312 North Shafer Street
P.O. Box 842021
Richmond, Virginia 23284-2021
Phone: (804) 827-1111
Fax: (804) 827-3479
worldstudies.vcu.edu

Mark Wood, Ph.D.
Associate professor and director

Angelina Overvold, Ph.D.
Associate professor and associate director

The School of World Studies explores what it means to be human and prepares students to participate in the work of building a healthy world community. With training in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences, the school’s faculty complete research on the diversity and universality of human existence and creative expression, generating a rich intellectual understanding of the evolving and dynamic nature of human beings. Faculty and students consider the development, composition and interaction of language, religion, art, film, literature, poetry and culture. They also consider the relationship between these forms of human life and matters of gender, nationality, race, social justice, human rights and the environment. World School students acquire interdisciplinary knowledge, cross-cultural communication skills and global perspectives on real-world issues, and they graduate from the school with the ability to act and live well as global citizens.

Languages

The School of World Studies offers students significant opportunities to broaden their knowledge of diverse cultures through language study, including:

  • Arabic
  • Biblical Hebrew
  • Chinese
  • French (major and minor)
  • German (major and minor)
  • Italian (Italian studies minor)
  • Latin
  • Russian (Russian studies minor)
  • Spanish (major and minor)

In cases where the appropriate level of instruction is unavailable, the School of World Studies Advising Office will assist the student in identifying language study options at other U.S. institutions or abroad.

Foreign language courses

Students planning to take a foreign language course at VCU must take the placement test in order to determine proper course selection. Specific information about the placement test is available on the School of World Studies website.

Students who wish to complete a language through the intermediate level or higher are required to consecutively complete 101, 102 and 201 or the equivalent. Students may then choose either 202 or 205 to complete the intermediate level.

Foreign language requirement and native speaker information

All students within the College of Humanities and Sciences are required to meet a foreign language requirement either through the 102 level for the college general education program or through a higher level as specified by the individual program.

The following is the procedure to determine fluency level in respective languages:

  1. For languages currently taught at VCU students take a placement test through School of World Studies media center.

  2. For languages not taught at VCU students submit ACTFL oral proficiency examination results (For more information and to register for the OPI evaluation, please visit languagetesting.com.) or submit a copy of official high school or university transcript documenting completion of formal secondary or postsecondary study in a program taught in a language other than English.

For questions about the procedure or regarding languages not covered through the OPI test, students should contact the School of World Studies Advising Office.

Experiential learning and study abroad

World Passport

As part of the School of World Studies’ commitment to learning through engagement, each student within the school is required to complete a World Passport to introduce him or her to a breadth of experience beyond the core curriculum: cultural opportunities, experiential learning, seminars and conferences, international experiences, and multicultural campus activities. Students are required to obtain information about their personal World Passport from the School of World Studies Advising Office. The passport will be kept in the student advising file throughout the duration of study. It will be reviewed and stamped by an SWS adviser prior to graduation, and then given to the student upon completion.

The passports require four categories of activities to be completed by students before graduation from VCU with a degree from the School of World Studies.

  • Professional preparation prepares students for careers, graduate school and lifelong learning.
  • Crossing boundaries exposes students to international and multicultural interactions and ideas.
  • Community engagement enhances the undergraduate experience by greater involvement in the community.
  • Experiential learning provides students the opportunity to demonstrate success in applying program content beyond a classroom setting.

The School of World Studies is committed to the premise that learning is best facilitated through engagement with the dynamic complexities and challenges of the world outside the classroom. Both majors and minors in the school are required to participate in experiential learning options. All experiential learning opportunities must receive prior approval from the SWS Advising Office and include internships, service-learning courses, certain noncredit options and study abroad.

Study abroad

Summer study-abroad programs provide students with opportunities for short-term immersion in the language, culture and civilization of the countries they visit. A list of current VCU study abroad opportunities can be found at global.vcu.edu/abroad. VCU is a member of the International Student Exchange Program, which offers junior year abroad programs at one of 40 universities worldwide. For more information about study abroad visit the School of World Studies website at worldstudies.vcu.edu.

World Passport completion

The instructions for successful completion of the World Passport requirements, along with a description of each of the four sections, can be found on the World Studies website at worldstudies.vcu.edu or in the World Studies Advising Office. Students are responsible for attending appropriate events, securing documentation of attendance and meeting with their adviser to have the passport stamped as points are earned for each category. The potential events can be determined by utilizing the category descriptions noted in the passport or by visiting the SWS Calendar at worldstudies.vcu.edu and the school’s Facebook page. Evaluation of the passport is on a pass/fail basis. Should a student lose his or her passport, he or she would be required to re-create attendance at events in essay form or complete the requirement in some other way determined by the adviser or program coordinator.

School of World Studies courses

Foreign language courses

School of World Studies courses

Anthropology

ANTH 103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 103.

ANTH 105. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: INTL 104.

ANTH 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM 200/INTL 200.

ANTH 210. Biological Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of biological anthropology. Emphasis on the history and study of humans as biological organisms. Topics include genetic, social and ecological determinants of variation in human growth and biological diversity, as well as human adaptation and adaptability, disease, diet, and nutrition.

ANTH 220. Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of social and cultural anthropology. Provides an overview of key themes and theories in the subject, as well as the analytical and methodological tools to critically consider cultural difference, social organization and social change, with reference to a representative range of culture areas and the empirical fields studied by cultural anthropologists.

ANTH 230. Anthropological Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of anthropological linguistics. Emphasis is on the interactions between language and culture from a comparative perspective, as well as the relationship between language and social identities and relationships. Also an introduction to the field's methodology, research techniques, analytical tools and their applications.

ANTH 301. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: BIOL 341.

ANTH 302. Archaeological Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the basic theoretical perspectives and tools of archaeology, including analysis and interpretation of archaeological materials. Students will review the intellectual history of archaeology, applying a variety of theoretical approaches to archaeological data sets and sites.

ANTH 303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the basic practices of archaeology, including planning, excavation, artifact analysis, documentary research, mapping, dating sites and artifacts, and interpretation and presentation of findings. Students will participate in an active field research program and will apply methods at an active site and lab.

ANTH 304. Sociology of Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or ANTH 103/INTL 103. The family in its social and cultural context. Analysis of child rearing, marriage, kinship, family crises and family change in various societies around the world. Crosslisted as: SOCY 304/GSWS 304.

ANTH 307. Human Osteology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210. Corequisite: ANTZ 307. Emphasizes human skeletal development and the identification of specific bones and their anatomical landmarks, including the determination of side for paired bones. Also discussed are methods of estimating age, sex and stature from human skeletal remains and application of human skeletal data to broader anthropological questions.

ANTH 309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM 309/INTL 309/GSWS 309.

ANTH 310. Forensic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive overview of forensic anthropology including its development and the theory and methodology on which it is based. Crosslisted as: FRSC 310.

ANTH 312. History of Human Settlement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A cultural and historical geography of human migration and settlement over the earth. Topics may include agricultural and urban systems, exploration, colonization and imperialism, and changing relationships with the environment, during and since the Middle Ages. Crosslisted as: URSP 312.

ANTH 315. Field Methods and Research Design in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103, and ANTH 220 or ANTH 230. Overview of quantitative and qualitative anthropological field techniques as well as the ethical dimension of anthropological fieldwork. Basics of research design, effective methodology and writing grant proposals.

ANTH 328. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: FRLG 328/ENGL 392/LING 392.

ANTH 330. Language and Prehistory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 230, ANTH/ENGL/LING 390 or ANTH/ENGL 392. Considers the basic principles of diachronic linguistics in terms of the questions that historical linguists ask and the kinds of data they have at their disposal to answer them. Discusses uses of linguistic data in the reconstruction of prehistory in different parts of the world, analyzing strengths and weaknesses of such data and suggesting ways in which it can be usefully combined with data from other disciplines.

ANTH 331. Public Culture: Anthropology Through Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; WRLD 230. Explores how anthropology can contribute to a critical analysis of films as cultural representations. Class discussion will relate particular films both to the cultural context they depict and to the cultural context in which they were produced. Will also examine films as images that produce cultural meanings with the potential to affect the viewer's understanding of the world and comprehension of self.

ANTH 348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: INTL 348.

ANTH 349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 349.

ANTH 350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 350.

ANTH 355. Death and Burial. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Explores beliefs about the dead across time and space, the transformations physical bodies undergo after death and how archaeologists investigate human remains to interpret the beliefs and social practices of past cultures.

ANTH 364. Mythology and Folklore. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of one or more forms of folklore, such as folktales, fairy tales, legends, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads and/or games, with some attention to literary, social or historical significance and contexts. This course may also include approaches to collecting material or to examining later literary forms and texts inspired by folklore. Crosslisted as: ENGL 364.

ANTH 375. Field Archaeology. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 8 field and laboratory hours. 6 credits. Introduction to archaeological field and basic laboratory techniques. Archaeological data collection (excavation or survey) forms the core of the course.

ANTH 380. Medical Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or 220. An introduction to the biological and cultural anthropological study of global health and well-being, including healing processes, the biosocial relations of healing management and relationships between biomedicine and pluralistic medical systems.

ANTH 381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: INTL 381.

ANTH 383. Evolutionary Medicine and Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210, BIOL 101 or BIOL 151. Explores how modern human health and disease have been shaped by evolutionary processes. Particular emphasis is placed on examining health-related traits that are adaptive in one context but maladaptive in others, and why attempts to eliminate some of these traits can have deleterious effects on other aspects of our health. Specific diseases to be addressed include hypertension, diabetes, clinical depression, reproductive disorders, gastrointestinal disorders and drug addiction, among many others.

ANTH 387. Environmental Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Provides an introduction to the kinds of environmental evidence archaeologists access and the kinds of questions they investigate using that evidence. Explores a variety of ways in which archaeologists examine the relationship between humans and the environment and the sorts of effects that different environmental conditions and changes have had on ancient societies.

ANTH 388. African Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Surveys the range of archaeological knowledge currently available about the African continent, highlighting the major interrelated social, economic/technological and cultural transformations in the African past and the most important archaeological sites and discoveries there. Addresses themes of Africa’s enduring connections with the rest of the world, unique patterns of social and cultural development found on the continent, relations between African societies and their environments, and the contemporary significance of the continent’s cultural heritage.

