Christopher Brooks, Ph.D.
Professor and program coordinator

worldstudies.vcu.edu/academics/anthropology

The Bachelor of Science in Anthropology curriculum seeks to ensure that each student develops a solid foundation in the basic principles, theories and techniques of analysis. Since students majoring in anthropology vary in their interests and career goals, the curriculum allows for a great deal of flexibility developing individual courses of study. Students who are interested in pursuing graduate studies in anthropology will usually take more than the minimum number of upper-level courses. The department provides opportunities for involvement in faculty research through its course offerings, which include independent study, internships and honors research.

The Bachelor of Science in Anthropology requires a minimum of 120 credits, with at least 38 of those credits in anthropology averaging a minimum GPA of 2.25. Students must take at least 25 credits in upper-level (300, 400 or 500) ANTH courses. However, a student with a particular anthropological interest that can be best served by courses without the ANTH prefix may suggest a relevant selection of up to six elective credits from such classes to be counted toward the major. Alternatively, in addition to the three experiential credits fulfilling collateral requirements, a maximum of six credits from internships and/or independent studies may be counted toward the elective degree requirements. A plan for such selection must be presented to and approved by the program coordinator in the student's junior year or, for those students entering the program at the junior level, at a time stipulated by the program coordinator.

In order to begin upper-level course work in any foreign language, students must have consecutively completed 101, 102, 201, and 202 or 205 courses in a respective foreign language or prove the equivalent proficiency level through placement testing.

Anthropology majors are strongly encouraged to complete a minor, preferably one offered in World Studies. Students should refer to the listing in the general description of the School of World Studies.

Learning outcomes

  • Critical-thinking skills
  • Global knowledge, citizenship and ethics
  • Oral communication skills
  • Scientific literacy
  • Advanced writing skills
  • Conversant with disciplinary tenets
  • Research methods and design skills
  • Experiential learning
  • Advanced language skills

Upon completing this program, students will know and know how to do the following:

The goal of the anthropology program is to impart to our students a global awareness and appreciation of the full range of human biological and cultural diversity across time and space, as well as of the underlying similarities derived from our common evolutionary origins.

Students gain proficiency in the knowledge and application of disciplinary and subdisciplinary research methods and analytic concepts, and are trained to develop a holistic and comparative perspective on the human condition, with regard to the cultural, biological, archaeological and linguistic dimensions of anthropological inquiry.

Honors in anthropology

Majors in the anthropology program may earn a Bachelor of Science degree with honors in anthropology. Participation in honors thesis research is available to outstanding senior majors and involves the preparation of a senior thesis during the last two semesters of the baccalaureate degree program.

In order to participate in the program, students must meet program entrance requirements, identify a project mentor and receive approval for a project proposal. Honors will be awarded following acceptance of the thesis by the Honors Thesis Committee. The committee will consist of, at a minimum, the project mentor, one other member of the anthropology faculty and one faculty member from outside of the anthropology program.

The project may involve any recognized anthropological topic, theory and/or method that promises to enhance the student's disciplinary perspective, skills and creativity. The project may involve an extension of work initiated in a course, an entirely new project or a collaborative project with the faculty mentor. If the project is an extension of work initiated in a course or developed collaboratively with the mentor, independent, separate, substantial development of the topic in the thesis should be evident in the final product. The thesis should reflect work of high quality for a senior-level course.

Students majoring in anthropology are eligible to participate in the departmental honors program if they have maintained a minimum 3.0 overall GPA and a minimum of 3.3 GPA in the major. Application materials consist of transcripts documenting the required GPAs, a five-to-seven page proposal (including a history and description of the proposed project, an annotated bibliography of relevant sources, a work plan, and a schedule for completion of the project) and a letter of endorsement from the faculty member who has agreed to act as project mentor. Applications must be made and project approval received no later than the first two weeks of classes in the semester in which the project will commence. A departmental committee will review the application materials, meet with the candidate to discuss the project proposal as needed and render an admission decision. Once admitted, program participants will enroll in ANTH 497. The course may be included in the required hours for the major.

Students will complete six credit hours (over two sequential semesters in their senior year) in ANTH 497 and ANTH 498. The student's work will be evaluated by the project mentor and a departmental committee at the end of the first semester (ANTH 497) and a grade will be assigned. If allowed to continue, the student will enroll in ANTH 498 the subsequent semester. At the completion of ANTH 498, the completed senior honors thesis will be submitted to the HTC following its acceptance by the faculty mentor and confirmation that the candidate has maintained the requisite GPAs.

