cultural Texts and Contexts: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Through the analysis and interpretation of literary, cinematic and other cultural texts, this course explores the ways cultural and national identities have been shaped, imagined and contested in various regions of the world. While responding to the readings and films as artistic manifestations or social documents, students will also become familiar with the aesthetic, political and social contexts in which the works were and are produced. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL   203.

WRLD   210. International Social Justice Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An overview of the issues, themes, disciplines, and areas of research and teaching that comprise international social justice studies in a variety of global contexts.

WRLD   220. Human Rights and Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A cross-cultural survey of human rights violations. The moral, political and pragmatic dimensions in the international response to violations are investigated including transnational organizations that document abuses as expressed in memoirs, eyewitness accounts, literature and film.

WRLD   230. Introduction to World Cinema. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/screening hours. 3 credits. An overview of the main theoretical frameworks, critical concepts and debates devoted to non-Hollywood world cinemas, with special emphasis on the rethinking of national cinema and the problematizing of identity in an increasingly transnational era. Broad interdisciplinary readings in film theory, film history and cultural studies will be supplemented by case studies of particular cinemas and filmmakers, so as to convey an appreciation of the main international movements in the history of cinema.

WRLD   291. Topics in World Languages and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different content for a maximum of 6 credits. A study of a specialized topic in world cultures and languages. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

WRLD   302. Communicating Across Cultures. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Designed to increase understanding of the foundational concepts of communication and intercultural dialogue. Examines (among others) such concepts as individualism, collectivism, ethnocentrism, xenophobia, uncertainty avoidance, nonverbal communication and stereotyping.

WRLD   310. Mediterranean Cultural Geography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An in-depth analysis of the Mediterranean region, its distinctive and defining features (physical, climatic and sociopolitical) and its paradigmatic role in global politics and economy.

WRLD   311. Civilization of the Mediterranean. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Exploration of the Mediterranean from pre-history to modernity, with an emphasis on cross-cultural engagement. Aims at exploring the interaction and cross-cultural fertilization between societies and cultures of the lands of the Middle Sea: North Africa, Middle East and southern Europe.

WRLD   330. Introduction to Film Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: WRLD   230 or permission of instructor. An overview of film studies with special attention given to the debates informing the periodization of film history, the critical paradigms of the major film theories and the elements of a cinematographic language from both a technical and aesthetic standpoint.

WRLD   359. International Media Coverage: The Middle East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC   101 with a minimum grade of C or 151 with a minimum grade of C. This interdisciplinary course explores the media's role in covering cultural, political, religious and other issues in the Middle East. Students will examine the role and impact of the media in both the United States and Middle East in shaping global and regional public opinion. Using webcam and online technology, VCU students will discuss cross-cultural perspectives with students from the other U.S. universities and universities in the Middle East.

WRLD   391. Topics in World Languages and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different content for a maximum of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a specialized topic in world cultures and languages. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

WRLD   422. National Cinema. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different themes up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: WRLD   230 or 330 or permission of instructor. Tracing the development of cinematic traditions in selected nations, this course focuses on the thematic selections and stylistic techniques particular to that particular cinematographic culture. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific theme to be offered each semester.

WRLD   430. Film and the City. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Focuses on cinematic representations of cities worlwide, so as to probe the increasingly cross-cultural dynamics of urban landscapes. Films discussed will span the entire history of cinema across genres and national traditions.

WRLD   490. Seminar in World Cultures and Languages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Restricted to seniors in world cultures and languages with at least 85 credit hours earned toward the degree. Research and analysis of a selected topic in world cultures and languages in a seminar setting.

WRLD   491. Topics in World Languages and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different content for a maximum of 6 credits. An intensive and comprehensive examination of specialized areas of interest in world cultures and languages. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

WRLD   493. World Cultures Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits, however only 3 credits can count toward the major concentration. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of upper-level (300- or above) course work toward any non-foreign-language concentration within the School of World Studies, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in internationally oriented public and private organizations and agencies.