ANTH 389. World Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Examines the diversity and evolution of human cultures through archaeological practices and techniques.

ANTH 390. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An introduction to methods of language analysis, emphasizing the study of sounds and sound patterns, and units of meaning and their arrangements. Crosslisted as: ENGL 390/LING 390.

ANTH 391. Topics in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses that may be applied to the major. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

ANTH 394. Historical Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 or ANTH 105/INTL 104, and any history course. A review of historical archaeology, recognizing its contemporary emphasis on the spread of European cultures across the globe beginning in the 15th century. Methods and findings of archaeological research from the United States, Europe and Africa will be covered with special emphasis on the study of documents and artifacts related to the emergence and present state of the modern world. Students will participate in field research.

ANTH 398. Field Investigations in Anthropology. 1-8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-8 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. Permission of instructor required. A course involving travel and/or study in an off-campus context. Intended primarily for students participating in directed study abroad programs, the course meets the experiential learning requirement for the anthropology major.

ANTH 399. Junior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: ANTH 210, 220 or 230; and junior standing. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation, and lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the anthropology program.

ANTH 403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or ANTH 301/BIOL 341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: BIOL 403.

ANTH 415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: INTL 415.

ANTH 416. The Origin and Evolution of the Idea of Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103 or permission of instructor. This course is an exploration of the origins and social history of the "idea" of race from the Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. Using both historical and anthropological scholarship, the course presents an analytical framework for race as a sociocultural phenomenon. Crosslisted as: AFAM 416.

ANTH 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM 420/INTL 420.

ANTH 425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS 425/INTL 425.

ANTH 430. Visualizing and Exhibiting Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and 105; and ANTH 302, ANTH 303, ANTH 355 or ANTH 389. Addresses the ability to visualize the knowledge gathered by anthropologists through forms of technology such as three-dimensional artifact scanning and 3D printing. Students will use the hundreds of objects scanned by archaeologists and ethnographers across the globe, including in VCU’s Virtual Curation Laboratory, to design dynamic hands-on and virtual exhibits and activities that communicate multiple perspectives on the human condition and that are designed to stimulate and provoke multiple reactions and encourage discussion.

ANTH 450. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL 454/INTL 454.

ANTH 454. Theory in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 220 or ANTH 230, and at least one 3-credit 300-level ANTH course . A study of the connections between theoretical work that addresses understandings of culture and methodological practice centered on creating ethnography.

ANTH 455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL 101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: INTL 455.

ANTH 457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: INTL 457.

ANTH 469. Human Dentition: ID and Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and ANTH 210; or ANTH 301; or BIOL 318. Focuses on the evolutionary anthropology of human dentition. Topics include evolution, genetics and ontogeny of the dentition; functional aspects of tooth size and shape; dental asymmetry; dental morphology and population affinities; dental pathology and subsistence; and dental markers of physiological stress. Students will explore within- and between-group variation, as well as the relationship between dental size and shape and behavior, relatedness and nutrition.

ANTH 490. Anthropology Senior Capstone. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 15 credits in anthropology at the 300 and 400 level or the equivalent; senior standing. Open only to anthropology majors. Explores current research that transects more than one subfield of anthropology. Research foci will be at the discretion of the instructor, but students will explore how the anthropological subfields influence and speak to each other in new translational research, and will assess the emerging literature and scientific questions with a critical and scientific perspective.

ANTH 491. Advanced Topics in Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester with different topics.Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; ANTH 210, 220, or 230; and UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. A maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses (including ANTH 391 and 491) may be applied to the major.

ANTH 492. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 12 credits for all independent study and internship courses. Prerequisites: determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and the group coordinator must be procured prior to enrollment in the course; a minimum GPA of 3.0 in the major. Generally open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the anthropology program.

ANTH 493. Anthropology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits for majors and 3 credits for minors. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits in anthropology courses at the 300 level or above, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international business or agency offering opportunities in anthropological field methods or research.

ANTH 497. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

ANTH 498. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

Anthropology Lab

ANTZ 301. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: BIOZ 341.

ANTZ 303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 303. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 303. Exercises emphasize practical applications of describing, cataloging and analyzing artifacts and faunal and floral remains from archaeological excavations.

ANTZ 307. Human Osteology Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 307. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 307. Exercises will emphasize practical description and identification of human bones and bony morphology, as well as associated soft tissue structures.

ANTZ 403. Primatology Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 403/BIOL 403. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 403/BIOL 403. Exercises will emphasize comparative studies of morphology, behavior and social systems between and among primate groups, as well as the evolution of these characteristics in extant species and populations.

Foreign Literature in English Translation

FLET 321. Early German Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Changing perspectives in German literature from its pagan beginnings, through the Medieval Golden Age, Baroque extremism, the Enlightenment and Storm and Stress up to Classicism and Goethe's Faust. Treatment of The Nibelungenlied, the courtly epic, Simplicissimus, and selections by Lessing, Schiller and Goethe. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of German is required. All work is done in English.

FLET 322. Modern German Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Growing psychological awareness and alienation of the individual in German literature of the 19th and 20th centuries. Representative works chosen from among writers of the past century and such modern writers as Thomas Mann, Kafka, Hesse, Brecht, Kafka, Hesse, Brecht, Boll and Grass. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of German is required. All work is done in English.

FLET 391. Topics in Foreign Literature in English Translation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. An in-depth study of selected topics in foreign literature. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of a foreign language is required. All work is done in English. Crosslisted as: INTL 391.

FLET 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1, 2 or 3 credits. Maximum of 3 credits per semester, maximum total of 6 credits for all FLET independent study courses. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 hours in any literature course. Determination of course content and permission of the instructor and department chair must be obtained prior to registration of the course. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest and for which they have the necessary background.

International Studies

INTL 101. Human Societies and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary inquiry into how societies around the world are organized and how they are interrelated on social, economic, political and cultural dimensions. The course is organized around themes that are important to prominent globalization processes -- topics such as human rights, global inequalities, cultural globalization, global crime, globalization and religion, the global mass media, and environmental issues. Students also explore the implications of rapid social change for international issues and interpersonal interaction.

INTL 102. Introduction to Political Economy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Seminar on the development of critical thought and economic analysis of policy issues. Focus is on how policy choices affect society and the individual, the economic methodology that guides policy choices, and the institutional and political environments within which policy is derived. Issues cover a broad range of topics including environmental issues, tax policy, inflation expectations, unemployment, foreign trade and the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policies. Crosslisted as: ECON 101.

INTL 103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 103.

INTL 104. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: ANTH 105.

INTL 105. International Relations. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introductory analysis of interstate relations and world affairs. Attention focuses on theories of international politics, military capabilities and their application, international organizations, global economic trends, domestic sources of state behavior and other selected issues as appropriate. Crosslisted as: POLI 105.

INTL 151. Global Communications. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores how communication media and globalization drive each other and how they both impact the nation-state as well as international institutions. Examines how technology, the global economy and international media corporations influence culture, politics, business, law and other institutions in countries around the world. Explores the relationship between media systems and governments and how both are affected by technology and globalization. Crosslisted as: MASC 151.

INTL 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM 200/ANTH 200.

INTL 201. Introduction to the Middle East and North Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary introduction to the region of the Middle East and North Africa, its peoples and cultures. Covers the geography, climate, economy, language, religious and social systems, as well as other social systems and cultural features that are traditional to the peoples of the region.

INTL 202. Indentities in a Global Community. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to intercultural communication. Designed to help students develop an understanding of cultures, to appreciate the opportunities and challenges that each culture presents to people and to learn how individuals have dealt with those opportunities and challenges.

INTL 203. Cultural Texts and Contexts: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Through the analysis and interpretation of literary, cinematic and other cultural texts, this course explores the ways cultural and national identities have been shaped, imagined and contested in various regions of the world. While responding to the readings and films as artistic manifestations or social documents, students will also become familiar with the aesthetic, political and social contexts in which the works were and are produced. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: WRLD 203.

INTL 204. Language and Groups in the United States. 3,4 Hours.

Semester course; 3-4 lecture hours. 3-4 credits. Taught in English. This course introduces students to the sociocultural experience and formation of identity of non-English-speaking peoples in the United States. Students explore the dynamic between English and a specific heritage language and its interaction with artistic, cultural and social issues through fiction and nonfiction texts, films and multimedia pertaining to specific language groups, such as: Latinos, Italian-Americans, German-Americans or Native Americans. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: FRLG 204.

INTL 211. Contemporary World Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. A study of selected literature published in the past 25 years and chosen from a number of different nations and cultures. Crosslisted as: ENGL 211.

INTL 303. World Regions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the various regions of the earth, including land forms, climate, resources, peoples, agriculture and urban conditions. Regions to be selected each semester from Anglo-America, Latin America, western Europe, Eastern Europe, the former USSR, Middle East and North Africa, Africa (south of the Sahara), Indian subcontinent, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. May be taken only once for credit. Crosslisted as: URSP 303.

INTL 306. Introduction to Judaism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of the dynamics and characteristic patterns of Jewish civilization encompassing history, practices and beliefs. Crosslisted as: RELS 306.

INTL 307. Black Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the role of religion in the lives of blacks with an emphasis on African religions and philosophies, the black church in America, and the roles of the various faiths, sects and cults. Crosslisted as: AFAM 307/RELS 307.

INTL 309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM 309/ANTH 309/GSWS 309.

INTL 311. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto. Crosslisted as: RELS 311.

INTL 312. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Crosslisted as: RELS 312.

INTL 314. Man and Environment. 3 Hours.

Semester course. 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative study of the ecology and natural history of human populations, including the environments as determining factors in the evolution of human institutions and technology, resources management, and population crises; cultural traditions as mechanisms of population control; basic theory of population biology. Crosslisted as: ENVS 314.

INTL 315. Economic Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ECON 203 with a minimum grade of B and ECON 211; or ECON 210 and ECON 211. An introduction to the process of economic development. Surveys development theory and experiences of underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and of developed countries. Explores obstacles to development and policies and tools for stimulating economic development. Crosslisted as: AFAM 315/ECON 315.