Upon submission of the thesis, the student will make an oral presentation (to be made no later than two weeks before the end of classes) to the HTC and other faculty as deemed appropriate, summarizing the research procedures and findings. The HTC will then evaluate the thesis for the award of honors. In order to receive honors, the thesis must be evaluated as deserving of a grade of A. Whether or not honors are awarded, a final grade will be submitted for ANTH 498. The awarding of honors for the thesis will earn an Honors Certificate from the department and notation of the student's standing as an honors graduate on the final grade transcript. Students must submit a final copy of the thesis to both the department and the VCU Libraries no later than the last day of classes.

Undergraduate topics courses

Topics courses in anthropology, offered as ANTH 391 and ANTH 491, are an integral part of the program and provide a rare opportunity for the advanced student. Generally these courses are restricted to a small number of students who share specialized interests in a topic that is either too advanced or too limited in its general appeal to justify its inclusion as a standard offering. At least one such course is offered each semester, and ANTH 391 and ANTH 491 can be repeated for up to a maximum of 18 total credits as long as there is no duplication of the topics.

Independent study

ANTH 492 is designed for advanced students capable of doing independent work on selected topics under the directions of specific faculty. Students may earn a total maximum of 12 credits in departmental independent study courses and internship credits, but may not enroll for more than six credits per semester in independent studies. Only majors in anthropology or related fields can enroll in these courses. All students entering these courses must have completed a minimum of 12 credits in anthropology and have an anthropology GPA of 3.0 or more.

Internship

ANTH 493 is designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international business or agency offering opportunities in anthropological field methods or research. Applications must be approved by the School of World Studies internship coordinator. Each student must work 40 clock hours per credit hour in the organization. Students may earn up to a total of six credit hours in internship as anthropology majors and a total of three credit hours of internship as anthropology minors. All students enrolling in an internship must have completed nine credits in anthropology courses at the 300 level or above and be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25.

Degree requirements for Anthropology, Bachelor of Science (B.S.)

General education requirements

University Core Education Curriculum (minimum 21 credits)
UNIV 111 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry IFocused Inquiry I3
UNIV 112 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry IIFocused Inquiry II3
UNIV 200Inquiry and the Craft of Argument3
Approved humanities/fine arts3
Approved natural/physical sciences3-4
Approved quantitative literacy3-4
Approved social/behavioral sciences3-4
Total Hours21-24
Additional College of Humanities and Sciences requirements (11-23 credits)
HUMS 202Choices in a Consumer Society1
Approved H&S diverse and global communities3
Approved H&S human, social and political behavior (fulfills University Core social/behavioral sciences)
Approved H&S literature and civilization (fulfills University Core humanities/fine arts)
Approved H&S science and technology (fulfills University Core natural/physical sciences)
Approved H&S general education electives6-8
Experiential fine arts 11-3
Foreign language through the 102 level (by course or placement)0-8
Total Hours11-23
1

Course offered by the School of the Arts

Collateral requirements

BIOL 101Biological Concepts (fulfills University Core natural/physical sciences and H&S science and technology requirements)3
MATH 151Precalculus Mathematics (or higher numbered MATH course) (fulfills University Core quantitative literacy)4
STAT 210Basic Practice of Statistics (or higher numbered STAT course)3
SWS World Passport
Complete the SWS World Passport
Experiential learning requirement
Select one of the following:0-3
Major-specific service learning course
Study abroad program
Approved internship: Select one of the following:
Field Investigations in Anthropology
Anthropology Internship
World Languages Internship
World Cultures Internship
International Studies Internship
Or other pre-approved internship opportunities
Total Hours3-6

Major requirements

Core anthropology courses 1
ANTH/INTL 103Introduction to Anthropology3
ANTH 105/INTL 104Introduction to Archaeology3
Select two of the following:6
Biological Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology
Anthropological Linguistics
ANTH 301/BIOL 341Human Evolution3
ANTH 302Archaeological Theory3
ANTH 399Junior Seminar1
ANTH 454Theory in Cultural Anthropology3
ANTH 490Anthropology Senior Capstone3
ANTZ 301/BIOL 341Human Evolution Lab1
ANTH electives
Select at least two courses sampling one of three elective groups that are focused on biological anthropology, archaeology or cultural/linguistic anthropology 26
Methods requirement
Select two of the following:6
Archaeological Methods and Research Design
Field Methods and Research Design in Cultural Anthropology
Language, Culture and Cognition (methods requirement)
Total Hours38
1

Students must attain a minimum grade of C in each of the core anthropology courses.