WRLD   499. Senior Capstone Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: completion of 6 credits of 400-level courses in the major and senior standing. Open only to students enrolled as majors in the School of World Studies, including anthropology, religious studies, and world cultures and languages. Capstone seminar summarizing and synthesizing studies in World Studies programs. Preparation for entry into career search. Organization and polishing of written works representing skills aquired in programs. Assembly of individual portfolio as means of assessment and career tool.

Foreign language courses

Arabic

ARBC   101. Elementary Arabic. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ARBC   101 to enroll in ARBC   102. Elementary grammar, reading, writing and speaking.

ARBC   102. Elementary Arabic. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ARBC   101 to enroll in ARBC   102. Elementary grammar, reading, writing and speaking.

ARBC   201. Intermediate Arabic I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC   102 or the equivalent. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ARBC   202. Intermediate Arabic II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC   201 or the equivalent. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ARBC   205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC   201. Designed to increase student proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and conversation.

ARBC   301. Arabic Creative Expression. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC   202 or 205. Designed to develop further all language skills: reading, writing, comprehension and speaking. Course is divided into two parts: (a) language skills (grammar, short stories and poetry) and (b) field project (interaction with native speakers). Both parts include lectures, guest speakers and practicing the language with native speakers from the student body and the community at large.

ARBC   391. Topics in Arabic: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC   202 or equivalent. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Conducted in Arabic. An in-depth study of selected topics in Arabic. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Chinese

CHIN   101. Elementary Chinese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN   101 to enroll in CHIN   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

CHIN   102. Elementary Chinese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN   101 to enroll in CHIN   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

CHIN   110. Intensive Elementary Chinese. 8 Hours.

Semester course; 10 lecture and 10 laboratory hours. 8 credits. This intensive course combines CHIN   101 and 102 into a single-semester class. Students may receive credit toward graduation for either the CHIN   101-102 series or CHIN   110, but not both.

CHIN   201. Intermediate Chinese. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN   201 to enroll in CHIN   202. Rapid review of the essentials of grammar, conversation and readings from Chinese literature.

CHIN   202. Intermediate Chinese. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN   201 to enroll in CHIN   202. Rapid review of the essentials of grammar, conversation and readings from Chinese literature.

CHIN   210. Intensive Intermediate Chinese. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 6 lecture hours. 6 credits. This intensive course combines CHIN   201 and 202 into a single-semester class. Students may receive credit toward graduation for either the CHIN   201-202 series or CHIN   210, but not both.

CHIN   300. Chinese Vocabulary and Reading. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of Chinese courses through the intermediate level or equivalent. Designed to increase written vocabulary and reading skills through an examination and discussion of literary works by famous Chinese writers. Conducted in Chinese.

CHIN   301. Practical Chinese Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of Chinese courses through the intermediate level or equivalent. Designed to develop students' writing techniques and skills in several types of technical writing in Chinese (business, financial and law documents, memos and resumes). Conducted in Chinese.

CHIN   391. Topics in Chinese. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 16 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN   202 or 210. An in-depth study of selected topics in Chinese. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Foreign Languages

FRLG   100. Basic Language and Cultural Awareness Abroad: ____. 1 Hour.

Semester course. 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Introduces basic language skills and cultural customs and expectations to students of all disciplines planning foreign travel to a specific location. Students will learn useful vocabulary and phrases to apply in many different travel situations. Predominant focus will be placed on the culture of the specific region and include foundational communication skills. This course cannot be used to fulfill foreign language requirements for major, minor, collateral or General Education purposes. See Schedule of Classes for specific languages being taught each semester. Graded as pass/fail.

FRLG   101. Foreign Languages: ____. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FRLG   101 to enroll in FRLG   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG   102. Foreign Languages: ____. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FRLG   101 to enroll in FRLG   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG   201. Foreign Languages: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FRLG   102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG   202. Foreign Languages: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FRLG   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG   204. Language and Groups in the United States. 3,4 Hours.