INTL 317. Islam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the emergence of Islam in Arabia in the seventh century and its subsequent developments, including a look at the Qur'an (the holy book), the Prophetic traditions, the concept of God, and mysticism (sufism) and law (shari'ah) and an overview of ritual practices, fundamental beliefs, theological principles and current issues in Islam and international relationship. Crosslisted as: RELS 317.

INTL 320. International Marketing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MKTG 301. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Designed to help students develop an understanding of international marketing policies and the differences among foreign marketing environments. Students compare and contrast domestic and international marketing and examine recent changes in the international marketing environment. Crosslisted as: MKTG 320.

INTL 327. Introduction to Intercultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the basic concepts, principles and skills for improving verbal and nonverbal communication with persons from different cultures. Using a cultural general approach, topics discussed include the concept of culture, barriers to intercultural communication, verbal communication process and nonverbal communication aspects. Appropriate for business and non-business majors. Crosslisted as: MGMT 329.

INTL 328. Russian Society in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or permission of the instructor. An analysis of Russian culture and social institutions as they are today and in historical perspective. Throughout the course interrelationships among politics, the economy and social life are examined, with particular emphasis on the ideological implications of Russian/Soviet architecture, art and mass media; on environmental issues and health; on social problems and the legal systems; and on gender, the work world and family interaction.

INTL 329. International Economics. 3 Hours.

3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ECON 203 with a minimum grade of B and ECON 211; or ECON 210 and ECON 211. An analysis of economic and political influences on exports and imports, balance of payments, foreign investment, exchange rates and international monetary systems. Crosslisted as: ECON 329.

INTL 330. Global Societies: Trends and Issues. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/POLI 105 or POLI 201 or SOCY 101. An analysis of factors that are promoting the globalization of social, economic and political relations, and an inquiry into implications of these developments for individuals, localities, nations and the world community. The course will highlight the impact of culture and ethnicity, historical and emerging patterns of international business activity and their societal significance, divergent strategies for economic and social development in the world's regions, and the effects of population growth and environmental problems on public life within and among nations. Crosslisted as: SOCY 330.

INTL 331. Survey of Latin American Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 300; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN 301. Conducted in Spanish. An introduction to major authors and trends up to the present. Crosslisted as: SPAN 331.

INTL 333. Geography of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the land forms, climate, peoples, livelihoods, settlement patterns and cultural groupings of sub-Saharan Africa. Crosslisted as: AFAM 333/URSP 333.

INTL 334. Regional Geography of ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the land forms, climate, resources, peoples, agricultural and urban conditions in a specific region such as North America, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and India, the USSR and Eastern Europe. See the Schedule of Classes for specific region to be studied each semester. Crosslisted as: URSP 334.

INTL 340. World Cities Outside of North America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of urban habitats in a variety of geographical regions with emphasis on their differences and their common experiences. Crosslisted as: URSP 340.

INTL 341. Global Ethics and the World's Religions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical survey of ethical concepts and issues in the thought and practice of major religious traditions. Comparison of ethical perspectives on selected themes and attention to cooperative efforts toward a global ethic. Crosslisted as: RELS 340.

INTL 345. Great Cities of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated under different topics for a total of 6 credits. Enrollment restricted to students with sophomore standing or with permission of instructor. An interdisciplinary course with a focus on the origin, expansion and significance of one or more cities, the specifics of its/their culture and the role of language. Particular emphasis will be placed on relating the physical, social and economic aspects of the city's growth and development to the cultural expression of urbanism. Crosslisted as: FRLG 345/URSP 350.

INTL 348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: ANTH 348.

INTL 349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 349.

INTL 350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 350.

INTL 351. Governments and Politics of the Middle East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative analysis of political systems in the Middle East including the study of contemporary aspects of traditionalism, the political nature of transition, the instruments of political modernization, and evolution and revolution in the political process of Middle Eastern states. The course will explore the primary bases of cleavage and conflict and the principal forces that shape the policies and political dynamics of the region. Crosslisted as: POLI 351.

INTL 352. European Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative study of the political systems of selected western and eastern European countries. Crosslisted as: POLI 352.

INTL 353. Latin American Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of politics characteristic of Latin American systems, including democratic reformism, military authoritarianism and revolutionary socialism. The course also examines the contemporary problems of fledgling democracies as they cope with economic and debt crises and various opposition challenges. Crosslisted as: POLI 353.

INTL 354. Russian and Post-Soviet Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the origins, institutions, processes and disintegration of the Soviet political system and the ongoing reform efforts during the post-Soviet period. Special emphasis is placed on the politics of the transition to a democratic political system and a market economy. Other topics include nationality issues, social problems and foreign policy. Crosslisted as: POLI 354.

INTL 355. Asian Governments and Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comparative analysis of the politics and governments of major Asian states, with a focus on Japan, China and India. Crosslisted as: POLI 355.

INTL 356. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will introduce students to the basic outlines of government and politics in Africa. The course will consider such topics as colonialism, elitism, and nationalism and modernization strategies. Using the comparative approach, the course will primarily focus on West, East and Central Africa. Crosslisted as: POLI 356/AFAM 356.

INTL 357. Politics of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of racial and political developments in the southern tip of Africa. While South Africa will be the primary focus of analysis, other countries in the region such as Zimbabwe, Angola and Mozambique will be studied. Crosslisted as: POLI 357/AFAM 357.

INTL 358. Concepts of Comparative Government. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Comparative study of politics and governments. Introduces concepts and theories used in the study of political systems. Topics include democratization and democratic governance, the role of the state, one-party and military regimes, revolution, and economic and political development. Crosslisted as: POLI 358.

INTL 360. World Classics of Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical reading of selected works from among the spiritual classics of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism and other religious traditions. Crosslisted as: RELS 350.

INTL 361. Issues in World Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of several significant issues in world politics. Topics may include peacekeeping and collective security, international economic competitiveness, global environmental politics as well as selected others. Topics will vary with current events and trends in the international arena. Crosslisted as: POLI 361.

INTL 362. International Organizations and Institutions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the background development structure and operations of organizations and institutions such as the United Nations, the European Community and the Organization of American States. Crosslisted as: POLI 362.

INTL 363. U.S. Foreign Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analytical survey of processes and practices in the formulation of U.S. foreign policy, including an introduction to the goals, problems of implementation and current challenges faced by policy makers. Crosslisted as: POLI 363.

INTL 364. Vietnam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the complete record of the conflict in Vietnam. The primary focus will be on the period of U.S. involvement. The course will examine closely how and why the U.S. became involved in Vietnam and what impact the Vietnam War has had on political institutions and behavior. In particular, the course will examine what impact the period of U.S. involvement has had upon U.S. foreign policy. The course also will consider additional topics including public opinion and the war, the relationship between the president and Congress in light of the war, and contemporary U.S. politics as a backlash against the political movements of the 1960s. Crosslisted as: POLI 364.

INTL 365. International Political Economy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of both theoretical and current policy issues in international political economy. Theories to be covered include liberalism, mercantilism, Marxism, regionalism, world systems theory and others. Policy issues include differing styles of capitalism in the industrialized world, the political economy of development, the politics of international corporate alliances and others. Crosslisted as: POLI 365.

INTL 366. African Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of the literature of Africa with particular emphases on fiction and on West Africa. Some attention also will be given to orature. Crosslisted as: AFAM 363/ENGL 363.

INTL 367. Caribbean Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A survey of West Indian writings. Attention will be given to African, European and Amerindian influences, as well as to the emergence of a West Indian literary tradition. Crosslisted as: AFAM 365/ENGL 365.

INTL 368. Women and Global Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of women and global politics, providing both a feminist re-examination of traditional international-relations theories and a comparative analysis of the political, legal and economic status of the world's women. The impact of women on global political institutions such as the United Nations will be addressed as well as other feminist and grass roots means of taking political action. Crosslisted as: GSWS 366/POLI 366.

INTL 370. Studies in the Music of the African Continent and Diaspora. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS 243 or MHIS/AFAM 250. An in-depth examination of selected topics and issues in African-derived musical and cultural traditions. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: AFAM 350/MHIS 350.

INTL 372. Global Women's Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the spiritual writings of women in various cultures and religious traditions. Crosslisted as: GSWS 372/RELS 372.

INTL 381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: ANTH 381.

INTL 390. Historic and Ethnic Textiles. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FASH 290 or IDES 446 or permission of instructor. An examination of the history of textile design and production around the world. Crosslisted as: FASH 390.

INTL 391. Topics in Foreign Literature in English Translation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. An in-depth study of selected topics in foreign literature. This course will not satisfy foreign language requirements. No knowledge of a foreign language is required. All work is done in English. Crosslisted as: FLET 391.

INTL 398. Directed Study Abroad. 8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0-8 credits per semester. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits with approval of student's major department. Permission of academic adviser required. A course involving travel and/or residence in a foreign country as features of the student's work on a pre-arranged project. Intended primarily for students participating in student exchange programs.

INTL 409. Modern Islamic Thought and Global Trends. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS 312 or INTL/RELS 317; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Introduces students to the integral relationship of Islam to major events of global concern and contextualizes these events into the wider modern and postmodern developments of Islamic thought and its intellectual and ideological self-interrogation. This course will provide students with the opportunity to study both the background of modern Islamic thought and selected contemporary events. Crosslisted as: RELS 409.

INTL 410. The Chinese Tradition in Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the development of Confucianism, of alternative ways of thought prior to the fall of the Han Dynasty and of neo-Confucianism. The systems of thought are examined in the light of their social, political and religious impact on China, Korea and Japan. Crosslisted as: PHIL 410/RELS 410.

INTL 412. Zen Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. A study of Zen Buddhism, including backgrounds in Indian philosophy and practice, development in China and Korea, and present-day Zen theory and practice in Japan and in Western countries. Crosslisted as: PHIL 412/RELS 412.

INTL 413. Comparative Financial Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FIRE 311. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). An analysis of the structure and functioning of financial systems in different parts of the world. Emphasis is on the evolution of such systems in relation to the U.S. financial system. Different regions of the world may be studied in different semesters. Crosslisted as: FIRE 413.