2

An updated list of these elective courses is available through the School of World Studies, and choices should be completed with the consultation of an adviser.

Open electives

Select 30-47 open elective credits30-47

Total minimum requirement 120 credits

What follows is a sample plan that meets the prescribed requirements within a four-year course of study at VCU. Please contact your adviser before beginning course work toward a degree.

Freshman year
Fall semesterHours
ANTH 103
Introduction to Anthropology
or Introduction to Anthropology
or Introduction to Archaeology
or Introduction to Archaeology
3
MATH 151 Precalculus Mathematics (fulfills approved quantitative literacy) 4
UNIV 101 Introduction to the University 1
UNIV 111 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry I Focused Inquiry I 3
Foreign language (101-level) 4
 Term Hours: 15
Spring semester
ANTH 105
Introduction to Archaeology
or Introduction to Archaeology
or Introduction to Anthropology
or Introduction to Anthropology
3
HUMS 202 Choices in a Consumer Society 1
STAT 210 Basic Practice of Statistics 3
UNIV 112 Play VideoPlay course video for Focused Inquiry II Focused Inquiry II 3
Approved H&S diverse and global communities course 3
Foreign language (102-level) 4
 Term Hours: 17
Sophomore year
Fall semester
ANTH 210
Biological Anthropology
or Cultural Anthropology
or Anthropological Linguistics
3
BIOL 101 Biological Concepts (fulfills approved H&S science and technology) 3
UNIV 200 Inquiry and the Craft of Argument 3
Approved H&S literature and civilization 3
Foreign language (201-level) 3
 Term Hours: 15
Spring semester
ANTH 210
Biological Anthropology
or Cultural Anthropology
or Anthropological Linguistics
3
Approved H&S general education electives 6
Experiential fine arts 1-3
Foreign language (202-level) 3
 Term Hours: 13-15
Junior year
Fall semester
ANTH 301
Human Evolution
or Human Evolution
3
ANTH 302 Archaeological Theory 3
ANTZ 301
Human Evolution Lab
or Human Evolution Lab
1
Open electives 9
 Term Hours: 16
Spring semester
On-campus or study abroad semester:  
ANTH 399 Junior Seminar 1
Methods requirement 3
Open electives 11
 Term Hours: 15
Summer semester
Study abroad, recommended 0-6
 Term Hours: 0-6
Senior year
Fall semester
ANTH 454 Theory in Cultural Anthropology 3
ANTH 493
Anthropology Internship
or Field Investigations in Anthropology
1-3
Methods requirement 3
Open electives 9
 Term Hours: 16-18
Spring semester
ANTH 490 Anthropology Senior Capstone 3
Anthropology elective 3
ANTH 493
Anthropology Internship
or Field Investigations in Anthropology
1-3
Open electives 6
 Term Hours: 13-15
 Total Hours: 120-132

ANTH 103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 103.

ANTH 105. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: INTL 104.

ANTH 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM 200/INTL 200.

ANTH 210. Biological Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of biological anthropology. Emphasis on the history and study of humans as biological organisms. Topics include genetic, social and ecological determinants of variation in human growth and biological diversity, as well as human adaptation and adaptability, disease, diet, and nutrition.

ANTH 220. Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of social and cultural anthropology. Provides an overview of key themes and theories in the subject, as well as the analytical and methodological tools to critically consider cultural difference, social organization and social change, with reference to a representative range of culture areas and the empirical fields studied by cultural anthropologists.

ANTH 230. Anthropological Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of anthropological linguistics. Emphasis is on the interactions between language and culture from a comparative perspective, as well as the relationship between language and social identities and relationships. Also an introduction to the field's methodology, research techniques, analytical tools and their applications.

ANTH 301. Human Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology, and growth and development. Crosslisted as: BIOL 341.

ANTH 302. Archaeological Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the basic theoretical perspectives and tools of archaeology, including analysis and interpretation of archaeological materials. Students will review the intellectual history of archaeology, applying a variety of theoretical approaches to archaeological data sets and sites.