Semester course; 3-4 lecture hours. 3-4 credits. Taught in English. This course introduces students to the sociocultural experience and formation of identity of non-English-speaking peoples in the United States. Students explore the dynamic between English and a specific heritage language and its interaction with artistic, cultural and social issues through fiction and nonfiction texts, films and multimedia pertaining to specific language groups, such as: Latinos, Italian-Americans, German-Americans or Native Americans. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL   204.

FRLG   328. Language, Culture, and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH   220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: ANTH   328/ENGL 328/LING 328.

FRLG   345. Great Cities of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Course may be repeated under different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or permission of instructor. An interdisciplinary course with a focus on the origin, expansion and significance of one or more cities, the specifics of its/their culture and the role of language. Particular emphasis will be placed on relating the physical, social and economic aspects of the city's growth and development to the cultural expression of urbanism. Crosslisted as: INTL   345/URSP   350.

FRLG   448. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: three credits in a 200-level literature course (or equivalent). Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: ANTH   448/ENGL   455/LING   455.

FRLG   493. World Languages Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits, however only 3 credits can count toward the major concentration. Prerequisites: prior completion of 9 credits in the respective foreign language at the 300 level, with a course in advanced grammar and composition, one in conversation and one in civilization. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in the target foreign language in internationally oriented public and private organizations and agencies. All course work must be completed in the target language.

French

FREN   101. Elementary French. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FREN   101 to enroll in FREN   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

FREN   102. Elementary French. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FREN   101 to enroll in FREN   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

FREN   110. Intensive French I. 8 Hours.

Semester course; 10 lecture and laboratory hours. 8 credits. This intensive course combines FREN   101 and 102 into a single semester.

FREN   201. Intermediate French. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

FREN   202. Intermediate French Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   201. In order to complete French through the intermediate level, a student may select FREN   202 or 205. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

FREN   205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

FREN   210. Intensive French II. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 6 lecture and laboratory hours per week. 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   101 and 102, or FREN   110. This intensive course combines FREN   201 and 202/205 into a single semester.

FREN   295. Gateway to the French Major/Minor. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   201 or permission of instructor. Non-foreign language majors who wish to take one or two upper-level classes only need to complete FREN   202, 205 or equivalent. This course is composed of three different areas: 1) writing and analytical skills: enhancement of grammatical and writing skills and development of analytical techniques using a variety of texts; 2) improving students' oral communication; 3) listening skills: extensive use of recorded material and Language Learning Center resources to improve and enhance listening skills in a variety of authentic contexts.

FREN   300. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisites: for FREN   300: FREN   202 or 205; for 301, FREN   202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A systematic review of French grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building; translation and composition.

FREN   301. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisites: for FREN   300: FREN   202 or 205; for 301, FREN   202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A systematic review of French grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building; translation and composition.

FREN   305. Advanced Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   202 or 205. Conducted in French. Development of advanced oral skills while conversing about topics on current French culture and society. Proficiency in listening comprehension is stressed through regular activities based on a variety of different situations of communication.

FREN   307. French Conversation and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   202, 205 or 300. The course is designed to develop the student's conversational skills, oral comprehension ability and knowledge of contemporary culture through discussion of selected French films. Emphasis is also placed on vocabulary development and writing practice.

FREN   320. French Civilization and Culture I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A survey of French civilization and culture from its origins to the French Revolution. Introduction to and analysis of the most important aspects of Gallo-Roman society and of the Merovingian, Carolingian and Capetian dynasties which influenced the institutions of the Ancien Regime and still serve as cultural archetypes and icons in contemporary French culture.