INTL 415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: ANTH 415.

INTL 416. International Financial Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FIRE 311. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Financial management of business in an international environment. Emphasis on tools and techniques to prepare financial managers of multinational firms to effectively respond to the challenges of the international environment. Crosslisted as: FIRE 316.

INTL 418. International Management. 3 Hours.

3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing. The study of the environment of international business, ethics and social responsibility in international settings, culture and its effect on behavior and management practice, and the strategies and management practices of firms engaged in international activities. Aims to provide students with the knowledge, skills and sensitivities needed to be effective managers in the international business environment. Crosslisted as: MGMT 418.

INTL 419. Doing Business in Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing and permission of instructor. Designed primarily as a core integrative course for students enrolled in the Certificate in International Management Studies, but other students are welcome. The course has three goals: a) integration of foreign languages, European studies and international management; b) infusion of other business areas relevant to doing business in Europe (such as international marketing, finance law and economics); and c) the development of cultural sensitivity and social responsibility. The course will be organized as a series of seminars with faculty and other speakers from the above disciplines. Crosslisted as: MGMT 419.

INTL 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM 420/ANTH 420.

INTL 421. Civilization of Latin America II. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN 300 or 301. This course explores the cultural diversity of Latin America and the social and political forces behind cultural change. Topics will focus on a specific interdisciplinary theme, such as urban life, the politics of identity and on a specific area of Latin America. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: SPAN 421.

INTL 425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS 425/ANTH 425.

INTL 441. Islamic Mysticism: the Sufis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS 312 or INTL/RELS 317; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Introduces students to the major Sufi masters and their works. It covers ideological and practical development of Islamic mysticism as compared to the developments within Islam itself. Crosslisted as: RELS 441.

INTL 446. International Human Resource Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MGMT 331, INTL/MGMT 418 or ECON/INTL 329. Covers the application of human resource management activities in an international context. Highlights similarities and differences with domestic methods; current practices in the selection, development, compensation and maintenance of parent-country, host-country and third-country nationals; and the impact of regulatory and cultural differences between countries. Crosslisted as: MGMT 446.

INTL 448. Digital Marketing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MKTG 301 and MKTG 330. This course is restricted to students who have completed at least 54 credit hours (junior standing). Examines Internet marketing as a necessary ingredient to successful worldwide marketing strategy. Students analyze markets using Web-based techniques for market evaluation, competitive analysis, market comparison and selection. Discussion includes comparison of e-business versus traditional business perspectives on marketing strategies and tactics. Crosslisted as: MKTG 448.

INTL 449. Religion, Globalization and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341, WLRD 210 or WRLD 220; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores the role religions are playing in the work of building a socially just and environmentally sustainable world community. Crosslisted as: RELS 450.

INTL 450. Francophone Literatures and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Introduces students to the literatures and cultures of the Francophone world. Provides an overview of the Francophone world and an in-depth study of literary works written in French from Africa, the Caribbean, North America, Asia and Europe. Also explores the impact of Colonial history on Francophone literatures and cultures. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: FREN 450.

INTL 451. Religion, Racism and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341, WLRD 210 or WRLD 220; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores the complex history and contemporary relationships between religion, racism and social justice. Crosslisted as: RELS 451/AFAM 451.

INTL 452. The Politics of Developing Areas. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Analysis of the processes of political and economic development. Includes a study of various challenges facing developing countries, such as economic inequalities, environmental degradation, mass political participation, military coups, revolution and civil war. Crosslisted as: POLI 359.

INTL 453. Western Religions, Women and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200; and RELS 108, GSWS 201 or WRLD 210. Explores the experience and portrayal of women in the three Abrahamic traditions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Study focuses on how these religions and their texts bear upon the social, economic, political and spiritual lives of women. Special attention is given to the impact of globalization and religious fundamentalism on women. Crosslisted as: RELS 453/GSWS 453.

INTL 454. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL 454/ANTH 450.

INTL 455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL 101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: ANTH 455.

INTL 456. Catholic Ethics and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 280 or 380, or RELS/INTL 312, or RELS 340/INTL 341; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. An exploration of the Catholic church's major theological, ethical, constitutional and strategic concerns, and an analysis of Catholic social teaching and its relation to current social issues such as abortion, peace and conflict, poverty, and human rights. Crosslisted as: RELS 455.

INTL 457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: ANTH 457.

INTL 468. Comparative National Security Policy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of national security policies and policy-making in a diverse set of nation-states. Emphasis is placed on comparing how threat perception, historical context, ideology, political structure and leadership impact national security policies of both powerful and weak nation-states. Crosslisted as: POLI 368.

INTL 480. China in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Traces how China is making the transition from a planned to market economy, and what implications this transition has on the political, social and urban landscape. Class discussions are grounded on a basic understanding of China's modern history and regional geography. Crosslisted as: POLI 360.

INTL 490. Seminar in International Issues. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in international studies major with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. An individualized research project focusing on international issues and undertaken in a seminar setting.

INTL 491. Topics in International Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a particular topic in international studies. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

INTL 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum total of 4 credits in all independent study courses. Generally open to students of junior and senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in international studies courses. Determination of amount of credit and permission of instructor and director must be obtained before registration of the course.

INTL 493. International Studies Internship. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; 50 clock hours in a local, national or international internship placement per credit. Variable credit. 1-6 credits with a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: junior or senior standing, and approval of selection committee or program director. The internship is designed to present opportunities for qualified students to acquire exposure to internationally oriented public and private organizations and agencies. The course includes a rigorous evaluation of the internship experience based on learning objectives stipulated in a contract between the student, faculty adviser and a field supervisor.

INTL 499. Senior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: completion of 18 INTL credits at the 300- or 400-level; senior standing. Pre- or corequisite: INTL 490, 492, or 493. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation and on the lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the international and area studies program.

Religious Studies

RELS 101. Introduction to Religious Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course examines the phenomenon of religion and religious experience. Through a phenomenological approach definitions and descriptions of the major features of the religious experience and of religious establishments, including concepts of the sacred, the numinous, religious language, texts, symbols, rituals and myths are reviewed. In addition, the social, political and spiritual dimensions of religion in human culture will be investigated.

RELS 108. Human Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the manifestations of one or more of the themes of religious studies in a diverse group of religious communities. The themes may include such wide-ranging topics as the sacred and profane, the epistemology of faith and knowledge, creation stories, human identity, the nature of the divine, the possibility of liberation or salvation, mythology, ritual, ethics, religion and art, religion and law, and religion and politics.

RELS 201. Biblical Hebrew. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Vocabulary, elementary grammar, introduction to lexica and reading of biblical texts.

RELS 202. Biblical Hebrew. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RELS 201. Vocabulary, elementary grammar, introduction to lexica and reading of biblical texts.

RELS 250. Death: Myth and Reality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of intellectual and emotional responses to death and dying with emphasis upon their role in the development of religious thought and practice. Special attention will be paid to the death theme in literature, funeral practices and beliefs concerning the afterlife in selected world religions.

RELS 280. Introduction to Catholic Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course provides an introduction to Catholicism's major doctrines, figures, historical events, philosophy and ethics from its beginnings in the first centuries of the Common Era through contemporary debates over such issues as abortion, sexuality and war. Students will learn about scripture, doctrine, theology, the sacraments, art and architectures, saints, social justice and gender, and the history and role of the Church.

RELS 282. Introduction to Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces Buddhism from its origins in India and addresses its major schools of thought, practice, ritual and philosophy, in Asia and beyond, particularly the United States.

RELS 291. Topics in Religious Studies. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of six credits. Focused study of selected ideas, institutions, movements, time periods and/or thinkers. See Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

RELS 301. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the Hebrew Bible from its beginning through the post-Exile period. Emphasis given to the literary and historical development of the text.

RELS 302. Introduction to the New Testament. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the New Testament with particular emphasis given to the historical development of the Canon.

RELS 303. Intertestamental Literature and Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The period between the Old and New Testaments as seen through the literature of the era, with emphasis on the writings of the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and Josephus.

RELS 305. Hebrew Prophets. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the literature and history of Israel as seen through the work of the writing prophets. Emphasis will be placed on the second part of the Hebrew Canon and the Book of Daniel.

RELS 306. Introduction to Judaism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of the dynamics and characteristic patterns of Jewish civilization encompassing history, practices and beliefs. Crosslisted as: INTL 306.

RELS 307. Black Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the role of religion in the lives of blacks with an emphasis on African religions and philosophies, the black church in America, and the roles of the various faiths, sects and cults. Crosslisted as: AFAM 307/INTL 307.

RELS 308. High and Later Middle Ages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A detailed historical overview of developments in Western Europe from the end of the first millennium through the end of the 15th century. Crosslisted as: HIST 311.

RELS 310. Mediterranean Religions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the earliest evidence of religious practice and belief in the Mediterranean region and probes the ways that the ancient traditions shaped the religions that still endure today. Also investigates the effect of religion in the Mediterranean region on related issues of intercultural relations, peace and conflict, and migration.

RELS 311. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto. Crosslisted as: INTL 311.

RELS 312. Religions of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An investigation of the historical, cultural and theological foundations and development of major world religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Crosslisted as: INTL 312.

RELS 313. Life and Literature of Paul. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of the life and literature of Paul as given in Acts and the Epistles, involving special consideration of Paul's contribution to the expansion of Christianity.

RELS 314. Jesus in the New Testament. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the Christ of faith and the Jesus of history as presented in New Testament literature and as interpreted in the works of selected scholars from the church fathers to the present.

RELS 315. The Ancient Near East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the ancient Near Eastern civilizations from the preliterary period to the end of Kassite rule in Babylonia (c. 1160 B.C.). Crosslisted as: HIST 301.

RELS 317. Islam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the emergence of Islam in Arabia in the seventh century and its subsequent developments, including a look at the Qur'an (the holy book), the Prophetic traditions, the concept of God, and mysticism (sufism) and law (shari'ah) and an overview of ritual practices, fundamental beliefs, theological principles and current issues in Islam and international relationship. Crosslisted as: INTL 317.