ANTH 303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the basic practices of archaeology, including planning, excavation, artifact analysis, documentary research, mapping, dating sites and artifacts, and interpretation and presentation of findings. Students will participate in an active field research program and will apply methods at an active site and lab.

ANTH 304. Sociology of Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or ANTH 103/INTL 103. The family in its social and cultural context. Analysis of child rearing, marriage, kinship, family crises and family change in various societies around the world. Crosslisted as: SOCY 304/GSWS 304.

ANTH 307. Human Osteology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210. Corequisite: ANTZ 307. Emphasizes human skeletal development and the identification of specific bones and their anatomical landmarks, including the determination of side for paired bones. Also discussed are methods of estimating age, sex and stature from human skeletal remains and application of human skeletal data to broader anthropological questions.

ANTH 309. Global Women's Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores issues in women's health from a national and international perspective with an emphasis on the experiences of women in the African diaspora. Theories in medical anthropology are employed to examine key themes. Crosslisted as: AFAM 309/INTL 309/GSWS 309.

ANTH 310. Forensic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive overview of forensic anthropology including its development and the theory and methodology on which it is based. Crosslisted as: FRSC 310.

ANTH 312. History of Human Settlement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A cultural and historical geography of human migration and settlement over the earth. Topics may include agricultural and urban systems, exploration, colonization and imperialism, and changing relationships with the environment, during and since the Middle Ages. Crosslisted as: URSP 312.

ANTH 315. Field Methods and Research Design in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103, and ANTH 220 or ANTH 230. Overview of quantitative and qualitative anthropological field techniques as well as the ethical dimension of anthropological fieldwork. Basics of research design, effective methodology and writing grant proposals.

ANTH 328. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: FRLG 328/ENGL 392/LING 392.

ANTH 330. Language and Prehistory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 230, ANTH/ENGL/LING 390 or ANTH/ENGL 392. Considers the basic principles of diachronic linguistics in terms of the questions that historical linguists ask and the kinds of data they have at their disposal to answer them. Discusses uses of linguistic data in the reconstruction of prehistory in different parts of the world, analyzing strengths and weaknesses of such data and suggesting ways in which it can be usefully combined with data from other disciplines.

ANTH 331. Public Culture: Anthropology Through Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; WRLD 230. Explores how anthropology can contribute to a critical analysis of films as cultural representations. Class discussion will relate particular films both to the cultural context they depict and to the cultural context in which they were produced. Will also examine films as images that produce cultural meanings with the potential to affect the viewer's understanding of the world and comprehension of self.

ANTH 348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: INTL 348.

ANTH 349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 349.

ANTH 350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 350.

ANTH 355. Death and Burial. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Explores beliefs about the dead across time and space, the transformations physical bodies undergo after death and how archaeologists investigate human remains to interpret the beliefs and social practices of past cultures.

ANTH 364. Mythology and Folklore. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of one or more forms of folklore, such as folktales, fairy tales, legends, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads and/or games, with some attention to literary, social or historical significance and contexts. This course may also include approaches to collecting material or to examining later literary forms and texts inspired by folklore. Crosslisted as: ENGL 364.

ANTH 375. Field Archaeology. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 8 field and laboratory hours. 6 credits. Introduction to archaeological field and basic laboratory techniques. Archaeological data collection (excavation or survey) forms the core of the course.

ANTH 380. Medical Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or 220. An introduction to the biological and cultural anthropological study of global health and well-being, including healing processes, the biosocial relations of healing management and relationships between biomedicine and pluralistic medical systems.

ANTH 381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: INTL 381.

ANTH 383. Evolutionary Medicine and Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210, BIOL 101 or BIOL 151. Explores how modern human health and disease have been shaped by evolutionary processes. Particular emphasis is placed on examining health-related traits that are adaptive in one context but maladaptive in others, and why attempts to eliminate some of these traits can have deleterious effects on other aspects of our health. Specific diseases to be addressed include hypertension, diabetes, clinical depression, reproductive disorders, gastrointestinal disorders and drug addiction, among many others.

ANTH 387. Environmental Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Provides an introduction to the kinds of environmental evidence archaeologists access and the kinds of questions they investigate using that evidence. Explores a variety of ways in which archaeologists examine the relationship between humans and the environment and the sorts of effects that different environmental conditions and changes have had on ancient societies.