FREN   321. French Civilization and Culture II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A survey of French civilization and culture from the Napoleonic era to the present. This course retraces important cultural and social traditions found during the first Empire, the Restoration, the Second Republic, the Second Empire, the Commune, the Third and Fourth Republics which influenced and continue to shape contemporary French civilization and culture of the Fifth Republic.

FREN   330. Survey of Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. First semester: through the 18th century. Second semester: 19th and 20th centuries.

FREN   331. Survey of Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. First semester: through the 18th century. Second semester: 19th and 20th centuries.

FREN   410. Explication de Textes. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. This course provides an introduction to terms encountered in text analysis: prosody, versification, rhetorical language, narratology and genres. It presents traditional and current schools of literary criticism and applies them to an interdisciplinary selection of texts. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   420. French Regional Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321. Conducted in French. Focuses on the culture and civilization specific to each of France's 22 regions. History, culture, architecture as well as sociopolitical, linguistic identities, artisanal trades and folklore are presented for each region. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   421. French Contemporary Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321. Conducted in French. Focuses on the contemporary culture found in French society. The individuals and events shaping current French social, political, artistic and cultural life are examined. Each theme is illustrated by current audiovisual materials. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   422. French Cinema. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321. Conducted in French. Tracing French cinema from les Frores Lumiore and Georges Melius through the New Wave to new contemporary directors, this course focuses on the thematic selections and stylistic techniques particular to French cinematographic culture. The class is offered concurrently with the annual VCU French Film Festival, thereby permitting students to directly communicate with French actors and directors participating in the festival. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   425. French Media. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Analysis of the French media: written press, radio and television. Advanced comprehension skills required and stressed through regular exercises pertaining to different journalistic discourses and styles. Proficiency in journalistic writing is developed in class through the creation of an electronic French newspaper on the Internet. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   426. Pop France. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN 321or 331. Conducted in French. Explores contemporary French popular culture, put in a wider historical context. Discusses mainstream media, new media, commercial cinema, comic strips, pulp fiction and food, while devoting several weeks to music. Investigates the complex sociolinguistics of argot (slang), with a special interest in the banlieues' (suburbs') multicultural subculture and multifaceted codes. Also questions the possibility of a "pop philosophy" in French thought.

FREN   430. Great Poets and Their Times. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   330 or 331. Conducted in French. Poetry of select major poets of a select century or centuries within a context of the historical, artistic and broad cultural setting of the poets' times. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   431. The 16th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of works representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Rabelais, the Pleiade, Minting and the Baroque poets. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   432. The 17th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Baroque and Classical readings including prose, poetry and drama of the authors of the reign of Louis XIV; Pascal, La Rochefoucauld, La Bruyure, Corneille, Racine and Moliere. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   433. The 18th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: the "philosophes" including Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau and readings from Marivaux, Provost and Vauvenargues. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   434. The 19th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Romanticism, Realism, Naturalism and Symbolism. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   435. Contemporary French Literature. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   330 or 331. Conducted in French. An overview of French literature from 1900 to the present. Discusses texts that have particular resonance in relation to contemporary issues, including literary works that have contributed most saliently to French culture over this time period.

FREN   440. Commercial French. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. This course introduces students to the cultural, economic and linguistic dimensions of the Francophone commercial sector. It builds the student's reading, writing, listening and speaking proficiencies through active engagement with business-related materials and activities. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN   450. Francophone Literatures and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Introduces students to the literatures and cultures of the Francophone world. Provides an overview of the Francophone world and an in-depth study of literary works written in French from Africa, the Caribbean, North America, Asia and Europe. Also explores the impact of Colonial history on Francophone literatures and cultures. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL   450.

FREN   491. Topics in French. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: FREN   301; FREN   305 or 307; FREN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. An in-depth study of selected topics in French. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

FREN   492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses in French. Prerequisite: FREN   301; FREN   320 or 321; Senior standing with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. Determination of course content and permission of the instructor must be obtained prior to registration of the course. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest.