RELS 318. History of the Jewish People I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the Jewish people from the biblical period to the early modern period, including the Israelite conquest of Canaan, Judea in Hellenistic and Roman times, the Diaspora in Islam and in Europe, social and cultural trends, and Jewish settlement in the Ottoman Empire. Crosslisted as: HIST 333.

RELS 319. History of the Jewish People II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the Jewish people from the early modern to the present, including the impact of the Emancipation, the rise of the American Jewish community, the impact of modernism and growth of Reform, the beginnings and growth of Zionism, restoration in Palestine, the Holocaust, the creation of Israel, and the relations of Israel and world Jewry. Crosslisted as: HIST 334.

RELS 320. Taoism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of one of the most fundamental and influential philosophies of life in Chinese culture, focusing on the theory and practice of the basic principles of Taoism as formulated by the legendary Lao Tzu and further developed by Chuang Tzu.

RELS 322. Tibetan Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A basic introduction to the history, development and mythology of the Buddhism of Tibet focusing on the Indian heritage and shared basis of all Buddhist practices, a clear identification of the three vehicles found in Buddhism, and a careful consideration of the path of the Bodhisattva, the hero of Great Vehicle Buddhism. Crosslisted as: PHIL 322.

RELS 326. Existentialism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: three credits in philosophy (exclusive of PHIL 221 and PHIL 222) or permission of instructor. An examination of the nature of truth, freedom, responsibility, individuality and interpersonal relations as found in some principal writings of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Sartre, Heidegger, Camus, Buber and Marcel. Crosslisted as: PHIL 326.

RELS 327. History of Christianity I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A historical and theological examination of Christianity from its origin to the early modern period, or the age of the Reformations. Emphasis is placed upon an understanding of leading events, ideas, movements and persons in their historical settings. Crosslisted as: HIST 335.

RELS 333. Psychology and Religious Experience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. Religious belief and experience as viewed by major psychological theorists. How psychological methodology has been used to study religious experience. Topics include personality factors and development, conversion experiences, religious experiences and mental health and human values. Crosslisted as: PSYC 333.

RELS 334. Religion in Contemporary America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course studies the history, literature, belief patterns and unique traits of religion in the United States. The evolution of religion and religious sentiment in a modern pluralistic, democratic society, including the varieties of religious experiences in contemporary America will be reviewed.

RELS 335. The American Jewish Experience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The religious, social and cultural structure of American Jewry from the Colonial era to the present.

RELS 336. Religions in Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An interdisciplinary survey of the major religious groups of Latin America, with a focus on the development of Catholicism, Protestantism and the traditions of the African diaspora, such as Santeria and Voduo, during the 20th century.

RELS 337. Contemporary Cults and New Religious Movements. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An overview of contemporary religious movements. Focuses on new groups that have emerged in the context of globalization. Involves understanding of what gives rise to these movements, how they are distinctive and how they develop.

RELS 340. Global Ethics and the World's Religions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical survey of ethical concepts and issues in the thought and practice of major religious traditions. Comparison of ethical perspectives on selected themes and attention to cooperative efforts toward a global ethic. Crosslisted as: INTL 341.

RELS 350. World Classics of Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A critical reading of selected works from among the spiritual classics of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism and other religious traditions. Crosslisted as: INTL 360.

RELS 360. Sociology of Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101. A systematic review and assessment of major sociological theories of and empirical research on religious behavior and groups. Topics include the structure of religious organizations; social correlates and functions of religion; denominationalism; religion and social class, social change and population. Crosslisted as: SOCY 360.

RELS 361. The Bible as Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Literary aspects of the Bible will be considered. Also, attention will be given to the history of the English Bible. Crosslisted as: ENGL 361.

RELS 362. Shakespeare and Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of the religious ideas in selected plays by William Shakespeare and their relevance to contemporary religious thought and experience. Topics include the nature of God, the meaning of life, the problem of evil, moral authority and the question of immortality as found in Shakespeare's plays.

RELS 363. Archaeology and Sacred Texts. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lectures hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores past and present archaeological research as it relates to events, persons, and places described in ancient sacred texts of the Mediterranean.

RELS 371. Women in Islam. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, RELS 108, GSWS 201 or ENGL 215. Critical study of the roles and rights of women in Islam. Crosslisted as: GSWS 371.

RELS 372. Global Women's Spirituality. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the spiritual writings of women in various cultures and religious traditions. Crosslisted as: GSWS 372/INTL 372.

RELS 373. Gender and the Bible. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 108 or GSWS 201 or RELS 301 or RELS 302; and ENGL 215 or UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Studies the Hebrew and Christian scriptures with emphasis on gender. Attention to traditional, feminist, womanist and postcolonial interpretation. Crosslisted as: GSWS 373.

RELS 380. Contemporary Catholic Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RELS 280. A study of the contemporary Catholic Christian response to the questions, "Who is God?" and "Where/how do we experience the Sacred?" Methods of Catholic theology will be explicated and applied to the teachings of the Second Vatican Council and current responses to those teachings in such areas as sacramental worship and liturgy, and moral/ethical teachings of the Church.

RELS 391. Topics in Religious Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. A study of a selected ideas or concepts, religious thinkers or significant movements in the field of religion. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

RELS 401. Faith and Life Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Open to students of any school or program. Explores the complex relationships between faith traditions and the life sciences. Topics include epistemology, impact of life sciences on ideas of fate and responsibility, limits of science and technology, and scientific and religious perspectives on human origins, consciousness, aggression, forgiveness, health, illness and death. Crosslisted as: LFSC 401.

RELS 407. Modern Jewish Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. A study of the writings of the leading Jewish thinkers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Special reference will be made to the issues arising from the encounter of Judaism with the modern world: the nature of revelation and the authority of the Torah, the nature of God, the impact of the Holocaust, the meaning of redemption and the significance of the state of Israel.

RELS 408. Indian Tradition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: at least six credits from philosophy or religious studies courses. A systematic analysis of the major theories of Indian religious and philosophical thought: Vedas, Upanishads, Gita, Charvaka, Jainism, Buddhism, the six systems of Hinduism and contemporary developments. Crosslisted as: PHIL 408.

RELS 409. Modern Islamic Thought and Global Trends. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS 312 or INTL/RELS 317; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Introduces students to the integral relationship of Islam to major events of global concern and contextualizes these events into the wider modern and postmodern developments of Islamic thought and its intellectual and ideological self-interrogation. This course will provide students with the opportunity to study both the background of modern Islamic thought and selected contemporary events. Crosslisted as: INTL 409.

RELS 410. The Chinese Tradition in Philosophy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the development of Confucianism, of alternative ways of thought prior to the fall of the Han Dynasty and of neo-Confucianism. The systems of thought are examined in the light of their social, political and religious impact on China, Korea and Japan. Crosslisted as: PHIL 410/INTL 410.

RELS 412. Zen Buddhism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. A study of Zen Buddhism, including backgrounds in Indian philosophy and practice, development in China and Korea, and present-day Zen theory and practice in Japan and in Western countries. Crosslisted as: PHIL 412/INTL 412.

RELS 422. Religion and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different themes for a total of six credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores central themes present in all global religious traditions, such as ritual, faith, myth, suffering, redemption, the religious quest/pilgrimage, the nature of good and evil and perceptions of the sacred. Using readings from sacred texts and contemporary film critiques, the course juxtaposes ancient story and wisdom with contemporary narratives in film. Possible themes would include women and religion in world cinema, Christology in world cinema, and violence and redemption in film.

RELS 425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: ANTH 425/INTL 425.

RELS 430. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: three credits in philosophy (exclusive of PHIL 211 and PHIL 212) or permission of instructor. An introduction to the major problems and questions of religion and reason. Special reference will be made to the nature of God, the nature of man, the problem of evil, the source of good, immortality and the basis of authority. Crosslisted as: PHIL 430.

RELS 440. Mysticism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. A critical analysis of the varieties of mysticism in world religions. Arguments for and against mysticism will be emphasized. Mysticism will be related to art, psychology, science, philosophy, theology and magic. Crosslisted as: PHIL 440.

RELS 441. Islamic Mysticism: the Sufis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL/RELS 312 or INTL/RELS 317; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Introduces students to the major Sufi masters and their works. It covers ideological and practical development of Islamic mysticism as compared to the developments within Islam itself. Crosslisted as: INTL 441.

RELS 442. Seminar in Hinduism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of Hinduism, taking up the earliest origins of Hinduism, the Hindu creation myth, the various conceptions of the divine, the speculation regarding human nature, the stages of life, development of family and monastic codes, the great epics of Hinduism including the Bhagavad-Gita, the six schools of Hindu philosophy and modern Hinduism as it has developed in response to Western influences.

RELS 450. Religion, Globalization and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341, WLRD 210 or WRLD 220; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores the role religions are playing in the work of building a socially just and environmentally sustainable world community. Crosslisted as: INTL 449.

RELS 451. Religion, Racism and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341, WLRD 210 or WRLD 220; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores the complex history and contemporary relationships between religion, racism and social justice. Crosslisted as: AFAM 451/INTL 451.

RELS 453. Western Religions, Women and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200; and RELS 108, GSWS 201 or WRLD 210. Explores the experience and portrayal of women in the three Abrahamic traditions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Study focuses on how these religions and their texts bear upon the social, economic, political and spiritual lives of women. Special attention is given to the impact of globalization and religious fundamentalism on women. Crosslisted as: GSWS 453/INTL 453.

RELS 455. Catholic Ethics and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 280 or 380, or RELS/INTL 312, or RELS 340/INTL 341; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. An exploration of the Catholic church's major theological, ethical, constitutional and strategic concerns, and an analysis of Catholic social teaching and its relation to current social issues such as abortion, peace and conflict, poverty, and human rights. Crosslisted as: INTL 456.

RELS 490. Senior Capstone Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341; senior standing in religious studies major with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. Senior research project; written thesis and oral presentations using established concepts, theories and research methods in religious studies. Students will select the religious groups/traditions as the focus of their research, writing and oral presentations in consultation with the course instructor.

RELS 491. Topics in Religious Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: written permission of instructor. An in-depth study of selected ideas or concepts, religious thinkers or significant movements in the field of religion. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

RELS 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses. Open generally to students of only junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course. An independent study course to allow interested students in religious studies to do research in an area of major interest under the direction of a professor qualified in that field.