ANTH 388. African Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Surveys the range of archaeological knowledge currently available about the African continent, highlighting the major interrelated social, economic/technological and cultural transformations in the African past and the most important archaeological sites and discoveries there. Addresses themes of Africa’s enduring connections with the rest of the world, unique patterns of social and cultural development found on the continent, relations between African societies and their environments, and the contemporary significance of the continent’s cultural heritage.

ANTH 389. World Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Examines the diversity and evolution of human cultures through archaeological practices and techniques.

ANTH 390. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291 or 295. An introduction to methods of language analysis, emphasizing the study of sounds and sound patterns, and units of meaning and their arrangements. Crosslisted as: ENGL 390/LING 390.

ANTH 391. Topics in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses that may be applied to the major. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

ANTH 394. Historical Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 or ANTH 105/INTL 104, and any history course. A review of historical archaeology, recognizing its contemporary emphasis on the spread of European cultures across the globe beginning in the 15th century. Methods and findings of archaeological research from the United States, Europe and Africa will be covered with special emphasis on the study of documents and artifacts related to the emergence and present state of the modern world. Students will participate in field research.

ANTH 398. Field Investigations in Anthropology. 1-8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-8 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. Permission of instructor required. A course involving travel and/or study in an off-campus context. Intended primarily for students participating in directed study abroad programs, the course meets the experiential learning requirement for the anthropology major.

ANTH 399. Junior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: ANTH 210, 220 or 230; and junior standing. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation, and lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the anthropology program.

ANTH 403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or ANTH 301/BIOL 341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: BIOL 403.

ANTH 415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: INTL 415.

ANTH 416. The Origin and Evolution of the Idea of Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103 or permission of instructor. This course is an exploration of the origins and social history of the "idea" of race from the Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. Using both historical and anthropological scholarship, the course presents an analytical framework for race as a sociocultural phenomenon. Crosslisted as: AFAM 416.

ANTH 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM 420/INTL 420.

ANTH 425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS 425/INTL 425.

ANTH 430. Visualizing and Exhibiting Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and 105; and ANTH 302, ANTH 303, ANTH 355 or ANTH 389. Addresses the ability to visualize the knowledge gathered by anthropologists through forms of technology such as three-dimensional artifact scanning and 3D printing. Students will use the hundreds of objects scanned by archaeologists and ethnographers across the globe, including in VCU’s Virtual Curation Laboratory, to design dynamic hands-on and virtual exhibits and activities that communicate multiple perspectives on the human condition and that are designed to stimulate and provoke multiple reactions and encourage discussion.

ANTH 450. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL 454/INTL 454.

ANTH 454. Theory in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 220 or ANTH 230, and at least one 3-credit 300-level ANTH course . A study of the connections between theoretical work that addresses understandings of culture and methodological practice centered on creating ethnography.

ANTH 455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL 101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: INTL 455.

ANTH 457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: INTL 457.

ANTH 469. Human Dentition: ID and Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and ANTH 210; or ANTH 301; or BIOL 318. Focuses on the evolutionary anthropology of human dentition. Topics include evolution, genetics and ontogeny of the dentition; functional aspects of tooth size and shape; dental asymmetry; dental morphology and population affinities; dental pathology and subsistence; and dental markers of physiological stress. Students will explore within- and between-group variation, as well as the relationship between dental size and shape and behavior, relatedness and nutrition.

ANTH 490. Anthropology Senior Capstone. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 15 credits in anthropology at the 300 and 400 level or the equivalent; senior standing. Open only to anthropology majors. Explores current research that transects more than one subfield of anthropology. Research foci will be at the discretion of the instructor, but students will explore how the anthropological subfields influence and speak to each other in new translational research, and will assess the emerging literature and scientific questions with a critical and scientific perspective.

ANTH 491. Advanced Topics in Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester with different topics.Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; ANTH 210, 220, or 230; and UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. A maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses (including ANTH 391 and 491) may be applied to the major.

ANTH 492. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 12 credits for all independent study and internship courses. Prerequisites: determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and the group coordinator must be procured prior to enrollment in the course; a minimum GPA of 3.0 in the major. Generally open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the anthropology program.

ANTH 493. Anthropology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits for majors and 3 credits for minors. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits in anthropology courses at the 300 level or above, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international business or agency offering opportunities in anthropological field methods or research.

ANTH 497. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

ANTH 498. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.