German

GRMN   101. Elementary German I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4 credits. For students with no prior knowledge of German. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

GRMN   102. Elementary German. 4 Hours.

II Semester course; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   101 Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

GRMN   201. Intermediate German. 3 Hours.

I Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   102. Conducted in German. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on building proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

GRMN   202. Intermediate German II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   201. Conducted in German. Designed to increase student’s proficiency in German through the continued focus on aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

GRMN   205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   201. Conducted in German. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

GRMN   300. Composition and Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   202 or 205. Conducted in German. Development of written and oral skills through review of selected aspects of German grammar, writing practice and speaking activities based on a variety of situations.

GRMN   301. Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   202, GRMN   205 or GRMN   300. Conducted in German. A study of key aspects of advanced German grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building.

GRMN   305. German Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   202, GRMN   205 or GRMN   300. Conducted in German. Practice in the spoken language with emphasis on discussions relating to topics of current interest.

GRMN   307. German Conversation and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   202, GRMN   205 or GRMN   300; GRMN   300 recommended. Conducted in German. The course is designed to develop the student's communication skills, oral comprehension ability and knowledge of contemporary culture through discussion of selected German films. Emphasis is also placed on vocabulary development and writing practice.

GRMN   311. German Through the Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   202, GRMN   205 or GRMN   300; GRMN   300 or GRMN   301 recommended. Designed to develop language proficiency by using material available through the various media: newspapers, magazines, films, Internet, podcasts and radio broadcasts.

GRMN   314. Commercial German. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   301. Designed to develop the student's ability to use German as a means of oral and written communication in the business world. Emphasis on the acquisition of technical tools necessary for business exchanges in specialized fields.

GRMN   320. From the Vandals to Kant: Civilization and Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN   202, GRMN   205 or GRMN   300; GRMN   300 or GRMN   301 recommended. Conducted in German. A survey of German-speaking culture and literature from its origins to the Enlightenment. Also emphasizes enhancing German-language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN   321. From Faust to Nazism: Civilization and Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   202, GRMN   205 or GRMN   300; GRMN   300 or GRMN   301 recommended. Conducted in German. A treatment of German culture and literature from the Age of Goethe to the rise of Nazism. Also emphasizes enhancing German language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN   322. From Kafka's World to the EU: Civilization and Literature III. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   202, GRMN   205 or GRMN   300; GRMN   300 or GRMN   301 recommended. Conducted in German. A survey of German culture and literature from the 1920s to today. Also emphasizes enhancing German language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN   420. The Turn of the Century. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   300; GRMN   305 or 307 or 311; GRMN   301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Conducted in German. A course dealing with the major intellectual, philosophical, artistic and cultural trends from the turn of the century through the Weimar period as reflected in the writings of authors such as Kafka, Mann and Hesse. Includes impressionism, expressionism and neue Sachlichkeit.

GRMN   421. The Postwar German Scene. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   300; GRMN   305 or 307 or 311; GRMN   301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Conducted in German. A course dealing with the political, social and intellectual developments of the German-speaking countries from the end of World War II to the present as reflected in the literary works of their major authors.

GRMN   422. German Film. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   300; GRMN   305 or 307 or 311; GRMN   301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of selected topics in German film from the beginnings to today, particularly as seen in their social, historical and cultural contexts. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN   423. Folk/Popular Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   300; GRMN   305 or 307 or 311; GRMN   301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of selected topics related to folk traditions and/or popular culture in German-speaking countries. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN   424. Culture and Society. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   300; GRMN   305 or 307 or 311; GRMN   301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of issues in the culture and society of German-speaking countries today. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN   425. Language in Context: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   300; GRMN   301, 305, 307 or 311; and GRMN   320, 321 or 322. Conducted in German. Study of German language and linguistics. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN   491. Topics in German. 1-3 Hours.

Variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN   300; GRMN   305 or 307 or 311; GRMN   301 or 320 or 321 or 322. An in-depth study of selected topics in German. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

GRMN   492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses in German. Prerequisites: GRMN   301; GRMN   320 or 321 or 322; GRMN   420 or 421 or 422 or 423 or 424 or 491; and senior standing with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest.

Italian

ITAL   101. Elementary Italian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ITAL   101 to enroll in ITAL   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

ITAL   102. Elementary Italian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ITAL   101 to enroll in ITAL   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

ITAL   201. Intermediate Italian. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL   102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ITAL   202. Intermediate Italian Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in Italian through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

ITAL   205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

ITAL   300. Advanced Composition and Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL   202 or 205. Development of advanced written and oral skills through both systematic review of Italian grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building, and conversational activities based on a variety of situations. Conducted in Italian.

ITAL   320. Italian Cinema: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL   300. Conducted in Italian. Traces Italian cinema from Neorealism to contemporary cinema, exploring genres such as comedy and Westerns as well as landmark works by the most important directors. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

ITAL   330. Themes in Italian Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL   300. Conducted in Italian. An in-depth study of selected topics in Italian texts. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

ITAL   391. Topics in Italian. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. Pre- or corequisite: ITAL   320 or ITAL   330. Conducted in Italian. An in-depth study of selected topics in Italian. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Latin

LATN   101. Elementary Latin. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 4 lecture hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of LATN   101 to enroll in LATN   102. First semester: a study of the Latin language with emphasis on the Latin elements found in English. Latin vocabulary. Second semester: introduction to Latin authors and related aspects of Roman civilization.

LATN   102. Elementary Latin. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 4 lecture hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of LATN   101 to enroll in LATN   102. First semester: a study of the Latin language with emphasis on the Latin elements found in English. Latin vocabulary. Second semester: introduction to Latin authors and related aspects of Roman civilization.

LATN   201. Readings in Latin Literature. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: LATN   102. Completion of LATN   201 to enroll in LATN   202. Brief grammar review with a parallel study of political and literary trends and developments as found in several of the major Latin writers. First semester: prose, with emphasis on Cicero, Pliny the Younger and Sallust. Second semester: poetry, with selected readings from Catullus, Tibullus, Ovid and Vergil.

LATN   202. Readings in Latin Literature. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: LATN   102. Completion of LATN   201 to enroll in LATN   202. Brief grammar review with a parallel study of political and literary trends and developments as found in several of the major Latin writers. First semester: prose, with emphasis on Cicero, Pliny the Younger and Sallust. Second semester: poetry, with selected readings from Catullus, Tibullus, Ovid and Vergil.

LATN   330. Themes in Latin Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: LATN   202. An in-depth study of selected topics such as science and medicine, law, or satire in works by authors such as Caesar, Cicero, Horace, Catullus, Ovid, Virgil, Marcus Aurelius and Lucretius. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester. Texts are in the original language.

LATN   331. Representative Authors in Latin Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: LATN   202. Selected readings by authors from the Archaic Period, the Classical Age, Silver Age and Patristic Latin with a focus on their impact on the political and social agendas of the day and on us today. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester. Texts are in the original language.

Portuguese

PORT   101. Elementary Portuguese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4, 4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of PORT   101 to enroll in PORT   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

PORT   102. Elementary Portuguese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4, 4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of PORT   101 to enroll in PORT   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

PORT   201. Intermediate Portuguese. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Continuation of the essentials of grammar, with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

PORT   202. Intermediate Portuguese Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PORT   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

PORT   391. Topics in Portuguese. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. Prerequisite: PORT   202. An in-depth study of selected topics in Portuguese. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

Russian

RUSS   101. Elementary Russian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of RUSS   101 to enroll in RUSS   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

RUSS   102. Elementary Russian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of RUSS   101 to enroll in RUSS   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

RUSS   201. Intermediate Russian. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RUSS   102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

RUSS   202. Intermediate Russian Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RUSS   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

RUSS   205. Intermediate Russian Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RUSS   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

RUSS   311. Conversation and Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 semester hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for up to six credits with permission of the instructor. Prerequisite: RUSS   202 or 205. Conducted in Russian. An introduction to everyday life in Russia and topics of current interest. Students will explore diverse media to develop skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing.