RELS 493. Religious Studies Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits, however only 3 credits can count toward the major. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of upper-level (300- or above) course work in religious studies, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international organization offering opportunities in religious studies.

RELS 499. Senior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341; senior standing in religious studies major with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. Pre- or corequisite: RELS 490. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation, and on the lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the religious studies program.

World Studies

WRLD 203. Cultural Texts and Contexts: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Through the analysis and interpretation of literary, cinematic and other cultural texts, this course explores the ways cultural and national identities have been shaped, imagined and contested in various regions of the world. While responding to the readings and films as artistic manifestations or social documents, students will also become familiar with the aesthetic, political and social contexts in which the works were and are produced. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL 203.

WRLD 210. International Social Justice Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An overview of the issues, themes, disciplines, and areas of research and teaching that comprise international social justice studies in a variety of global contexts.

WRLD 220. Human Rights and Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A cross-cultural survey of human rights violations. The moral, political and pragmatic dimensions in the international response to violations are investigated including transnational organizations that document abuses as expressed in memoirs, eyewitness accounts, literature and film.

WRLD 230. Introduction to World Cinema. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/screening hours. 3 credits. An overview of the main theoretical frameworks, critical concepts and debates devoted to non-Hollywood world cinemas, with special emphasis on the rethinking of national cinema and the problematizing of identity in an increasingly transnational era. Broad interdisciplinary readings in film theory, film history and cultural studies will be supplemented by case studies of particular cinemas and filmmakers, so as to convey an appreciation of the main international movements in the history of cinema.

WRLD 291. Topics in World Languages and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different content for a maximum of 6 credits. A study of a specialized topic in world cultures and languages. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

WRLD 302. Communicating Across Cultures. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Designed to increase understanding of the foundational concepts of communication and intercultural dialogue. Examines (among others) such concepts as individualism, collectivism, ethnocentrism, xenophobia, uncertainty avoidance, nonverbal communication and stereotyping.

WRLD 310. Mediterranean Cultural Geography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An in-depth analysis of the Mediterranean region, its distinctive and defining features (physical, climatic and sociopolitical) and its paradigmatic role in global politics and economy.

WRLD 311. Civilization of the Mediterranean. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Exploration of the Mediterranean from pre-history to modernity, with an emphasis on cross-cultural engagement. Aims at exploring the interaction and cross-cultural fertilization between societies and cultures of the lands of the Middle Sea: North Africa, Middle East and southern Europe.

WRLD 330. Introduction to Film Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: WRLD 230 or permission of instructor. An overview of film studies with special attention given to the debates informing the periodization of film history, the critical paradigms of the major film theories and the elements of a cinematographic language from both a technical and aesthetic standpoint.

WRLD 359. International Media Coverage: The Middle East. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MASC 101 or MASC 151 with a minimum grade of C. This interdisciplinary course explores the media's role in covering cultural, political, religious and other issues in the Middle East. Students will examine the role and impact of the media in both the United States and Middle East in shaping global and regional public opinion. Using webcam and online technology, VCU students will discuss cross-cultural perspectives with students from the other U.S. universities and universities in the Middle East. Crosslisted as: MASC 359.

WRLD 391. Topics in World Languages and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different content for a maximum of 6 credits. An in-depth study of a specialized topic in world cultures and languages. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

WRLD 422. National Cinema. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different themes up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: WRLD 230 or 330 or permission of instructor. Tracing the development of cinematic traditions in selected nations, this course focuses on the thematic selections and stylistic techniques particular to that particular cinematographic culture. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific theme to be offered each semester.

WRLD 430. Film and the City. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Focuses on cinematic representations of cities worlwide, so as to probe the increasingly cross-cultural dynamics of urban landscapes. Films discussed will span the entire history of cinema across genres and national traditions.

WRLD 490. Seminar in World Cultures and Languages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Restricted to seniors in world cultures and languages with at least 85 credit hours earned toward the degree. Research and analysis of a selected topic in world cultures and languages in a seminar setting.

WRLD 491. Topics in World Languages and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different content for a maximum of 6 credits. An intensive and comprehensive examination of specialized areas of interest in world cultures and languages. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

WRLD 493. World Cultures Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits, however only 3 credits can count toward the major concentration. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of upper-level (300- or above) course work toward any non-foreign-language concentration within the School of World Studies, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in internationally oriented public and private organizations and agencies.

WRLD 499. Senior Capstone Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: completion of 6 credits of 400-level courses in the major and senior standing. Open only to students enrolled as majors in the School of World Studies, including anthropology, religious studies, and world cultures and languages. Capstone seminar summarizing and synthesizing studies in World Studies programs. Preparation for entry into career search. Organization and polishing of written works representing skills aquired in programs. Assembly of individual portfolio as means of assessment and career tool.

Foreign language courses

Arabic

ARBC 101. Elementary Arabic. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ARBC 101 to enroll in ARBC 102. Elementary grammar, reading, writing and speaking.

ARBC 102. Elementary Arabic. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ARBC 101 to enroll in ARBC 102. Elementary grammar, reading, writing and speaking.

ARBC 201. Intermediate Arabic I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 102 or the equivalent. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ARBC 202. Intermediate Arabic II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 201 or the equivalent. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ARBC 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 201. Designed to increase student proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and conversation.

ARBC 301. Arabic Creative Expression. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 202 or 205. Designed to develop further all language skills: reading, writing, comprehension and speaking. Course is divided into two parts: (a) language skills (grammar, short stories and poetry) and (b) field project (interaction with native speakers). Both parts include lectures, guest speakers and practicing the language with native speakers from the student body and the community at large.

ARBC 391. Topics in Arabic: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 202 or equivalent. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Conducted in Arabic. An in-depth study of selected topics in Arabic. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Chinese

CHIN 101. Elementary Chinese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN 101 to enroll in CHIN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

CHIN 102. Elementary Chinese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN 101 to enroll in CHIN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

CHIN 110. Intensive Elementary Chinese. 8 Hours.

Semester course; 10 lecture and 10 laboratory hours. 8 credits. This intensive course combines CHIN 101 and 102 into a single-semester class. Students may receive credit toward graduation for either the CHIN 101-102 series or CHIN 110, but not both.

CHIN 201. Intermediate Chinese. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN 201 to enroll in CHIN 202. Rapid review of the essentials of grammar, conversation and readings from Chinese literature.

CHIN 202. Intermediate Chinese. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of CHIN 201 to enroll in CHIN 202. Rapid review of the essentials of grammar, conversation and readings from Chinese literature.

CHIN 210. Intensive Intermediate Chinese. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 6 lecture hours. 6 credits. This intensive course combines CHIN 201 and 202 into a single-semester class. Students may receive credit toward graduation for either the CHIN 201-202 series or CHIN 210, but not both.

CHIN 300. Chinese Vocabulary and Reading. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of Chinese courses through the intermediate level or equivalent. Designed to increase written vocabulary and reading skills through an examination and discussion of literary works by famous Chinese writers. Conducted in Chinese.

CHIN 301. Practical Chinese Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of Chinese courses through the intermediate level or equivalent. Designed to develop students' writing techniques and skills in several types of technical writing in Chinese (business, financial and law documents, memos and resumes). Conducted in Chinese.

CHIN 391. Topics in Chinese. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 16 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN 202 or 210. An in-depth study of selected topics in Chinese. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Foreign Languages

FRLG 100. Basic Language and Cultural Awareness Abroad: ____. 1 Hour.

Semester course. 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Introduces basic language skills and cultural customs and expectations to students of all disciplines planning foreign travel to a specific location. Students will learn useful vocabulary and phrases to apply in many different travel situations. Predominant focus will be placed on the culture of the specific region and include foundational communication skills. This course cannot be used to fulfill foreign language requirements for major, minor, collateral or General Education purposes. See Schedule of Classes for specific languages being taught each semester. Graded as pass/fail.

FRLG 101. Foreign Languages: ____. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FRLG 101 to enroll in FRLG 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG 102. Foreign Languages: ____. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FRLG 101 to enroll in FRLG 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG 201. Foreign Languages: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FRLG 102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG 202. Foreign Languages: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FRLG 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts. Course may be repeated with different languages.

FRLG 204. Language and Groups in the United States. 3,4 Hours.

Semester course; 3-4 lecture hours. 3-4 credits. Taught in English. This course introduces students to the sociocultural experience and formation of identity of non-English-speaking peoples in the United States. Students explore the dynamic between English and a specific heritage language and its interaction with artistic, cultural and social issues through fiction and nonfiction texts, films and multimedia pertaining to specific language groups, such as: Latinos, Italian-Americans, German-Americans or Native Americans. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL 204.

FRLG 328. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: ANTH 328/ENGL 392/LING 392.

FRLG 345. Great Cities of the World. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated under different topics for a total of 6 credits. Enrollment restricted to students with sophomore standing or with permission of instructor. An interdisciplinary course with a focus on the origin, expansion and significance of one or more cities, the specifics of its/their culture and the role of language. Particular emphasis will be placed on relating the physical, social and economic aspects of the city's growth and development to the cultural expression of urbanism. Crosslisted as: INTL 345/URSP 350.

FRLG 493. World Languages Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits, however only 3 credits can count toward the major concentration. Prerequisites: prior completion of 9 credits in the respective foreign language at the 300 level, with a course in advanced grammar and composition, one in conversation and one in civilization. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in the target foreign language in internationally oriented public and private organizations and agencies. All course work must be completed in the target language.

French

FREN 101. Elementary French. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FREN 101 to enroll in FREN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

FREN 102. Elementary French. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of FREN 101 to enroll in FREN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

FREN 110. Intensive French I. 8 Hours.

Semester course; 10 lecture and laboratory hours. 8 credits. This intensive course combines FREN 101 and 102 into a single semester.

FREN 201. Intermediate French. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

FREN 202. Intermediate French Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 201. In order to complete French through the intermediate level, a student may select FREN 202 or 205. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

FREN 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

FREN 210. Intensive French II. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 6 lecture and laboratory hours per week. 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 101 and 102, or FREN 110. This intensive course combines FREN 201 and 202/205 into a single semester.

FREN 295. Gateway to the French Major/Minor. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 201 or permission of instructor. Non-foreign language majors who wish to take one or two upper-level classes only need to complete FREN 202, 205 or equivalent. This course is composed of three different areas: 1) writing and analytical skills: enhancement of grammatical and writing skills and development of analytical techniques using a variety of texts; 2) improving students' oral communication; 3) listening skills: extensive use of recorded material and Language Learning Center resources to improve and enhance listening skills in a variety of authentic contexts.

FREN 300. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisites: for FREN 300: FREN 202 or 205; for 301, FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A systematic review of French grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building; translation and composition.

FREN 301. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisites: for FREN 300: FREN 202 or 205; for 301, FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A systematic review of French grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building; translation and composition.

FREN 305. Advanced Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202 or 205. Conducted in French. Development of advanced oral skills while conversing about topics on current French culture and society. Proficiency in listening comprehension is stressed through regular activities based on a variety of different situations of communication.

FREN 307. French Conversation and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. The course is designed to develop the student's conversational skills, oral comprehension ability and knowledge of contemporary culture through discussion of selected French films. Emphasis is also placed on vocabulary development and writing practice.

FREN 320. French Civilization and Culture I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A survey of French civilization and culture from its origins to the French Revolution. Introduction to and analysis of the most important aspects of Gallo-Roman society and of the Merovingian, Carolingian and Capetian dynasties which influenced the institutions of the Ancien Regime and still serve as cultural archetypes and icons in contemporary French culture.

FREN 321. French Civilization and Culture II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. A survey of French civilization and culture from the Napoleonic era to the present. This course retraces important cultural and social traditions found during the first Empire, the Restoration, the Second Republic, the Second Empire, the Commune, the Third and Fourth Republics which influenced and continue to shape contemporary French civilization and culture of the Fifth Republic.

FREN 330. Survey of Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. First semester: through the 18th century. Second semester: 19th and 20th centuries.

FREN 331. Survey of Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 202, 205 or 300. Conducted in French. First semester: through the 18th century. Second semester: 19th and 20th centuries.

FREN 410. Explication de Textes. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. This course provides an introduction to terms encountered in text analysis: prosody, versification, rhetorical language, narratology and genres. It presents traditional and current schools of literary criticism and applies them to an interdisciplinary selection of texts. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 420. French Regional Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321. Conducted in French. Focuses on the culture and civilization specific to each of France's 22 regions. History, culture, architecture as well as sociopolitical, linguistic identities, artisanal trades and folklore are presented for each region. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 421. French Contemporary Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321. Conducted in French. Focuses on the contemporary culture found in French society. The individuals and events shaping current French social, political, artistic and cultural life are examined. Each theme is illustrated by current audiovisual materials. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 422. French Cinema. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321. Conducted in French. Tracing French cinema from les Frores Lumiore and Georges Melius through the New Wave to new contemporary directors, this course focuses on the thematic selections and stylistic techniques particular to French cinematographic culture. The class is offered concurrently with the annual VCU French Film Festival, thereby permitting students to directly communicate with French actors and directors participating in the festival. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 425. French Media. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Analysis of the French media: written press, radio and television. Advanced comprehension skills required and stressed through regular exercises pertaining to different journalistic discourses and styles. Proficiency in journalistic writing is developed in class through the creation of an electronic French newspaper on the Internet. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 426. Pop France. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 321or 331. Conducted in French. Explores contemporary French popular culture, put in a wider historical context. Discusses mainstream media, new media, commercial cinema, comic strips, pulp fiction and food, while devoting several weeks to music. Investigates the complex sociolinguistics of argot (slang), with a special interest in the banlieues' (suburbs') multicultural subculture and multifaceted codes. Also questions the possibility of a "pop philosophy" in French thought.

FREN 430. Great Poets and Their Times. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Poetry of select major poets of a select century or centuries within a context of the historical, artistic and broad cultural setting of the poets' times. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 431. The 16th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of works representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Rabelais, the Pleiade, Minting and the Baroque poets. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 432. The 17th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Baroque and Classical readings including prose, poetry and drama of the authors of the reign of Louis XIV; Pascal, La Rochefoucauld, La Bruyure, Corneille, Racine and Moliere. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 433. The 18th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: the "philosophes" including Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau and readings from Marivaux, Provost and Vauvenargues. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 434. The 19th Century. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. A contextualization and detailed study of a selection of texts representative of literary schools, genres and major works of the period: Romanticism, Realism, Naturalism and Symbolism. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 435. Contemporary French Literature. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 330 or 331. Conducted in French. An overview of French literature from 1900 to the present. Discusses texts that have particular resonance in relation to contemporary issues, including literary works that have contributed most saliently to French culture over this time period.

FREN 440. Commercial French. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. This course introduces students to the cultural, economic and linguistic dimensions of the Francophone commercial sector. It builds the student's reading, writing, listening and speaking proficiencies through active engagement with business-related materials and activities. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

FREN 450. Francophone Literatures and Cultures. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisite: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in French. Introduces students to the literatures and cultures of the Francophone world. Provides an overview of the Francophone world and an in-depth study of literary works written in French from Africa, the Caribbean, North America, Asia and Europe. Also explores the impact of Colonial history on Francophone literatures and cultures. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL 450.

FREN 491. Topics in French. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: FREN 301; FREN 305 or 307; FREN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. An in-depth study of selected topics in French. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

FREN 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses in French. Prerequisite: FREN 301; FREN 320 or 321; Senior standing with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. Determination of course content and permission of the instructor must be obtained prior to registration of the course. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest.

German

GRMN 101. Elementary German I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4 credits. For students with no prior knowledge of German. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

GRMN 102. Elementary German II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 101 Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

GRMN 201. Intermediate German I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 102. Conducted in German. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on building proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

GRMN 202. Intermediate German II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 201. Conducted in German. Designed to increase student’s proficiency in German through the continued focus on aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

GRMN 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 201. Conducted in German. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

GRMN 300. Composition and Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202 or 205. Conducted in German. Development of written and oral skills through review of selected aspects of German grammar, writing practice and speaking activities based on a variety of situations.

GRMN 301. Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300. Conducted in German. A study of key aspects of advanced German grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building.

GRMN 305. German Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300. Conducted in German. Practice in the spoken language with emphasis on discussions relating to topics of current interest.

GRMN 307. German Conversation and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 recommended. Conducted in German. The course is designed to develop the student's communication skills, oral comprehension ability and knowledge of contemporary culture through discussion of selected German films. Emphasis is also placed on vocabulary development and writing practice.

GRMN 311. German Through the Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 or GRMN 301 recommended. Designed to develop language proficiency by using material available through the various media: newspapers, magazines, films, Internet, podcasts and radio broadcasts.

GRMN 314. Commercial German. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 301. Designed to develop the student's ability to use German as a means of oral and written communication in the business world. Emphasis on the acquisition of technical tools necessary for business exchanges in specialized fields.

GRMN 320. From the Vandals to Kant: Civilization and Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 or GRMN 301 recommended. Conducted in German. A survey of German-speaking culture and literature from its origins to the Enlightenment. Also emphasizes enhancing German-language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN 321. From Faust to Nazism: Civilization and Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 or GRMN 301 recommended. Conducted in German. A treatment of German culture and literature from the Age of Goethe to the rise of Nazism. Also emphasizes enhancing German language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN 322. From Kafka's World to the EU: Civilization and Literature III. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 202, GRMN 205 or GRMN 300; GRMN 300 or GRMN 301 recommended. Conducted in German. A survey of German culture and literature from the 1920s to today. Also emphasizes enhancing German language skills in vocabulary, reading, speaking and writing.

GRMN 420. The Turn of the Century. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Conducted in German. A course dealing with the major intellectual, philosophical, artistic and cultural trends from the turn of the century through the Weimar period as reflected in the writings of authors such as Kafka, Mann and Hesse. Includes impressionism, expressionism and neue Sachlichkeit.

GRMN 421. The Postwar German Scene. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Conducted in German. A course dealing with the political, social and intellectual developments of the German-speaking countries from the end of World War II to the present as reflected in the literary works of their major authors.

GRMN 422. German Film. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of selected topics in German film from the beginnings to today, particularly as seen in their social, historical and cultural contexts. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN 423. Folk/Popular Culture. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of selected topics related to folk traditions and/or popular culture in German-speaking countries. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN 424. Culture and Society. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. Study of issues in the culture and society of German-speaking countries today. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN 425. Language in Context: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 301, 305, 307 or 311; and GRMN 320, 321 or 322. Conducted in German. Study of German language and linguistics. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

GRMN 491. Topics in German. 1-3 Hours.

Variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: GRMN 300; GRMN 305 or 307 or 311; GRMN 301 or 320 or 321 or 322. An in-depth study of selected topics in German. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

GRMN 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses in German. Prerequisites: GRMN 301; GRMN 320 or 321 or 322; GRMN 420 or 421 or 422 or 423 or 424 or 491; and senior standing with a minimum of 85 credits earned toward the degree. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest.

Italian

ITAL 101. Elementary Italian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ITAL 101 to enroll in ITAL 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

ITAL 102. Elementary Italian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of ITAL 101 to enroll in ITAL 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

ITAL 201. Intermediate Italian. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

ITAL 202. Intermediate Italian Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in Italian through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

ITAL 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

ITAL 300. Advanced Composition and Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 202 or 205. Development of advanced written and oral skills through both systematic review of Italian grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building, and conversational activities based on a variety of situations. Conducted in Italian.

ITAL 320. Italian Cinema: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 300. Conducted in Italian. Traces Italian cinema from Neorealism to contemporary cinema, exploring genres such as comedy and Westerns as well as landmark works by the most important directors. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

ITAL 330. Themes in Italian Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: ITAL 300. Conducted in Italian. An in-depth study of selected topics in Italian texts. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

ITAL 391. Topics in Italian. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 6 credits. Pre- or corequisite: ITAL 320 or ITAL 330. Conducted in Italian. An in-depth study of selected topics in Italian. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Latin

LATN 101. Elementary Latin. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 4 lecture hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of LATN 101 to enroll in LATN 102. First semester: a study of the Latin language with emphasis on the Latin elements found in English. Latin vocabulary. Second semester: introduction to Latin authors and related aspects of Roman civilization.