RUSS   330. Literature and Culture: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for up to six credits with different topics. Prerequisite: RUSS   202 or 205. Conducted in Russian. Students will examine salient themes in Russian culture as expressed in a range of classic and contemporary texts. This course develops skills in reading, writing, speaking and listening. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

RUSS   422. Russian Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of six credits with the permission of the instructor. Prerequisite: completion of six credits of Russian at the 300-level. Conducted in Russian. While the course is designed to develop the student's conversational skills in Russian, it will also provide practice in reading, listening and writing. Discussions will center on films from the Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

RUSS   491. Topics in Russian. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 9 credits. An in-depth study of selected topics in Russian. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Spanish

SPAN   101. Elementary Spanish. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of SPAN   101 to enroll in SPAN   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drills.

SPAN   102. Elementary Spanish. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of SPAN   101 to enroll in SPAN   102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drills.

SPAN   201. Intermediate Spanish. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar, with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

SPAN   202. Intermediate Spanish Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

SPAN   205. Intermediate Spanish Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

SPAN   300. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   202 or 205. Prerequisite for SPAN   301: SPAN   300. A systematic review of Spanish grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building, translation and composition.

SPAN   301. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   202 or 205. Prerequisite for SPAN   301: SPAN   300. A systematic review of Spanish grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building, translation and composition.

SPAN   305. Spanish Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   202, SPAN   205 or SPAN   300. Conducted in Spanish. Practice in the spoken language with emphasis on discussions relating to topics of current interest.

SPAN   307. Spanish Conversation and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   202, SPAN   205 or SPAN   300. Designed to develop the student's conversational skills, oral comprehension ability and knowledge of contemporary culture through discussion of selected Spanish and Latin American films. Emphasis is also placed on vocabulary development and writing practice.

SPAN   311. Spanish Through the Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   202, SPAN   205 or SPAN   300. Further development of listening, reading, writing, speaking and cultural skills through a focus on mass media in Latin America and Spain. Spanish language and current events will be taught through direct contact with newspapers, journals, television and radio programming, and online media. Students will view programs outside of class, participate actively in class discussions, create presentations and conduct research.

SPAN   320. Civilization of Spain I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   300; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN   301. Conducted in Spanish. A treatment of salient manifestations of Spanish culture and civilization from its origins to the present.

SPAN   321. Latin American Civilization I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   300; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN   301. Conducted in Spanish. A treatment of salient manifestations of Latin American culture and civilization from pre-Columbian times to the present.

SPAN   322. Hispanic Immigrants in the U.S.. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   300; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN   301. Conducted in Spanish. Analysis, research and discussion of the life and history of Hispanics in the U.S. Topics such as identity, assimilation, immigration laws, education, jobs, housing, health, religion and politics will be covered. Students will apply their course learning through 15 hours of community service for Hispanics.

SPAN   330. Survey of Spanish Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   300; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN   301. Conducted in Spanish. A survey of Spanish literature up to the present.

SPAN   331. Survey of Latin American Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN   300; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN   301. Conducted in Spanish. An introduction to major authors and trends up to the present. Crosslisted as: INTL   331.

SPAN   332. Latino Writers in the U.S.. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   300; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN   301. Conducted in Spanish. Explores Latino cultural identity and the Latino contribution to U.S. cultural life through a variety of works in the different literary genres produced by Latino writers, both immigrants and those raised in the U.S.

SPAN   400. Spanish Translation. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. Integrates the basic theoretical and practical aspects of translation, focused from a perspective of applied linguistics. The course includes a workshop component and students will practice both written and oral translation of diverse texts. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN   401. Comparative Structures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. A comparison of English and Spanish, with emphasis on pronunciation and problems encountered in the teaching of Spanish. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: LING   401.

SPAN   402. Language Issues in the Spanish-speaking World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. Through a variety of topics this course explores the links between language and human behavior as exemplified by language phenomena in the Spanish-speaking world. Topics will be drawn mainly from sociolinguistics, language and culture, and education and applied linguistics. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: LING   402.

SPAN   403. History of the Spanish Language. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. A study of the evolution of Spanish from Latin through the Middle Ages to the Modern era. Historical phonology, etymology, morphology, orthography, semantics and syntax of standard Castilian. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN   404. Spanish Interpretation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. This course covers theoretical and practical aspects of interpretation, including simultaneous and consecutive interpretation, as well as sight translation. The course also includes a workshop component in which students will put into practice these types of interpretation.

SPAN   414. Commercial Spanish. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. This course will develop the student's ability to use the Spanish language as a means of oral and written communication in the business world. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN   420. Civilization of Spain II. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN   300 or 301. This course explores the cultural diversity and differences of Spain. Topics focus on a particular interdisciplinary theme, such as the formation of cities, ethnicity and on a particular area of Spain. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN   421. Civilization of Latin America II. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN   300 or 301. This course explores the cultural diversity of Latin America and the social and political forces behind cultural change. Topics will focus on a specific interdisciplinary theme, such as urban life, the politics of identity and on a specific area of Latin America. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL   421.

SPAN   422. Spanish and Latin American Cinema. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different themes, up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN   300 or 301. Conducted in Spanish. Spanish and/or Latin American cinema from the 1940s to the present, including the works of important directors, such as Bunuel, Saura, Almodovar, Emilio Fernandez, Glauber Rocha, Solanas or Gutierrez-Alea. The formal and aesthetic issues of cinematic texts and the historical, cultural and social contexts of their production. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific theme to be offered each semester.

SPAN   430. Literary Genres. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN   300 or 301. Conducted in Spanish. An in-depth look at the development and expression of varieties of literature in Spanish. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN   431. Literary Periods. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN   300 or 301. Conducted in Spanish. An in-depth synchronic look at movements and their context in literature in Spanish. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN   432. Hispanic Culture Through Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   320, SPAN   321 or SPAN   322; and SPAN   330, SPAN   331 or SPAN   332. Conducted in Spanish. An in-depth analysis of Hispanic texts dealing with cultural topics such as love relationships, death, family, religion, politics, gender and ethnicity, as well as their relationships to cultural values, behaviors, ideologies, beliefs and the histories of Spain and Spanish America.

SPAN   433. Don Quixote. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301, and SPAN   320 or SPAN   330. Conducted in Spanish. An in-depth analysis of Miguel de Cervantes’s masterpiece. Focuses on questions of the literary, linguistic and cultural complexity of “Don Quixote.” Examines the work in the social and historical context of Early Modern Spain.

SPAN   485. Spanish Study Abroad. 1-12 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: SPAN   301 and SPAN   321; SPAN   330 or 331 or 332. This course offers all students the opportunity to improve their oral and written proficiency in Spanish, to enhance their awareness of cultural diversity and to become independent learners of Spanish language and the cultures of its speakers.

SPAN   491. Topics in Spanish. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. An in-depth study of selected topics in Spanish. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

SPAN   492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses in Spanish. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321 or 330 or 331. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest.

SPAN   494. Spanish Interpretation and Translation Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 50-150 clock hours in local, national or international internship placement where Spanish language interpretation or translation is required. 1-3 credits. Repeatable for up to 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN   301; SPAN   305 or 307 or 311; SPAN   320 or 321; SPAN   400; and SPAN   401. Under the supervision of both a faculty member and a field supervisor, students will apply their linguistic skills in an approved work situation. Each internship will be specifically designed in accordance with the student's linguistic level and the placement site requirements.