LATN 102. Elementary Latin. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 4 lecture hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of LATN 101 to enroll in LATN 102. First semester: a study of the Latin language with emphasis on the Latin elements found in English. Latin vocabulary. Second semester: introduction to Latin authors and related aspects of Roman civilization.

LATN 201. Readings in Latin Literature. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: LATN 102. Completion of LATN 201 to enroll in LATN 202. Brief grammar review with a parallel study of political and literary trends and developments as found in several of the major Latin writers. First semester: prose, with emphasis on Cicero, Pliny the Younger and Sallust. Second semester: poetry, with selected readings from Catullus, Tibullus, Ovid and Vergil.

LATN 202. Readings in Latin Literature. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: LATN 102. Completion of LATN 201 to enroll in LATN 202. Brief grammar review with a parallel study of political and literary trends and developments as found in several of the major Latin writers. First semester: prose, with emphasis on Cicero, Pliny the Younger and Sallust. Second semester: poetry, with selected readings from Catullus, Tibullus, Ovid and Vergil.

LATN 330. Themes in Latin Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: LATN 202. An in-depth study of selected topics such as science and medicine, law, or satire in works by authors such as Caesar, Cicero, Horace, Catullus, Ovid, Virgil, Marcus Aurelius and Lucretius. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester. Texts are in the original language.

LATN 331. Representative Authors in Latin Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisites: LATN 202. Selected readings by authors from the Archaic Period, the Classical Age, Silver Age and Patristic Latin with a focus on their impact on the political and social agendas of the day and on us today. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester. Texts are in the original language.

Portuguese

PORT 101. Elementary Portuguese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4, 4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of PORT 101 to enroll in PORT 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

PORT 102. Elementary Portuguese. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4, 4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of PORT 101 to enroll in PORT 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral skills.

PORT 201. Intermediate Portuguese. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Continuation of the essentials of grammar, with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

PORT 202. Intermediate Portuguese Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PORT 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

PORT 391. Topics in Portuguese. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 12 credits. Prerequisite: PORT 202. An in-depth study of selected topics in Portuguese. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

Russian

RUSS 101. Elementary Russian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of RUSS 101 to enroll in RUSS 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

RUSS 102. Elementary Russian. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of RUSS 101 to enroll in RUSS 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drill.

RUSS 201. Intermediate Russian. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RUSS 102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

RUSS 202. Intermediate Russian Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RUSS 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

RUSS 205. Intermediate Russian Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RUSS 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

RUSS 311. Conversation and Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 semester hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for up to six credits with permission of the instructor. Prerequisite: RUSS 202 or 205. Conducted in Russian. An introduction to everyday life in Russia and topics of current interest. Students will explore diverse media to develop skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing.

RUSS 330. Literature and Culture: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for up to six credits with different topics. Prerequisite: RUSS 202 or 205. Conducted in Russian. Students will examine salient themes in Russian culture as expressed in a range of classic and contemporary texts. This course develops skills in reading, writing, speaking and listening. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topic to be offered each semester.

RUSS 422. Russian Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of six credits with the permission of the instructor. Prerequisite: completion of six credits of Russian at the 300-level. Conducted in Russian. While the course is designed to develop the student's conversational skills in Russian, it will also provide practice in reading, listening and writing. Discussions will center on films from the Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

RUSS 491. Topics in Russian. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for maximum of 9 credits. An in-depth study of selected topics in Russian. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Spanish

SPAN 101. Elementary Spanish. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of SPAN 101 to enroll in SPAN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drills.

SPAN 102. Elementary Spanish. 4 Hours.

Continuous courses; 5 lecture/recitation hours. 4-4 credits. Prerequisite: completion of SPAN 101 to enroll in SPAN 102. Elementary grammar, reading and oral drills.

SPAN 201. Intermediate Spanish. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 102. Continuation of the essentials of grammar, with emphasis on achieving proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading and writing skills.

SPAN 202. Intermediate Spanish Readings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency through the study of selected cultural and literary texts.

SPAN 205. Intermediate Spanish Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 201. Designed to increase the student's proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and free conversation.

SPAN 300. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 202 or 205. Prerequisite for SPAN 301: SPAN 300. A systematic review of Spanish grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building, translation and composition.

SPAN 301. Advanced Grammar and Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 202 or 205. Prerequisite for SPAN 301: SPAN 300. A systematic review of Spanish grammar with emphasis on the elements of style and vocabulary building, translation and composition.

SPAN 305. Spanish Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 202, SPAN 205 or SPAN 300. Conducted in Spanish. Practice in the spoken language with emphasis on discussions relating to topics of current interest.

SPAN 307. Spanish Conversation and Film. 3 Hours.

Semester courses; 3 lecture hours. 3, 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 202, SPAN 205 or SPAN 300. Designed to develop the student's conversational skills, oral comprehension ability and knowledge of contemporary culture through discussion of selected Spanish and Latin American films. Emphasis is also placed on vocabulary development and writing practice.

SPAN 311. Spanish Through the Media. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 202, SPAN 205 or SPAN 300. Further development of listening, reading, writing, speaking and cultural skills through a focus on mass media in Latin America and Spain. Spanish language and current events will be taught through direct contact with newspapers, journals, television and radio programming, and online media. Students will view programs outside of class, participate actively in class discussions, create presentations and conduct research.

SPAN 320. Civilization of Spain I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 300; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN 301. Conducted in Spanish. A treatment of salient manifestations of Spanish culture and civilization from its origins to the present.

SPAN 321. Latin American Civilization I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 300; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN 301. Conducted in Spanish. A treatment of salient manifestations of Latin American culture and civilization from pre-Columbian times to the present.

SPAN 322. Hispanic Immigrants in the U.S.. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 300; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN 301. Conducted in Spanish. Analysis, research and discussion of the life and history of Hispanics in the U.S. Topics such as identity, assimilation, immigration laws, education, jobs, housing, health, religion and politics will be covered. Students will apply their course learning through 15 hours of community service for Hispanics.

SPAN 330. Survey of Spanish Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 300; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN 301. Conducted in Spanish. A survey of Spanish literature up to the present.

SPAN 331. Survey of Latin American Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPAN 300; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN 301. Conducted in Spanish. An introduction to major authors and trends up to the present. Crosslisted as: INTL 331.

SPAN 332. Latino Writers in the U.S.. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 300; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; corequisite: SPAN 301. Conducted in Spanish. Explores Latino cultural identity and the Latino contribution to U.S. cultural life through a variety of works in the different literary genres produced by Latino writers, both immigrants and those raised in the U.S.

SPAN 402. Language Issues in the Spanish-speaking World. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 301; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; SPAN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. Through a variety of topics this course explores the links between language and human behavior as exemplified by language phenomena in the Spanish-speaking world. Topics will be drawn mainly from sociolinguistics, language and culture, and education and applied linguistics. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: LING 402.

SPAN 403. History of the Spanish Language. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 301; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; SPAN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. A study of the evolution of Spanish from Latin through the Middle Ages to the Modern era. Historical phonology, etymology, morphology, orthography, semantics and syntax of standard Castilian. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN 414. Commercial Spanish. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 301; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; SPAN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. Conducted in Spanish. This course will develop the student's ability to use the Spanish language as a means of oral and written communication in the business world. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN 420. Civilization of Spain II. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN 300 or 301. This course explores the cultural diversity and differences of Spain. Topics focus on a particular interdisciplinary theme, such as the formation of cities, ethnicity and on a particular area of Spain. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN 421. Civilization of Latin America II. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN 300 or 301. This course explores the cultural diversity of Latin America and the social and political forces behind cultural change. Topics will focus on a specific interdisciplinary theme, such as urban life, the politics of identity and on a specific area of Latin America. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: INTL 421.

SPAN 422. Spanish and Latin American Cinema. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different themes, up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN 300 or 301. Conducted in Spanish. Spanish and/or Latin American cinema from the 1940s to the present, including the works of important directors, such as Bunuel, Saura, Almodovar, Emilio Fernandez, Glauber Rocha, Solanas or Gutierrez-Alea. The formal and aesthetic issues of cinematic texts and the historical, cultural and social contexts of their production. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific theme to be offered each semester.

SPAN 430. Literary Genres. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN 300 or 301. Conducted in Spanish. An in-depth look at the development and expression of varieties of literature in Spanish. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN 431. Literary Periods. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Course can be repeated with different topics up to a total of 6 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits of Spanish at the 300 level including SPAN 300 or 301. Conducted in Spanish. An in-depth synchronic look at movements and their context in literature in Spanish. See the Schedule of Classes for the specific topic to be offered each semester.

SPAN 432. Hispanic Culture Through Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 301; SPAN 320, SPAN 321 or SPAN 322; and SPAN 330, SPAN 331 or SPAN 332. Conducted in Spanish. An in-depth analysis of Hispanic texts dealing with cultural topics such as love relationships, death, family, religion, politics, gender and ethnicity, as well as their relationships to cultural values, behaviors, ideologies, beliefs and the histories of Spain and Spanish America.

SPAN 433. Don Quixote. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 301, and SPAN 320 or SPAN 330. Conducted in Spanish. An in-depth analysis of Miguel de Cervantes’s masterpiece. Focuses on questions of the literary, linguistic and cultural complexity of “Don Quixote.” Examines the work in the social and historical context of Early Modern Spain.

SPAN 485. Spanish Study Abroad. 1-12 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: SPAN 301 and SPAN 321; SPAN 330 or 331 or 332. This course offers all students the opportunity to improve their oral and written proficiency in Spanish, to enhance their awareness of cultural diversity and to become independent learners of Spanish language and the cultures of its speakers.

SPAN 491. Topics in Spanish. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: SPAN 301; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; SPAN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. An in-depth study of selected topics in Spanish. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

SPAN 492. Independent Study. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all independent study courses in Spanish. Prerequisites: SPAN 301; SPAN 305 or 307 or 311; SPAN 320 or 321 or 330 or 331. A course designed to give students an opportunity to become involved in independent study in a literary or linguistic area or subject in which they have an interest.